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New Insights into Molecular Oncogenesis and Therapy of Uveal Melanoma

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Specialized Surgeries, School of Medicine, University of Ferrara and Eye Unit of University Hospital of Ferrara, 44124 Ferrara, Italy
2
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pathology, Oncology and Experimental Biology, School of Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050694 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 19 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uveal Melanoma)
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Abstract

Uveal melanoma (UM), which is the most common cancer of the eye, was investigated in recent years by many teams in the field of biomedical sciences and eye clinicians. New knowledge was acquired on molecular pathways found to be dysregulated during the multistep process of oncogenesis, whereas novel therapeutic approaches gave significant results in the clinical applications. Uveal melanoma-affected patients greatly benefited from recent advances of the research in this eye cancer. Tumour biology, genetics, epigenetics and immunology contributed significantly in elucidating the role of different genes and related pathways during uveal melanoma onset/progression and UM treatments. Indeed, these investigations allowed identification of new target genes and to develop new therapeutic strategies/compounds to cure this aggressive melanoma of the eye. Unfortunately, the advances reported in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma have not produced analogous benefits in metastatic uveal melanoma. Nowadays, no systemic adjuvant therapy has been shown to improve overall survival or reduce the risk of metastasis. However, the increasing knowledge of this disease, and the encouraging results seen in clinical trials, offer promise for future effective therapies. Herein, different pathways/genes involved in uveal melanoma onset/progression were taken into consideration, together with novel therapeutic approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: uveal melanoma; gene; mutation; dysregulation; tumour virus uveal melanoma; gene; mutation; dysregulation; tumour virus
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Violanti, S.S.; Bononi, I.; Gallenga, C.E.; Martini, F.; Tognon, M.; Perri, P. New Insights into Molecular Oncogenesis and Therapy of Uveal Melanoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 694.

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