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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 4 (February-2 2023) – 268 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The primary aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in subjects affected by overweight or obesity; hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by transient elastography (FibroScan), utilized as a point-of-care strategy in diagnostic procedures of patients with suspected NAFLD. CAP, the FibroScan parameter quantifying fatty liver accumulation, and fatty liver index (FLI), a benchmark of steatosis, revealed a significant decline after VLCKD. Moreover, hematic parameters such as fasting glucose, insulin, lipidic profile, ALT, γGT concentrations, as well as insulin resistance  (quantified by HOMAIR), were significantly lower after VLCKD. View this paper
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19 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
Association of Plant-Based and High-Protein Diets with a Lower Obesity Risk Defined by Fat Mass in Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons with a High Genetic Risk of Obesity
by James W. Daily and Sunmin Park
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041063 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3611
Abstract
Obesity has become a severe public health challenge globally. The present study aimed to identify separate and interactive dietary, genetic, and other factors that increase the risk of obesity as measured by body fat (BF) mass. We utilized a genome-wide association study to [...] Read more.
Obesity has become a severe public health challenge globally. The present study aimed to identify separate and interactive dietary, genetic, and other factors that increase the risk of obesity as measured by body fat (BF) mass. We utilized a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with high fat mass (obesity; n = 10,502) and combined them to generate polygenic risk scores (PRS) of genetic variants interacting with each other in adults aged over 40 while excluding body-fat-related diseases in a city-hospital-based cohort (n = 53,828). It was validated in Ansan/Ansung plus rural cohorts (n = 13,007). We then evaluated dietary and lifestyle factors in subjects to assess what factors might help overcome a genetic propensity for higher BF. The three-SNP model included brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)_rs6265, fat-mass- and obesity-associated protein (FTO)_rs1421085, and SEC16B_rs509325. The genes with the minor alleles of ADCY3_rs6545790 and BAIAP2_rs35867081 increased their gene expression in the visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes, but their gene expression decreased in the hypothalamus in eQTL analysis. In the three-SNP model, the PRS was associated with BF mass by 1.408 and 1.396 times after adjusting covariates 1 (age, gender, survey year, residence area, education, and income) and 2 (covariates in model 1 plus energy intake, alcohol intake, regular exercise, and smoking status), respectively. However, when separating subjects by PRS of the three-SNP model, a plant-based diet was the most significant factor associated with low BF, followed by high-protein diets and lower energy intakes. They could offset the effects of high genetic risk for high BF. In conclusion, modulating nutrient intakes might overcome a high genetic risk for obesity. Dietary choices favoring more plant-based and higher-protein foods might help prevent increased BF in Asians and potentially people of other ethnicities with high polygenetic risk scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomic and Metabolism)
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17 pages, 1409 KiB  
Brief Report
The Healthy Eating Assessment Tool (HEAT): A Simplified 10-Point Assessment of CHILD-2 Dietary Compliance for Children and Adolescents with Dyslipidemia
by Sara DiLauro, Jonathan P. Wong, Tanveer Collins, Nita Chahal and Brian W. McCrindle
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041062 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3973
Abstract
Traditional dietary assessment tools used to determine achievement of cholesterol-lowering dietary targets, defined in the Cardiovascular Health Integrated Lifestyle Diet (CHILD-2), are time intensive. We sought to determine the utility of the Healthy Eating Assessment Tool (HEAT), a simplified 10-point dietary assessment tool, [...] Read more.
Traditional dietary assessment tools used to determine achievement of cholesterol-lowering dietary targets, defined in the Cardiovascular Health Integrated Lifestyle Diet (CHILD-2), are time intensive. We sought to determine the utility of the Healthy Eating Assessment Tool (HEAT), a simplified 10-point dietary assessment tool, in relation to meeting dietary cut points of the CHILD-2, as well as its association with markers of adiposity and lipid variables. We performed a 2-year single-center, prospective cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with dyslipidemia. HEAT score associations with meeting CHILD-2 fat targets were modest. Only patients with the highest HEAT scores (good 43%, excellent 64%) met the CHILD-2 cut point of <25% total fat calories (p = 0.03), with a non-significant trend for limiting the percentage of daily saturated fat to <8% (excellent 64%), and no association with cholesterol intake. There were more consistent associations with markers of adiposity (body mass index z-score r = −0.31, p = <0.01 and waist-to-height ratio r = −0.31, p = <0.01), and there was no independent association with lipid levels. While fat-restricted diets are safe, they are not particularly effective for treatment of dyslipidemia or for weight management alone. The HEAT may be a more useful and simplified way of assessing and tracking broader dietary goals in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Nutrition)
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16 pages, 365 KiB  
Article
Fatty Acid Indices and the Nutritional Properties of Karakul Sheep Meat
by Otilia Cristina Murariu, Florin Murariu, Gabriela Frunză, Marius Mihai Ciobanu and Paul Corneliu Boișteanu
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041061 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2923
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the fatty acid profile and health lipid indices of sheep meat (from 52 Karakul sheep from NE Romania). The effect of age at slaughter and the influence of muscle region were studied for nutritional parameters, especially the fatty [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the fatty acid profile and health lipid indices of sheep meat (from 52 Karakul sheep from NE Romania). The effect of age at slaughter and the influence of muscle region were studied for nutritional parameters, especially the fatty acids from lipid fractions. Based on the fatty acid profiles and lipid contents, the sanogenic indices were determined for two sheep muscle groups. Thus, two different muscle regions from lamb and adult sheep were analysed from both genders, the Longissimus dorsi and Triceps brachii, to argue the advantages of each category and the rationalization, in terms of meat consumption, regarding their impact on human health. Sheep meat has many components with beneficial effects on human health. Apart from the fact that it is an important source of nutrients due to its high content of proteins, lipids, and minerals, it is also a product that can provide fundamental bioactive compounds for maintaining metabolic functions. The qualitative indices assessment revealed that lambs have meat with high PUFA content on Longissimus dorsi muscles (approx. 25% of total fatty acids), 0.68 for PUFA/SFA, with highest values for n-3 (approx. 8%) and n-6 (approx. 14%). Appropriate values can also be observed in Triceps brachii muscles from adult sheep. The sanogenic indices also presented good values for Longissimus dorsi from lambs and Triceps brachii from adult sheep (polyunsaturation index = 7.2–10.2; atherogenic index = 0.56–0.67; thrombogenic index = 0.78–0.96; hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic index = 2.4–2.7 (for Longissimus dorsi)). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Sciences in Functional Foods - 2nd Volume)
17 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Does Better Diet Quality Offset the Association between Depression and Metabolic Syndrome?
by In Seon Kim and Ji-Yun Hwang
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041060 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
Several studies have shown that depression increases the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is often exacerbated by the fact that both exist concurrently. People with depression are more likely to have unhealthy eating habits, which can eventually trigger the development of MetS. [...] Read more.
Several studies have shown that depression increases the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is often exacerbated by the fact that both exist concurrently. People with depression are more likely to have unhealthy eating habits, which can eventually trigger the development of MetS. This study was to investigate whether diet quality modifies the association between depression and MetS in a total of 13,539 Korean adults aged 19 to 80 from 2014, 2016 and 2018 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and subjects were divided into subgroups according to the PHQ-9 scores: normal (<5), mild (5–9), and moderate-to-severe (≥10) groups. Diet quality was measured by the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI). A complex sample multiple logistic regression stratified by tertiles of KHEI scores was used to explore whether diet quality modifies an association between depression severity and metabolic syndrome. Depression severity was positively associated with the risk of MetS (p trend = 0.006) after adjustment for potential confounders. Only the lowest diet quality, moderately-to-severely depressed group, showed a higher risk of MetS (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.24–2.40) compared to the normal group. Our results suggest that healthy diet quality could offset the positive relationship between depression and MetS in the general Korean adult population. Encouraging a healthy diet regime can improve not only physical health but also the mental state of the general public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Health throughout the Life Cycle)
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16 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Intake of Theobroma grandiflorum Juice Fermented with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 Amended the Outcome of Endotoxemia Induced by Lipopolysaccharide
by Adrielle Zagmignan, Yasmim Costa Mendes, Gabrielle Pereira Mesquita, Gabrielle Damasceno Costa dos Santos, Lucas dos Santos Silva, Amanda Caroline de Souza Sales, Simeone Júlio dos Santos Castelo Branco, Alexsander Rodrigues Carvalho Junior, José Manuel Noguera Bazán, Edinalva Rodrigues Alves, Bárbara Lima de Almeida, Anne Karoline Maiorana Santos, Wellyson da Cunha Araújo Firmo, Maria Raimunda Chagas Silva, Antônio José Cantanhede Filho, Rita de Cássia Mendonça de Miranda and Luís Cláudio Nascimento da Silva
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041059 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Endotoxemia is a condition caused by increasing levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) characterized by an impaired systemic response that causes multiple organ dysfunction. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 is a strain with probiotic potential which shows immunomodulatory properties. The incorporation of this bacterium in food [...] Read more.
Endotoxemia is a condition caused by increasing levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) characterized by an impaired systemic response that causes multiple organ dysfunction. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 is a strain with probiotic potential which shows immunomodulatory properties. The incorporation of this bacterium in food rich in bioactive compounds, such as cupuaçu juice (Theobroma grandiflorum), could result in a product with interesting health properties. This work evaluated the effects of the oral administration of cupuaçu juice fermented with L. rhamnosus on the outcome of LPS-induced endotoxemia in mice. C57BL/6 mice (12/group) received oral doses (100 µL) of saline solution and unfermented or fermented cupuaçu juice (108 CFU/mL). After 5 days, the endotoxemia was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg). The endotoxemia severity was evaluated daily using a score based on grooming behavior, mobility, presence of piloerection, and weeping eyes. After 6 h and 120 h, the mice (6/group) were euthanized for analysis of cell counts (in peritoneal lavage and serum) and organ weight. L. rhamnosus grew in cupuaçu juice and produced organic acids without the need for supplementation. The bacteria counts were stable in the juice during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. The fermentation with L. rhamnosus ATCC 9595 changed the metabolites profile of cupuaçu juice due to the biotransformation and enhancement of some compounds. In general, the administration of L. rhamnosus-fermented juice allowed a significant improvement in several characteristics of endotoxemic status (weight loss, hypothermia, severity index, cell migration). In addition, treatment with fermented juice significantly reduced the weight of the spleen, liver, intestine, and kidneys compared to the saline-treated endotoxemic group. Taken together, our data show that short-term intake therapy of cupuaçu juice fermented with L. rhamnosus ATCC 9595 can reduce systemic inflammation in an experimental model of LPS-induced endotoxemia in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lactobacillus and Probiotics in Human Health and Diseases)
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12 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
The Ketogenic Diet in Children with Epilepsy: A Focus on Parental Stress and Family Compliance
by Francesca Felicia Operto, Angelo Labate, Salvatore Aiello, Cristina Perillo, Valeria de Simone, Rosetta Rinaldi, Giangennaro Coppola and Grazia Maria Giovanna Pastorino
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041058 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate parental stress after 6 and 12 months of a ketogenic diet, considering demographic and clinical variables (epilepsy type, epilepsy duration, seizure number, antiseizure medications, comorbidities, efficacy, and adverse events). (2) Methods: We consecutively [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate parental stress after 6 and 12 months of a ketogenic diet, considering demographic and clinical variables (epilepsy type, epilepsy duration, seizure number, antiseizure medications, comorbidities, efficacy, and adverse events). (2) Methods: We consecutively enrolled 36 children aged between 3 and 10 years who had been diagnosed with various types of drug-resistant epilepsy and who were in therapy with a ketogenic diet for better seizure control. A standardized neuropsychological questionnaire (Parenting Stress Index–PSI) was administered to the parents evaluating parental stress at baseline (T0), after 6 (T1) months, and after 12 months (T2). (3) Results: After 6 and 12 months of dietary treatment, Parental Distress and Total Stress mean scores were statistically significantly increased. Post hoc analysis showed no significant changes in the scores between T0 and T1, although there was a significant increase between T1 and T2. We did not find statistically significant relationships between parental stress and the other variables considered. (4) Conclusions: The ketogenic diet can be challenging for parents and can affect the perception of parental stress, especially in the long term. Parents may feel inadequate in their role; therefore, they should be helped and encouraged through additional supports in order to maximize the adherence to diet therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
18 pages, 8430 KiB  
Article
No Evidence of a Genetic Causal Relationship between Ankylosing Spondylitis and Gut Microbiota: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study
by Mingyi Yang, Xianjie Wan, Haishi Zheng, Ke Xu, Jiale Xie, Hui Yu, Jiachen Wang and Peng Xu
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041057 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7247
Abstract
Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a variety of gut microbiotas. We aim to analyze the causal relationship between the two at the genetic level. Methods: Mendelian randomization (MR) is a type of instrumental variables (IVs) analysis; MR follows the Mendelian genetic [...] Read more.
Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a variety of gut microbiotas. We aim to analyze the causal relationship between the two at the genetic level. Methods: Mendelian randomization (MR) is a type of instrumental variables (IVs) analysis; MR follows the Mendelian genetic rule of “parental alleles are randomly assigned to offspring” and takes genetic variation as IVs to infer the causal association between exposure factors and study outcome in observational studies. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of AS were from the FinnGen consortium, and the gut microbiota (Bacteroides, Streptococcus, Proteobacteria, Lachnospiraceae) were from the MiBioGen consortium. The TwoSampleMR and MRPRESSO packages of the R were used to perform a two-sample MR study. Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) was the main analysis method, and MR Egger, weighted median, simple mode, and weighted mode were used as supplementary methods. We examined heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy, and examined whether the analysis results were influenced by a single SNP. We applied radial variants of the IVW and MR-Egger model for the improved visualization of the causal estimate. We further examined the causal relationship between AS and gut microbiota, and the robustness of the analysis results. Finally, we performed maximum likelihood, penalized weighted median, and IVW (fixed effects) to further identify the potential causal association. Results: The random-effects IVW results showed that Bacteroides (p = 0.965, OR 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.990 [0.621–1.579]), Streptococcus (p = 0.591, OR 95% CI = 1.120 [0.741–1.692]), Proteobacteria (p = 0.522, OR 95% CI = 1.160 [0.737–1.826]), and Lachnospiraceae (p = 0.717, OR 95% CI = 1.073 [0.732–1.574]) have no genetic causal relationship with AS. There was no heterogeneity, horizontal pleiotropy or outliers, and results were normally distributed. The MR analysis results were not driven by a single SNP. Conclusions: This study showed that Bacteroides, Streptococcus, Proteobacteria and Lachnospiraceae, four common gut microbiotas associated with AS, had no causal relationship with AS at the genetic level. This study makes a positive contribution to the genetics of AS, but the insufficient number of gut microbiota included is a limitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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3 pages, 213 KiB  
Editorial
Impact of Different Nutrition Strategies on Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
by Konstantinos Papadimitriou and Sousana K. Papadopoulou
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041056 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
In 1932, Burrill B [...] Full article
15 pages, 859 KiB  
Article
School Lunch Programs and Nutritional Education Improve Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices and Reduce the Prevalence of Anemia: A Pre-Post Intervention Study in an Indonesian Islamic Boarding School
by Rimbawan Rimbawan, Reisi Nurdiani, Purnawati Hustina Rachman, Yuka Kawamata and Yoshizu Nozawa
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041055 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4192
Abstract
Indonesians face serious health issues that arise from malnutrition, particularly in children who are under unfavorable dietary environments. The present study established a school meal program consisting of dietary and educational interventions and evaluated its impact on promoting continuous improvement in dietary behavior [...] Read more.
Indonesians face serious health issues that arise from malnutrition, particularly in children who are under unfavorable dietary environments. The present study established a school meal program consisting of dietary and educational interventions and evaluated its impact on promoting continuous improvement in dietary behavior among junior and senior high school students in Indonesia. A total of 319 students belonging to an Islamic Boarding School participated in the pre-post intervention study for 9 months. All participants were assessed based on their Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP). A subgroup of 115 participants who were anemic and underweight was examined for dietary intake, nutrition status, and hemoglobin level. The KAP test scores for both nutrition and hygiene showed a significant increase for all students and the undernutrition group post-intervention. Protein, iron, and vitamin C intake significantly improved. Although there were no significant improvements in nutrition status, there was a significant increase in the hemoglobin level and a reduction in the prevalence of anemia from 42.6% to 21.7%. Thus, school meal program that combines dietary and educational interventions may effectively improve anemia in undernourished students as well as enhance the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to health, nutrition, and hygiene in junior and senior high school students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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18 pages, 1645 KiB  
Article
Effects of Endurance Exercise Intensities on Autonomic and Metabolic Controls in Children with Obesity: A Feasibility Study Employing Online Exercise Training
by Valeria Calcaterra, Giuseppina Bernardelli, Mara Malacarne, Matteo Vandoni, Savina Mannarino, Vittoria Carnevale Pellino, Cristiana Larizza, Massimo Pagani, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti and Daniela Lucini
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041054 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
Exercise is one of the major determinants of a healthy lifestyle, which is particularly important in childhood and serves as a powerful preventive tool. On the other hand, obesity and arterial hypertension rates are increasing in children, representing a huge risk for developing [...] Read more.
Exercise is one of the major determinants of a healthy lifestyle, which is particularly important in childhood and serves as a powerful preventive tool. On the other hand, obesity and arterial hypertension rates are increasing in children, representing a huge risk for developing major cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adult life. Of fundamental importance is the modality and volume of exercise required to obtain benefits. In this feasibility study, we considered a group of obese children, studied before and after a 12-week online exercise training program, and subdivided the participants into two groups considering the volume of exercise performed (above or below 1200 MET·min/week). This threshold level was applied in two different ways: subdivision A considered the total weekly physical activity volume (considering both time spent walking for at least 10 min consecutively and time spent performing structured exercise) and subdivision B considered only the weekly volume of structured exercise. We assessed autonomic and metabolic control and auxological and lifestyle parameters. We observed that the improved volume of structured exercise was associated with reduced arterial pressure percentile only in subdivision B and an improvement in markers of vagal and metabolic control was evident. Moreover, the 12-week online exercise training program, defined considering individual fitness level and progressively adapted as the goal was reached, proved to be sustainable from an economical and organizational point of view. Full article
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11 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
The Complexities of Managing Gestational Diabetes in Women of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds: A Qualitative Study of Women’s Experiences
by Melissa Oxlad, Sharni Whitburn and Jessica A. Grieger
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041053 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8032
Abstract
Aim: This study aimed to explore women’s perspectives and experiences concerning how culture impacts the lifestyle management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. Methods: Women of any cultural background diagnosed with GDM within the previous [...] Read more.
Aim: This study aimed to explore women’s perspectives and experiences concerning how culture impacts the lifestyle management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. Methods: Women of any cultural background diagnosed with GDM within the previous 12 months were purposively recruited from two Australian metropolitan hospitals. Data collected using semi-structured interviews (n = 18) and focus groups (n = 15 women in three groups) were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Three themes were generated: “cultural beliefs and obligations impact lifestyle management of gestational diabetes”, which describes how some cultures lack awareness about GDM, and modifications or restrictions were viewed as depriving the infant, but sometimes adaptions could be made so that a culturally appropriate meal was suitable for GDM management; “the relationship between cultural foods and gestational diabetes management”, which discusses how important cultural foods may be incompatible with appropriate GDM management, so women worked to find solutions; “gestational diabetes education lacks cultural awareness and sensitivity”, which illustrates how current education fails to address differences in cultural beliefs, language and eating practices. Conclusion: Cultural beliefs, obligations and food practices must be considered when assisting women of CALD backgrounds using lifestyle modification to manage GDM. GDM education must be culturally sensitive and competent and, where possible, be delivered by health professionals of a shared cultural group. Full article
28 pages, 3268 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 in Pregnancy: Influence of Body Weight and Nutritional Status on Maternal and Pregnancy Outcomes—A Review of Literature and Meta-Analysis
by Rossella Attini, Maria Elena Laudani, Elisabetta Versino, Alessio Massaro, Arianna Pagano, Francesca Petey, Alberto Revelli and Bianca Masturzo
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041052 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
In the last two and a half years, COVID-19 has been one of the most challenging public health issues worldwide. Based on the available evidence, pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to infection than the general population but having COVID-19 [...] Read more.
In the last two and a half years, COVID-19 has been one of the most challenging public health issues worldwide. Based on the available evidence, pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to infection than the general population but having COVID-19 during pregnancy may increase the risk of major complications for both the mother and the fetus. The aim of this study is to identify the correlation between BMI and nutritional status and the likelihood of contracting COVID-19 infection in pregnancy, its severity, and maternal pregnancy outcomes. We carry out a systematic literature search and a meta-analysis using three databases following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. We include 45 studies about COVID-19-positive pregnant women. Compared with normal-weight pregnant women with COVID-19, obesity is associated with a more severe infection (OR = 2.32 [1.65–3.25]), increased maternal death (OR = 2.84 [2.01–4.02]), and a higher rate of hospital admission (OR = 2.11 [1.37–3.26]). Obesity may be associated with adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes by increasing symptom severity and, consequently, hospital and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, and, finally, death rates. For micronutrients, the results are less definite, even if there seems to be a lower level of micronutrients, in particular Vitamin D, in COVID-19-positive pregnant women. Full article
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23 pages, 4025 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Analysis Reveals the Potential Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction on Fetal Muscle Growth and Development
by Xinyue Wang, Mingyu Shang, Wenping Hu and Li Zhang
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041051 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
In terms of fetal muscle growth, development, and health, maternal nutrition is a crucial influence, although the exact biochemical mechanism by which this occurs is still not fully understood. To examine the potential impacts of maternal dietary restriction on fetal muscle development, the [...] Read more.
In terms of fetal muscle growth, development, and health, maternal nutrition is a crucial influence, although the exact biochemical mechanism by which this occurs is still not fully understood. To examine the potential impacts of maternal dietary restriction on fetal muscle development, the sheep maternal dietary restriction model was developed for this study. In our study, 12 pregnant ewes were evenly split into two experimental groups and fed either 75% or 100% of a maternal nutrient. In addition, a multi-omics analysis was used to study the embryonic longissimus dorsis on gestational days (GD) 85 and 135. The fetal weight at GD 135 was significantly below normal due to the maternal restricted diet (p < 0.01). When fetuses were exposed to the dietary deficit, 416 mRNAs and 40 proteins were significantly changed. At GD 85, the multi-omics analysis revealed that maternal dietary restriction led to a significant up-regulation of the cell cycle regulator CDK2 gene in the cellular senescence signaling pathway, and the results of the qRT-PCR were similar to the multi-omics analysis, which showed that SIX1, PAX7, the cell cycle factors CDK4 and CDK6, and the BCL-2 apoptosis factor were up-regulated and several skeletal muscle marker genes, such as MYF5 and MyoD were down-regulated. At GD 135, maternal dietary restriction blocks the muscle fiber differentiation and maturation. The multi-omics analysis revealed that the TEAD1 gene was in the Hippo signaling pathway, the muscle marker genes MYF5 and MyoG were significantly down-regulated, and the TEAD1 binding of the down-regulated VGLL3 gene might be potential mechanisms affecting myofiber differentiation and maturation. Knocking down the CDK2 gene could inhibit the proliferation of primary embryonic myoblasts, and the expression levels of cell cycle regulatory factors CDK4 and CDK6 were significantly changed. Under low nutrient culture conditions, the number of myoblasts decreased and the expression of CDK2, CDK6, MYF5, PAX7 and BCL-2 changed, which was in perfect agreement with the multi-omics analysis. All of the findings from our study helped to clarify the potential effects of maternal dietary restriction on fetal muscle growth and development. They also provided a molecular foundation for understanding the molecular regulatory mechanisms of maternal nutrition on fetal muscle growth and development, as well as for the development of new medications and the management of related metabolic diseases. Full article
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23 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Non-Nutritive Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Glycemic and Endocrine Responses: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
by Roselyn Zhang, Jarvis C. Noronha, Tauseef A. Khan, Néma McGlynn, Songhee Back, Shannan M. Grant, Cyril W. C. Kendall and John L. Sievenpiper
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041050 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 15102
Abstract
Background: There has been an emerging concern that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Much of the attention has focused on acute metabolic and endocrine responses to NNS. To examine whether these mechanisms are operational under real-world scenarios, we [...] Read more.
Background: There has been an emerging concern that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Much of the attention has focused on acute metabolic and endocrine responses to NNS. To examine whether these mechanisms are operational under real-world scenarios, we conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis of acute trials comparing the effects of non-nutritive sweetened beverages (NNS beverages) with water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in humans. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched through to January 15, 2022. We included acute, single-exposure, randomized, and non-randomized, clinical trials in humans, regardless of health status. Three patterns of intake were examined: (1) uncoupling interventions, where NNS beverages were consumed alone without added energy or nutrients; (2) coupling interventions, where NNS beverages were consumed together with added energy and nutrients as carbohydrates; and (3) delayed coupling interventions, where NNS beverages were consumed as a preload prior to added energy and nutrients as carbohydrates. The primary outcome was a 2 h incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for blood glucose concentration. Secondary outcomes included 2 h iAUC for insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, leptin, and glucagon concentrations. Network meta-analysis and confidence in the network meta-analysis (CINeMA) were conducted in R-studio and CINeMA, respectively. Results: Thirty-six trials involving 472 predominantly healthy participants were included. Trials examined a variety of single NNS (acesulfame potassium, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose) and NNS blends (acesulfame potassium + aspartame, acesulfame potassium + sucralose, acesulfame potassium + aspartame + cyclamate, and acesulfame potassium + aspartame + sucralose), along with matched water/unsweetened controls and SSBs sweetened with various caloric sugars (glucose, sucrose, and fructose). In uncoupling interventions, NNS beverages (single or blends) had no effect on postprandial glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GIP, PYY, ghrelin, and glucagon responses similar to water controls (generally, low to moderate confidence), whereas SSBs sweetened with caloric sugars (glucose and sucrose) increased postprandial glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP responses with no differences in postprandial ghrelin and glucagon responses (generally, low to moderate confidence). In coupling and delayed coupling interventions, NNS beverages had no postprandial glucose and endocrine effects similar to controls (generally, low to moderate confidence). Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that NNS beverages sweetened with single or blends of NNS have no acute metabolic and endocrine effects, similar to water. These findings provide support for NNS beverages as an alternative replacement strategy for SSBs in the acute postprandial setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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16 pages, 3224 KiB  
Article
Ursolic Acid Ameliorates Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion Injury by Improving Mitochondrial Function via Immunoproteasome-PP2A-AMPK Signalling
by Luo-Luo Xu, Hui-Xiang Su, Pang-Bo Li and Hui-Hua Li
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041049 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
Cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury causes cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Ursolic acid (UA), as a pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, exerts several bioactivities in animal models of different diseases, but the preventive role of UA in I/R-induced myocardial dysfunction remains largely unknown. Male wild-type [...] Read more.
Cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury causes cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Ursolic acid (UA), as a pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, exerts several bioactivities in animal models of different diseases, but the preventive role of UA in I/R-induced myocardial dysfunction remains largely unknown. Male wild-type mice were pre-administered with UA at a dosage of 80 mg/kg i.p. and then subjected to cardiac I/R injury for 24 h. Cardiac function and pathological changes were examined by echocardiography and histological staining. The protein and mRNA levels of the genes were determined using qPCR and immunoblotting analysis. Our results revealed that UA administration in mice significantly attenuated the I/R-induced decline in cardiac function, infarct size, myocyte apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Mechanistically, UA increased three immunoproteasome catalytic subunit expressions and activities, which promoted ubiquitinated PP2A degradation and activated AMPK-PGC1α signalling, leading to improved mitochondrial biosynthesis and dynamic balance. In vitro experiments confirmed that UA treatment prevented hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction through activation of AMPK signalling. In summary, our findings identify UA as a new activator of the immunoproteasome that exerts a protective role in I/R-induced myocardial dysfunction and suggest that UA supplementation could be beneficial for the prevention of cardiac ischaemic disease. Full article
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13 pages, 1843 KiB  
Article
Fecal Calprotectin in Self-Reported Milk Intolerance: Not Only Lactose Intolerance
by Aurelio Seidita, Pasquale Mansueto, Alessandra Giuliano, Marta Chiavetta, Maurizio Soresi, Antonio Carroccio and the Internal Medicine Study Group
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041048 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2236
Abstract
The hypothesis is that inflammatory/allergic conditions should be considered in self-reported milk intolerance (SRMI) patients who test negative and/or are asymptomatic at Lactose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT). We analyzed fecal calprotectin (FCP) values in SRMI patients to investigate the frequency of a “positive” [...] Read more.
The hypothesis is that inflammatory/allergic conditions should be considered in self-reported milk intolerance (SRMI) patients who test negative and/or are asymptomatic at Lactose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT). We analyzed fecal calprotectin (FCP) values in SRMI patients to investigate the frequency of a “positive” intestinal inflammation marker and its correlation with lactose tolerance/intolerance. Data from 329 SRMI patients were retrospectively analyzed; according to the positive/negative results (maldigester/digester) and the presence/absence of symptoms reported during LHBT (intolerant/tolerant), patients were divided into: ‘lactose tolerants’ (n. 104), ‘maldigesters/intolerants’ (n. 187), ‘digesters/intolerants’ (n. 38). FCP values were analyzed in all three subgroups. A percentage of SRMI patients complained of constipation (>15%), extraintestinal symptoms (>30% including anemia), multiple food hypersensitivity (7.6%) and had intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration at duodenal biopsy (>50%). Over 50.0% showed FCP values above the normal limit. Lactose tolerants and maldigesters/intolerants had higher positivity frequencies (p < 0.0001, for both) and absolute values (p = 0.04, for maldigesters/intolerants) of FCP compared to digesters/intolerants. FCP was not useful to differentiate tolerant from intolerant subjects (AUC 0.58). Our data suggest the existence of an allergic/inflammatory pathogenetic mechanism in a subset of SRMI subjects. FCP results are in keeping with this hypothesis, even if they cannot differentiate lactose tolerant from intolerant patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerance and Food Allergy: Novel Aspects in a Changing World)
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18 pages, 3704 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics Dissection of Calorie Restriction and Exercise Training in Brown Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle
by Yonghao Feng, Zhicheng Cui, Xiaodan Lu, Hongyu Gong, Xiaoyu Liu, Hui Wang, Haoyu Cheng, Huanqing Gao, Xiaohong Shi, Yiming Li, Hongying Ye, Qiongyue Zhang and Xingxing Kong
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041047 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3211
Abstract
Calorie restriction (CR) and exercise training (EX) are two critical lifestyle interventions for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle are two important organs for the generation of heat. Here, we [...] Read more.
Calorie restriction (CR) and exercise training (EX) are two critical lifestyle interventions for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle are two important organs for the generation of heat. Here, we undertook detailed transcriptional profiling of these two thermogenic tissues from mice treated subjected to CR and/or EX. We found transcriptional reprogramming of BAT and skeletal muscle as a result of CR but little from EX. Consistent with this, CR induced alterations in the expression of genes encoding adipokines and myokines in BAT and skeletal muscle, respectively. Deconvolution analysis showed differences in the subpopulations of myogenic cells, mesothelial cells and endogenic cells in BAT and in the subpopulations of satellite cells, immune cells and endothelial cells in skeletal muscle as a result of CR or EX. NicheNet analysis, exploring potential inter-organ communication, indicated that BAT and skeletal muscle could mutually regulate their fatty acid metabolism and thermogenesis through ligands and receptors. These data comprise an extensive resource for the study of thermogenic tissue molecular responses to CR and/or EX in a healthy state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Exercise in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Sleep Duration and Metabolic Syndrome Severity Scores in Emerging Adults
by Bilal A. Chaudhry, Michael S. Brian and Jesse Stabile Morrell
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041046 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
Background: Research suggests sleep duration can influence metabolic systems including glucose homeostasis, blood pressure, hormone regulation, nervous system activity, and total energy expenditure (TEE), all of which are related to cardiometabolic disease risk, even in young adults. The purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Research suggests sleep duration can influence metabolic systems including glucose homeostasis, blood pressure, hormone regulation, nervous system activity, and total energy expenditure (TEE), all of which are related to cardiometabolic disease risk, even in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome severity scores (MSSS) in a sample of emerging adults (18–24 y/o). Methods: Data were collected between 2012 and 2021 from the College Health and Nutrition Assessment Survey, an ongoing, cross-sectional study conducted at a midsized northeastern university. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical measures were obtained following an overnight fast and used to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS severity scores (MSSS) were calculated using race- and sex-specific formulas. Sleep duration was calculated from the difference in self-reported bedtime and wake time acquired through an online survey. ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between sleep duration and MetS severity score while adjusting for covariates (age, sex, BMI, physical activity level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and academic major). Results: In the final sample (n = 3816), MetS (≥3 criteria) was present in 3.3% of students, while 15.4% of students presented with ≥2 MetS criteria. Mean MSSS was −0.65 ± 0.56, and the reported sleep duration was 8.2 ± 1.3 h/day. MSSS was higher among low sleepers (<7 h/day) and long sleepers (>9 h/day) compared to the reference sleepers (7–8 h/day) (−0.61 ± 0.02 and −0.63 ± 0.01 vs. −0.7 ± 0.02, respectively, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our findings suggest short (<7 h/day) and long (>9 h/day) sleep durations raise the risk of MetS in a sample of emerging adults. Further research is needed to elucidate the impact of improving sleep habits on future disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
12 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study of the Applicability, Usability, and Accuracy of the Nutricate© Online Application, a New Dietary Intake Assessment Tool for Managing Infant Cow’s Milk Allergy
by Pauline Azzano, Line Samier, Alain Lachaux, Florence Villard Truc and Laurent Béghin
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041045 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Background/Objectives: The mainstay treatment of cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is to remove cow’s milk proteins from children’s dietary intake. In this context, dietary intake of children with CMA should be particularly checked and monitored. The objective of this study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: The mainstay treatment of cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is to remove cow’s milk proteins from children’s dietary intake. In this context, dietary intake of children with CMA should be particularly checked and monitored. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability, usability, and accuracy of a new dietary intake (DI) assessment online tool (Nutricate© online application) for managing CMA in children. Subjects/Methods: This study used a pre-existing database of DI from the Nutricate© online application. DIs from 30 CMA children were used to compare micro/macronutrients (energy, protein, calcium, and iron intakes) calculated by Nutricate© and NutriLog© as the reference method. Comparisons were performed using the Pearson correlation analysis and the Bland–Altman plot. The Nutricate© tool usability was assessed via a System Usability Scale questionnaire (SUSq). Results: Correlation coefficient between the levels of micro/macronutrients obtained by Nutrilog© and Nutricate© software were highly significant (p = 0.0001) and were well-correlated (R coefficient > 0.6), indicating a very good concordance between the two methods. This observation was reinforced by the Bland–Altman plot, indicating the absence of proportional or fixed bias for energy, protein, calcium, and iron intakes. The mean SUSq score obtained was 81 ± 14, which is considered to be an excellent score. Conclusions: Nutricate© online application is a reliable method to assess micro/macronutrient (energy, protein, calcium, and iron intakes) intake in CMA children. Applicability and usability of this new dietary intake assessment online tool is excellent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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12 pages, 1240 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Impact of Nutritional Status on Overall Survival and Health-Related Quality of Life in Men with Advanced Prostate Cancer
by Luka Cavka, Maja Pohar Perme, Nada Rotovnik Kozjek and Bostjan Seruga
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041044 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Purpose: Prognostic role of nutritional status (NS) in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unknown. We hypothesized that patients’ NS at the presentation of mCRPC is prognostic for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and overall survival (OS). Methods: We conducted a [...] Read more.
Purpose: Prognostic role of nutritional status (NS) in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unknown. We hypothesized that patients’ NS at the presentation of mCRPC is prognostic for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and overall survival (OS). Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in mCRPC patients. At enrollment, we allocated each patient into one of four NS categories: (i) well-nourished (WN), (ii) nutritional risk without sarcopenia/cachexia (NR), (iii) sarcopenia, or (iv) cachexia. We sought the prognostic role of the NS for OS and HRQoL by regression models. Results: 141 patients were included into our study. When compared to WN patients, those with NR and cachexia had a higher chance of worse HRQoL (OR 3.45; 95% CI [1.28 to 9.09], and OR 4.17; 95% CI [1.28 to 12.5], respectively), as well as shorter OS (HR 2.04; 95% CI [1.19 to 3.39] and HR 2.9; 95% CI [1.56 to 5.41], respectively). However, when accounting for possible confounding factors, we could not prove the significant importance of NS for chosen outcomes. Conclusions: Suboptimal NS might be an unfavorable prognostic factor for HRQoL and OS. Further interventional studies focusing on therapy or prevention are warranted. Full article
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15 pages, 5902 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Hydroxyphenyl Propionic Acids on Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
by Jingling Guo, Pan Wang, Yifan Cui, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen and Chen Ma
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041043 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
Gut microbiota imbalances lead to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is primarily accompanied by hepatic steatosis. Hydroxyphenyl propionic acids (HPP) have shown great potential in inhibiting lipid accumulation but their protective effects concerning NAFLD and intestinal microbiota have remained [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota imbalances lead to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is primarily accompanied by hepatic steatosis. Hydroxyphenyl propionic acids (HPP) have shown great potential in inhibiting lipid accumulation but their protective effects concerning NAFLD and intestinal microbiota have remained unclear. In this paper, we investigated the efficacies of 3-HPP and 4-HPP on hepatic steatosis and gut flora in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that 3-HPP and 4-HPP administration decreased body weight and liver index, ameliorated dyslipidemia, and alleviated hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, 3-HPP and 4-HPP enhanced the multiformity of gut microbiota; improved the relative abundance of GCA-900066575, unidentified_Lachnospiraceae, and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006 at genus level; increased concentration of acetic acid, propionic acid and butanoic acid in faeces; and reduced systemic endotoxin levels in NAFLD mice. Moreover, 4-HPP upregulated the relative abundance of genera Rikenella and downregulated the relative abundance of Faecalibaculum. Furthermore, 3-HPP and 4-HPP regulated lipid metabolism and ameliorated gut dysbiosis in NAFLD mice and 4-HPP was more effective than 3-HPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspectives of Plant Natural Products for Mitigation of Obesity)
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13 pages, 3980 KiB  
Article
Effects of Chronic Administration of Green Tea Ethanol Extract on Sleep Architecture in Mice: A Comparative Study with a Representative Stimulant Caffeine
by Duhyeon Kim, Seonghui Kim, Minseok Yoon, Min Young Um and Suengmok Cho
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041042 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2436
Abstract
Wakefulness is defined as a state in which individuals can react to a change in situations. The number of people staying awake and compensating for lack of sleep has increased in recent years. Caffeine, a representative stimulant, is the most extensively consumed compound [...] Read more.
Wakefulness is defined as a state in which individuals can react to a change in situations. The number of people staying awake and compensating for lack of sleep has increased in recent years. Caffeine, a representative stimulant, is the most extensively consumed compound globally and is mainly consumed through coffee. Although green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contains high caffeine content like coffee, its arousal-inducing effects have not yet been studied. In the present study, we aimed to identify the arousal-inducing effect of GT during a chronic administration period (three weeks) using analysis of sleep architecture. Treatment with GT (1500 mg/kg) significantly elevated the sleep latency and wakefulness throughout the treatment period, and chronic administration of GT consistently maintained an increase in wakefulness for up to 3 h. During the treatment period, the arousal-inducing effect of GT (1500 mg/kg) occurred without any change in the tolerance phenomenon or withdrawal symptoms, similar to that observed with caffeine (25 mg/kg). GT (1500 mg/kg) containing 95.6 mg/kg of caffeine did not produce a better arousal-inducing effect than caffeine at 25 mg/kg. These results indicate that the arousal-inducing effect of GT persisted for three weeks without adverse effects and that GT can control the arousal-inducing effects of caffeine due to the hypnotic effects of its other constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 618 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Influence of Nutritional Intervention in the Treatment of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis—A Systematic Review
by Karolina Osowiecka and Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041041 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 13335
Abstract
Diet can be a complementary treatment for Hashimoto’s disease by affecting thyroid function and anti-inflammatory properties. It is still unclear which dietary strategy would be the most beneficial. The aim of this systematic review is to examine all the data currently available in [...] Read more.
Diet can be a complementary treatment for Hashimoto’s disease by affecting thyroid function and anti-inflammatory properties. It is still unclear which dietary strategy would be the most beneficial. The aim of this systematic review is to examine all the data currently available in the literature on the effects of nutritional intervention on biochemical parameters (anti-thyroid antibody and thyroid hormones levels) and characteristic symptoms in the course of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. This systematic review was prepared based on PRISMA guidelines. Articles in PubMed and Scopus databases published up to November 2022 were searched. As a result of the selection, out of 1350 publications, 9 were included for further analysis. The nutritional interventions included the following: elimination of gluten (3 articles) or lactose (1 article), energy restriction with or without excluding selected foods (n = 2), consumption of Nigella sativa (n = 2), or dietary iodine restriction (n = 1). The intervention duration ranged from 21 days to 12 months and included individuals with various thyroid function. Of the nine studies, three studies were female only. An improvement was observed during an energy deficit and after the elimination of selected ingredients (e.g., gluten, lactose, or goitrogens), as well as after the intervention of Nigella sativa. These interventions improved antibody levels against peroxidase (anti-TPO), (thyrotropin) TSH, and free thyroxine (fT4). No improvement was seen on the iodine-restricted diet. Varied outcomes of analyzed dietary interventions may be due to the heterogeneous thyroid condition, high variability between patients, and differences in habitual intake of critical nutrients (e.g., iodine, selenium, and iron) in different populations. Therefore, there is a great need for further experimental studies to determine whether any nutritional interventions are beneficial in Hashimoto’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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11 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Higher Intake of Vegetable Protein and Lower Intake of Animal Fats Reduce the Incidence of Diabetes in Non-Drinking Males: A Prospective Epidemiological Analysis of the Shika Study
by Aya Ogawa, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Masaharu Nakamura, Koichi Hayashi, Akinori Hara, Keita Suzuki, Sakae Miyagi, Takayuki Kannon, Chie Takazawa, Jiaye Zhao, Yasuhiro Kambayashi, Yukari Shimizu, Aki Shibata, Tadashi Konoshita, Fumihiko Suzuki, Hirohito Tsuboi, Atsushi Tajima and Hiroyuki Nakamura
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041040 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
Although nutrient intake and alcohol consumption are both closely associated with the incidence of diabetes, their interrelationships remain unclear. Therefore, we herein have investigated the interrelationships among nutrient intake, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of diabetes using longitudinal data. This study included 969 [...] Read more.
Although nutrient intake and alcohol consumption are both closely associated with the incidence of diabetes, their interrelationships remain unclear. Therefore, we herein have investigated the interrelationships among nutrient intake, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of diabetes using longitudinal data. This study included 969 residents ≥40 years living in Japan. In 2011 and 2012, a baseline study was conducted using questionnaires on basic demographics, diabetes, nutrient intake, and lifestyle habits. In 2018 and 2019, a follow-up study was performed using questionnaires and medical records on diabetes. Two-way analysis of covariance (two-way ANCOVA) was used to test the interactions of drinking habits and diabetes incidence on nutrients intake. The prospective relationship between nutrient intake at baseline and the incidence of diabetes in the follow-up stratified by drinkers and non-drinkers was evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Interactions were observed for vegetable protein intake (p = 0.023) and animal fat intake (p = 0.016) in males. Vegetable protein intake negatively correlated with the incidence of diabetes in non-drinkers (odds ratio (OR): 0.208; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.046–0.935; p = 0.041). Furthermore, animal fat intake positively correlated with the incidence of diabetes in non-drinkers (OR: 1.625; 95% CI: 1.020–2.589; p = 0.041). Therefore, vegetable protein and animal fat intakes in combination with drinking habits need to be considered for the prevention of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Dietary Fatty Acids in Metabolic Health)
12 pages, 522 KiB  
Review
The Effect of β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance, Cognitive Function and Resiliency in Soldiers
by Ishay Ostfeld and Jay R. Hoffman
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041039 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6231
Abstract
β-alanine is a nonessential amino acid that combines with the amino acid histidine to form the intracellular dipeptide carnosine, an important intracellular buffer. Evidence has been well established on the ability of β-alanine supplementation to enhance anaerobic skeletal muscle performance. As a result, [...] Read more.
β-alanine is a nonessential amino acid that combines with the amino acid histidine to form the intracellular dipeptide carnosine, an important intracellular buffer. Evidence has been well established on the ability of β-alanine supplementation to enhance anaerobic skeletal muscle performance. As a result, β-alanine has become one of the more popular supplements used by competitive athletes. These same benefits have also been reported in soldiers. Evidence accumulated over the last few years has suggested that β-alanine can result in carnosine elevations in the brain, which appears to have broadened the potential effects that β-alanine supplementation may have on soldier performance and health. Evidence suggests that β-alanine supplementation can increase resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder, mild traumatic brain injury and heat stress. The evidence regarding cognitive function is inconclusive but may be more of a function of the stressor that is applied during the assessment period. The potential benefits of β-alanine supplementation on soldier resiliency are interesting but require additional research using a human model. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological role of β-alanine and why this nutrient may enhance soldier performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Intervention for Competitive Athletes)
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15 pages, 2632 KiB  
Article
Immune-Enhancing Effects of Limosilactobacillus fermentum in BALB/c Mice Immunosuppressed by Cyclophosphamide
by SukJin Kim, Hwan Hee Lee, Chang-Ho Kang, Hyojeung Kang and Hyosun Cho
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041038 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2239
Abstract
This study evaluates the immune-enhancing effects of Limosilactobacillus fermentum on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunosuppression in BALB/c mice. In vitro, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MAPK signaling molecules in Raw264.7 cells were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Moreover, cell proliferation, surface receptor [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the immune-enhancing effects of Limosilactobacillus fermentum on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunosuppression in BALB/c mice. In vitro, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MAPK signaling molecules in Raw264.7 cells were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Moreover, cell proliferation, surface receptor expression, and cytotoxicity of NK-92 cells were examined by Cell Counting Kit-8, CytoTox96 assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. To investigate the immune-enhancing effects of selected L. fermentum strains in vivo, these strains were orally administered to BALB/c mice for 2 weeks, and CP was intraperitoneally injected. Then, liver, spleen, and whole blood were isolated from each animal. Administration of single L. fermentum strains or their mixture sustained the spleen weight, the counts of white blood cells compared to non-fed group. Splenocyte proliferation and NK cytotoxicity were significantly increased in all L. fermentum-fed groups. The frequency of B220+ cells was also significantly enhanced in splenocytes isolated from L. fermentum groups. In addition, the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ) and antibodies was recovered in splenocyte supernatants isolated from L. fermentum groups. In conclusion, L. fermentum could be a suitable functional food additive for immune-enhancing effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics in Immune Health)
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16 pages, 1619 KiB  
Article
Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidins Modulate Adipose Tissue Adaptations to Obesity in a Photoperiod-Dependent Manner in Fischer 344 Rats
by Èlia Navarro-Masip, Marina Colom-Pellicer, Francesca Manocchio, Anna Arola-Arnal, Francisca Isabel Bravo, Begoña Muguerza and Gerard Aragonès
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041037 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2307
Abstract
Seasonal rhythms drive metabolic adaptations that influence body weight and adiposity. Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in the organism, and its healthiness is needed to prevent the major consequences of overweight and obesity. In this context, supplementation with proanthocyanidins [...] Read more.
Seasonal rhythms drive metabolic adaptations that influence body weight and adiposity. Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in the organism, and its healthiness is needed to prevent the major consequences of overweight and obesity. In this context, supplementation with proanthocyanidins has been postulated as a potential strategy to prevent the alterations caused by obesity. Moreover, the effects of these (poly)phenols on metabolism are photoperiod dependent. In order to describe the impact of grape-seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) on important markers of adipose tissue functionality under an obesogenic environment, we exposed Fischer 344 rats to three different photoperiods and fed them a cafeteria diet for five weeks. Afterwards, we supplemented them with 25 mg GSPE/kg/day for four weeks. Our results revealed that GSPE supplementation prevented excessive body weight gain under a long photoperiod, which could be explained by increased lipolysis in the adipose tissue. Moreover, cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) serum concentrations were restored by GSPE under standard photoperiod. GSPE consumption slightly helped combat the obesity-induced hypertrophy in adipocytes, and adiponectin mRNA levels were upregulated under all photoperiods. Overall, the administration of GSPE helped reduce the impact of obesity in the adipose tissue, depending on the photoperiod at which GSPE was consumed and on the type of adipose depots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Chronic Diseases)
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19 pages, 2829 KiB  
Review
Nutritional Approaches to Modulate Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Literature Review
by Karen Pesqueda-Cendejas, Melissa Rivera-Escoto, Mónica R. Meza-Meza, Bertha Campos-López, Isela Parra-Rojas, Margarita Montoya-Buelna and Ulises De la Cruz-Mosso
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041036 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3917
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic pathology characterized by a bimodal mortality pattern attributed to clinical disease activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A complex interaction between traditional CVD risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension, as [...] Read more.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic pathology characterized by a bimodal mortality pattern attributed to clinical disease activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A complex interaction between traditional CVD risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension, as well as the presence of non-traditional CVD risk factors such as hyperhomocysteinemia, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and C-reactive protein levels, has been suggested as a cause of the high prevalence of CVD in SLE patients. On the other hand, environmental factors, such as nutritional status, could influence the disease’s prognosis; several nutrients have immunomodulators, antioxidants, and anti-cardiometabolic risk properties which could reduce SLE severity and organ damage by decreasing the development of traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors. Therefore, this critical literature review discusses the therapeutic potential of nutritional approaches that could modulate the development of the main comorbidities related to CVD risk in SLE patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Outcomes)
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17 pages, 1950 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Anti-Oxinflammatory and ACE-Inhibitory Properties of Protein Hydrolysates Obtained from Edible Non-Mulberry Silkworm Pupae (Antheraea assama and Philosomia ricinii)
by Preeti Sarkar, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Erika Pambianchi, Francesca Ferrara, Raj Kumar Duary and Giuseppe Valacchi
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041035 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
Food-derived bioactive peptides (BAPs) obtained from edible insect-protein hold multiple activities promising the potential to target complex pathological mechanisms responsible for chronic health conditions such as hypertension development. In this study, enzymatic protein hydrolysates from non-mulberry edible silkworm Antheraea assama (Muga) and Philosomia [...] Read more.
Food-derived bioactive peptides (BAPs) obtained from edible insect-protein hold multiple activities promising the potential to target complex pathological mechanisms responsible for chronic health conditions such as hypertension development. In this study, enzymatic protein hydrolysates from non-mulberry edible silkworm Antheraea assama (Muga) and Philosomia ricini (Eri) pupae, specifically Alcalase (A. assama) and Papain (P. ricini) hydrolysates obtained after 60 and 240 min, exhibited the highest ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant properties. The hydrolysates’ fractions (<3, 3–10 and >10 kDa), specifically Alc_M60min_F3 (≤3 kDa) and Pap_E240min_F3 (≤3 kDa), showed the highest antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities, respectively. Further RP-HPLC purified sub-fractions F4 and F6 showed the highest ACE inhibition as well as potent anti-oxinflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated endothelial cells. Indeed, F4 and F6 ACE-inhibitory peptide fractions were effective in preventing p65 nuclear translocation after 3 h of LPS stimulation along with the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in HUVEC cells. In addition, pretreatment with F4 and F6 ACE-inhibitory peptide fractions significantly prevented the LPS-induced upregulation of COX-2 expression and IL-1β secretion, while the expression of NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2)-regulated enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO1 was induced by both peptide fractions. The derived peptides from edible pupae protein hydrolysates have potentialities to be explored as nutritional approaches against hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases. Full article
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10 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Association between Hyperactivity and SSB Consumption in Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study in China
by Yushan Zhang, Zhaohuan Gui, Nan Jiang, Xueya Pu, Meiling Liu, Yingqi Pu, Shan Huang, Shaoyi Huang and Yajun Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041034 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption has risen significantly, which may lead to various health problems. Studies about the association between SSBs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children are rare and inconsistent. We have used the two-stage cluster sampling method to select 6541 students aged [...] Read more.
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption has risen significantly, which may lead to various health problems. Studies about the association between SSBs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children are rare and inconsistent. We have used the two-stage cluster sampling method to select 6541 students aged 6–12. We further investigated their basic information and SSB intake. Teachers’ questionnaires and parents’ questionnaires were used to evaluating the hyperactive behaviors in children. We examined the associations between SSB consumption and hyperactivity index (HI) by adopting the censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) estimator. Then, we further evaluated the impacts of sex and age on the association between SSB intake and hyperactivity. Children who weekly drank SSB two or more times were associated with 0.05 (0.04, 0.07) and 0.04 (0.02, 0.06) higher scores of ln (HI+1) reported by teachers and parents, respectively, compared to non-consumers children (p for trend < 0.05). A stronger association between SSB intake and hyperactivity occurred in girls and old children. (p for interaction < 0.05). SSB intake has a positive correlation with the risk of hyperactivity in children, and the frequency of SSB consumption and hyperactivity have a dose–response relationship. Full article
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