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Open AccessArticle

Changes in Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure to the Ocular Region: A Population-Based Study

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T5H 3V9, Canada
2
Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2V 4R6, Canada
3
Division of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2, Canada
4
Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050719
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uveal Melanoma)
In contrast to the well-established association between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and skin cancers, the relationship between UVR and uveal malignant melanoma (UM) remains controversial. To address this controversy, we evaluated the incidence rates of cutaneous malignancies in the eyelids as a proxy for UVR exposure in the ocular region using a population-based cancer registry. Overall, 74,053 cases of eyelid basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 7890 cases of melanoma over a 26-year period (1982–2007) were analyzed. The incidence of eyelid basal cell carcinoma and uveal melanoma remained stable, whereas other cutaneous areas demonstrated an increase in the rates. A comparability test demonstrated that BCC incidence trends were significantly different between the eyelid versus both chronically exposed (males p = 0.001; females p = 0.01) and intermittently exposed skin (males and females, p = 0.0002), as well as the skin of the face (males p = 0.002; females p = 0.02). Similarly, melanoma trends were significantly different between the UM group versus both chronically exposed cutaneous melanoma (CM) (males p = 0.001; females p = 0.04) and intermittently exposed CM (males p = 0.005), as well as facial skin CM (males and females p = 0.0002). The discrepancy of cancer incidence between tumors in the peri-ocular region versus the rest of the body suggests that the peri-ocular region might have a different or unique exposure pattern to ultraviolet radiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocular tumors; cutaneous melanoma; skin cancer; basal cell carcinoma; ultraviolet radiation; uveal melanoma; eye exposure ocular tumors; cutaneous melanoma; skin cancer; basal cell carcinoma; ultraviolet radiation; uveal melanoma; eye exposure
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Weis, E.; Vrouwe, S.Q.; LeBaron, D.B.; Parliament, M.B.; Shields, J.; Shields, C.L. Changes in Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure to the Ocular Region: A Population-Based Study. Cancers 2019, 11, 719.

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