This review focuses on connexins and nexus or gap junctions in the genesis, progression, and therapy of carcinomas of the human urinary tract. Some decades ago, the idea was born that gap junctional intercellular communication might prevent both the onset and the progression of cancer. Later evidence indicated that, on the contrary, synthesis and the presence of connexins as a prerequisite for gap junctional intercellular communication might promote the occurrence of cancer and metastases. The research history of urinary bladder cancer is a good example of the development of scientific perception. So far, the role of gap junctional intercellular communication in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, as well as in therapeutical approaches, remains unclear.
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