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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 5 (March-1 2023) – 238 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The aim of this study was to assess the potential benefits of caffeine intake in protecting against the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Furthermore, we tested the effect of topical administration of caffeine on the early stages of DR in an experimental model of DR. In the cross-sectional study, a total of 144 subjects with DR and 147 individuals without DR were assessed. DR was assessed by an experienced ophthalmologist. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered. In the experimental model, a total of 20 mice were included. One drop (5 μL) of caffeine (5 mg/mL) (n = 10) or vehicle (5 μL PBS, pH 7.4) (n = 10) was randomly administered directly onto the superior corneal surface twice daily for two weeks in each eye. View this paper
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12 pages, 1463 KiB  
Article
Impact of a Low-Insulin-Stimulating Bread on Weight Development—A Real Life Randomised Controlled Trial
by Kerstin Kempf, Martin Röhling, Hubert Kolb and Stephan Martin
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051301 - 06 Mar 2023
Viewed by 19793
Abstract
The impact on body weight development is usually analysed by comparing different diet types. Our approach was to change only one component, namely bread, common to most diets. In a single-centre triple-blind randomised controlled trial the effects of two different breads on body [...] Read more.
The impact on body weight development is usually analysed by comparing different diet types. Our approach was to change only one component, namely bread, common to most diets. In a single-centre triple-blind randomised controlled trial the effects of two different breads on body weight were analyzed without further lifestyle modification. Overweight adult volunteers (n = 80) were randomised 1:1 to exchange previously consumed breads for either a rye bread from milled whole grain (control) or a medium-carbohydrate, low-insulin-stimulating bread (intervention). Pre-tests demonstrated that the two bread types strongly differed in the glucose and insulin response elicited, but had similar energy content, texture and taste. The primary endpoint was the estimated treatment difference (ETD) in change of body weight after 3 months of treatment. Whereas body weight remained unchanged in the control group (−0.1 ± 2.0 kg), significant weight reduction was observed in the intervention group (−1.8 ± 2.9 kg), with an ETD of −1.7 ± 0.2 kg (p = 0.007), that was more pronounced in participants ≥ 55 years (−2.6 ± 3.3 kg), paralleled by significant reductions in body mass index and hip circumference. Moreover, in the intervention group, the percentage of participants with significant weight loss (≥1 kg) was twice as high as in the control group (p < 0.001). No other statistically significant changes in clinical or lifestyle parameters were noted. Simply exchanging a common insulinogenic bread for a low-insulin-stimulating bread demonstrates potential to induce weight loss in overweight persons, especially those at older age. Full article
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13 pages, 698 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Oral Supplementation with a Highly-Concentrated Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Triglyceride in Patients with Keratoconus: A Randomized Controlled Preliminary Study
by Cristina Peris-Martínez, José Vicente Piá-Ludeña, María José Rog-Revert, Ester Fernández-López and Joan Carles Domingo
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051300 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
A prospective, randomized, single-center preliminary study was performed in patients with keratoconus stages I–III (Amsler–Krumeich), who received a high rich docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (1000 mg/day) supplement for 3 months versus untreated patients. One eye per patient was evaluated. Thirty-four patients were recruited (75% [...] Read more.
A prospective, randomized, single-center preliminary study was performed in patients with keratoconus stages I–III (Amsler–Krumeich), who received a high rich docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (1000 mg/day) supplement for 3 months versus untreated patients. One eye per patient was evaluated. Thirty-four patients were recruited (75% men, mean age 31 years), with 15 randomized to the control group and 19 to the DHA-treated group. Corneal topography variables and plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory status were evaluated. A panel of fatty acids in blood samples was also assessed. There were significant between-group differences in the astigmatism axis, asphericity coefficient, and intraocular pressure in favor of the DHA group. Additionally, between-group significant differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), free glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio, as well as reduced values of inflammatory markers, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) were found. These preliminary findings support the usefulness of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of DHA supplementation for targeting underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of keratoconus. Prolonged duration of DHA supplementation may be needed to detect more noticeable clinical changes in corneal topography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutrition in Eye Health)
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13 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Intake Differences in Combinations of Carbohydrate-Rich Foods in Pirapó, Republic of Paraguay
by Yuko Caballero, Konomi Matakawa, Ai Ushiwata, Tomoko Akatsuka and Noriko Sudo
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051299 - 06 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
A national strategy for obesity prevention has been promoted in Paraguay, reflecting the situation where half of adults and 23.4% of children (under 5 years old) are overweight. However, the detailed nutritional intake of the population has not yet been studied, especially in [...] Read more.
A national strategy for obesity prevention has been promoted in Paraguay, reflecting the situation where half of adults and 23.4% of children (under 5 years old) are overweight. However, the detailed nutritional intake of the population has not yet been studied, especially in rural areas. Therefore, this study aimed to identify obesity-causing factors in Pirapó by analyzing the results from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one-day weighed food records (WFRs). From June to October 2015, 433 volunteers (200 males and 233 females) completed the FFQ with 36 items and one-day WFRs. Body mass index (BMI) positively correlated with the consumption of sandwiches, hamburgers, and bread and with age and diastolic blood pressure, although pizza and fried bread (pireca) had a negative correlation in males (p < 0.05). BMI positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, whereas it negatively correlated with the consumption of cassava and rice in females (p < 0.05). The FFQ revealed that fried food with wheat flour was consumed once a day. WFRs showed that 40% of meals consisted of two or more carbohydrate-rich dishes, significantly higher in energy, lipids, and sodium than those containing only one carbohydrate-rich dish. These results imply that less oily wheat dish consumption and healthy combinations of dishes should be considered for obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption Determinants and Barriers for Healthy Eating)
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15 pages, 804 KiB  
Article
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Malnutrition and In-Hospital Death in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19
by Mona Boaz and Vered Kaufman-Shriqui
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051298 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Background: Malnutrition and increased malnutrition risk are frequently identified in hospitalized adults. The increase in hospitalization rates during the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by the documentation of adverse hospitalization outcomes in the presence of certain co-morbidities, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. It [...] Read more.
Background: Malnutrition and increased malnutrition risk are frequently identified in hospitalized adults. The increase in hospitalization rates during the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by the documentation of adverse hospitalization outcomes in the presence of certain co-morbidities, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. It was not clear whether the presence of malnutrition increased in-hospital death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Objectives: To estimate the effect of malnutrition on in-hospital mortality in adults hospitalized with COVID-19; and secondarily, to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in adults hospitalized with malnutrition during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Collaboration databases were queried using the search terms malnutrition and COVID-19 and hospitalized adults and mortality. Studies were reviewed using the 14-question Quality Assessment Tool for Studies with Diverse Designs (QATSDD) (questions appropriate for quantitative studies). Author names; date of publication; country; sample size; malnutrition prevalence; malnutrition screening/diagnostic method; number of deaths in malnourished patients; and number of deaths in adequately nourished patients were extracted. Data were analyzed using MedCalc software v20.210 (Ostend, Belgium). The Q and I2 tests were calculated; a forest plot was generated, and the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using the random effects model. Results: Of the 90 studies identified, 12 were finally included in the meta-analysis. In the random effects model, malnutrition or increased malnutrition risk increased odds of in-hospital death by more than three-fold: OR 3.43 (95% CI 2.549–4.60), p < 0.001. The pooled prevalence estimate for malnutrition or increased malnutrition risk was 52.61% (95% CI 29.50–75.14%). Discussion and Conclusions: It is clear that malnutrition is an ominous prognostic sign in patients hospitalized with COVID. This meta-analysis, which included studies from nine countries on four continents with data from 354,332 patients, is generalizable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition in Hospitalized Patients)
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15 pages, 651 KiB  
Review
Uncovering Barriers and Facilitators of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance: Insights from Qualitative Research
by Audrey Tay, Hannah Hoeksema and Rinki Murphy
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051297 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3212
Abstract
Long-term weight loss maintenance is often difficult to achieve. This review analysed qualitative data on self-perceived barriers and facilitators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance among weight loss intervention participants. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases. Qualitative studies written in [...] Read more.
Long-term weight loss maintenance is often difficult to achieve. This review analysed qualitative data on self-perceived barriers and facilitators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance among weight loss intervention participants. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases. Qualitative studies written in English and published between 2011–2021 were eligible for inclusion if they explored the perspectives and experiences of individuals who received standardised dietary and behavioural support for weight loss. Studies were excluded if weight loss was achieved through self-directed methods, only increasing physical activity, or surgical or pharmacological interventions. Fourteen studies were included, totaling 501 participants from six countries. Thematic analysis was used to identify four aggregate themes: internal factors (i.e., motivation and self-efficacy), programme-specific factors (i.e., the intervention diet), social factors (i.e., supporters and saboteurs), and environmental factors (i.e., an obesogenic environment). Our findings demonstrate that internal, social, and environmental factors all influence weight loss success, as well as the acceptability of the weight loss intervention. Future interventions may be more successful if they prioritise participant acceptability and engagement by, for example, providing tailored interventions, a structured relapse management plan, strategies to enhance autonomous motivation and emotional self-regulation, and extended contact during weight loss maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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15 pages, 2685 KiB  
Article
Effects of Caprylic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Lipids, Inflammatory Levels, and the JAK2/STAT3 Pathway in ABCA1-Deficient Mice and ABCA1 Knock-Down RAW264.7 Cells
by Xinsheng Zhang, Peng Zhang, Yinghua Liu, Zhao Liu, Qing Xu, Yong Zhang, Lu Liu, Xueyan Yang, Liya Li and Changyong Xue
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051296 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Our previous studies have found that caprylic acid (C8:0) can improve blood lipids and reduce inflammation levels and may be related to the upregulation of the p-JAK2/p-STAT3 pathway by ABCA1. This study aims to investigate the effects of C8:0 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [...] Read more.
Our previous studies have found that caprylic acid (C8:0) can improve blood lipids and reduce inflammation levels and may be related to the upregulation of the p-JAK2/p-STAT3 pathway by ABCA1. This study aims to investigate the effects of C8:0 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on lipids, inflammatory levels, and the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in ABCA1-deficient mice (ABCA1−/−) and ABCA1 knock-down (ABCA1-KD) RAW 264.7 cells. Twenty 6-week ABCA1−/− mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a high-fat diet, or a diet of 2% C8:0, 2% palmitic acid (C16:0) or 2% EPA for 8 weeks, respectively. The RAW 264.7 cells were divided into the control or control + LPS group, and the ABCA1-KD RAW 264.7 cells were divided into ABCA1-KD with LPS (LPS group), ABCA1-KD with LPS + C8:0 (C8:0 group), and ABCA1-KD with LPS + EPA (EPA group). Serum lipid profiles and inflammatory levels were measured, and ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 mRNA and protein expressions were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. Our results showed that serum lipid and inflammatory levels increased in ABCA1−/− mice (p < 0.05). After the intervention of different fatty acids in ABCA1−/− mice, TG and TNF-α were significantly lower, while MCP-1 increased significantly in the C8:0 group (p < 0.05); however, LDL-C, TC, TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels decreased significantly and IL-10 increased significantly in the EPA group (p < 0.05). In the aorta of ABCA1−/− mice, C8:0 significantly decreased p-STAT3 and p-JAK2 mRNA, while EPA significantly reduced TLR4 and NF-κBp65 mRNA. In the ABCA1-KD RAW 264.7 cells, TNF-α and MCP-1 were increased significantly and IL-10 and IL-1β were significantly decreased in the C8:0 group (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of ABCA1 and p-JAK2 were significantly higher, and the NF-κBp65 was significantly lower in the C8:0 and EPA groups (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, compared to the C8:0 group, the NF-κBp65 protein expression was significantly lower in the EPA group (p < 0.05). Our study showed that EPA had better effects than C8:0 on inhibiting inflammation and improving blood lipids in the absence of ABCA1. C8:0 may be involved mainly in inhibiting inflammation through upregulation of the ABCA1 and p-JAK2/p-STAT3 pathways, while EPA may be involved mainly in inhibiting inflammation through the TLR4/NF-κBp65 signaling pathway. The upregulation of the ABCA1 expression pathway by functional nutrients may provide research targets for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Features and Nutritional Interventions in Chronic Diseases)
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19 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Highly Processed Food Consumption and Its Association with Anthropometric, Sociodemographic, and Behavioral Characteristics in a Nationwide Sample of 2742 Japanese Adults: An Analysis Based on 8-Day Weighed Dietary Records
by Nana Shinozaki, Kentaro Murakami, Shizuko Masayasu and Satoshi Sasaki
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051295 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3524
Abstract
This cross-sectional study assessed highly processed food (HPF) consumption and its association with individual characteristics in a nationwide sample of Japanese adults. Eight-day weighed dietary records were obtained from 2742 free-living adults aged 18–79 years across Japan. HPFs were identified based on a [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study assessed highly processed food (HPF) consumption and its association with individual characteristics in a nationwide sample of Japanese adults. Eight-day weighed dietary records were obtained from 2742 free-living adults aged 18–79 years across Japan. HPFs were identified based on a classification method developed by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The basic characteristics of the participants were assessed using a questionnaire. On average, HPF contributed to 27.9% of daily energy intake. The contribution of HPF to the daily intake of 31 nutrients ranged from 5.7% for vitamin C to 99.8% for alcohol (median, 19.9%). Cereals and starchy foods were the main food groups that contributed to the total energy intake of HPF. Multiple regression analysis showed that the older group (60–79 years) had a lower HPF energy contribution than the younger group (18–39 y) (regression coefficient (β) = −3.55, p < 0.0001). Compared to current smokers, past and never-smokers had lower HPF energy contributions (β = −1.41, p < 0.02; and −4.20, p < 0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, HPFs account for approximately one-third of energy intake in Japan. Younger age and current smoking status should be considered in future intervention strategies to reduce HPF consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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16 pages, 754 KiB  
Review
Benefits of Whey Proteins on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Parameters and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases
by Jean-François Lesgards
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051294 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6923
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and it is a major risk factor for the early onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). More than genetics, food, physical activity, walkability, and air pollution are lifestyle factors, which have [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and it is a major risk factor for the early onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). More than genetics, food, physical activity, walkability, and air pollution are lifestyle factors, which have the greatest impact on T2DM. Certain diets have been shown to be associated with lower T2DM and cardiovascular risk. Diminishing added sugar and processed fats and increasing antioxidant-rich vegetable and fruit intake has often been highlighted, as in the Mediterranean diet. However, less is known about the interest of proteins in low-fat dairy and whey in particular, which have great potential to improve T2DM and could be used safely as a part of a multi-target strategy. This review discusses all the biochemical and clinical aspects of the benefits of high-quality whey, which is now considered a functional food, for prevention and improvement of T2DM and CVDs by insulin- and non-insulin-dependent mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods for Metabolism Regulation and Disease Improvement)
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22 pages, 4699 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Synbiotic on Plasma Immune Activity Markers and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Children and Adults with ADHD—A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Liu L. Yang, Miranda Stiernborg, Elin Skott, Jingjing Xu, Yujiao Wu, Rikard Landberg, Samsul Arefin, Karolina Kublickiene, Vincent Millischer, Ida A. K. Nilsson, Martin Schalling, MaiBritt Giacobini and Catharina Lavebratt
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051293 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3196
Abstract
Synbiotic 2000, a pre + probiotic, reduced comorbid autistic traits and emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. Immune activity and bacteria-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are microbiota–gut–brain axis mediators. The aim was to investigate Synbiotic 2000 effects on plasma levels [...] Read more.
Synbiotic 2000, a pre + probiotic, reduced comorbid autistic traits and emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. Immune activity and bacteria-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are microbiota–gut–brain axis mediators. The aim was to investigate Synbiotic 2000 effects on plasma levels of immune activity markers and SCFAs in children and adults with ADHD. ADHD patients (n = 182) completed the 9-week intervention with Synbiotic 2000 or placebo and 156 provided blood samples. Healthy adult controls (n = 57) provided baseline samples. At baseline, adults with ADHD had higher pro-inflammatory sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and lower SCFA levels than controls. Children with ADHD had higher baseline sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-2Rα, and lower formic, acetic, and propionic acid levels than adults with ADHD. sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and propionic acid levels were more abnormal in children on medication. Synbiotic 2000, compared to placebo, reduced IL-12/IL-23p40 and sICAM-1 and increased propionic acid levels in children on medication. SCFAs correlated negatively with sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. Preliminary human aortic smooth-muscle-cell experiments indicated that SCFAs protected against IL-1β-induced ICAM-1 expression. These findings suggest that treatment with Synbiotic 2000 reduces IL12/IL-23p40 and sICAM-1 and increases propionic acid levels in children with ADHD. Propionic acid, together with formic and acetic acid, may contribute to the lowering of the higher-than-normal sICAM-1 levels. Full article
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14 pages, 712 KiB  
Article
Noninvasive Ventilation and Rapid Enteral Feeding Advances in Preterm Infants—2-Year Follow-Up of the STENA-Cohort
by Judith Behnke, Vanessa Estreich, Frank Oehmke, Bernd Axel Neubauer, Anita Windhorst and Harald Ehrhardt
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051292 - 06 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1867
Abstract
The importance of nutritional supply for somatic growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in very-low-birthweight infants is an established medical strategy for reducing long-term morbidities. Our cohort study on rapid enteral feeding advances using a standardized protocol (STENA) previously demonstrated a 4-day reduction of parenteral [...] Read more.
The importance of nutritional supply for somatic growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in very-low-birthweight infants is an established medical strategy for reducing long-term morbidities. Our cohort study on rapid enteral feeding advances using a standardized protocol (STENA) previously demonstrated a 4-day reduction of parenteral nutrition. STENA did not impede the success of noninvasive ventilations strategies but significantly less infants required mechanical ventilation. Most importantly, STENA resulted in improved somatic growth at 36 weeks of gestation. Here, we evaluated our cohort for psychomotor outcomes and somatic growth at 2 years of age. n = 218 infants of the original cohort were followed-up (74.4%). Z-scores for weight and length did not differ but the benefits of STENA for head circumference persisted until the age of 2 years (p = 0.034). Concerning the psychomotor outcome, we neither found any statistically significant differences in the mental developmental index (MDI) (p = 0.738), norin the psychomotor developmental index (PDI) (p = 0.122). In conclusion, our data adds important insights on the topic of rapid enteral feeding advances and confirms the safety of STENA with respect to somatic growth and psychomotor outcome measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children)
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10 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
Effects of Undernutrition on Swallowing Function and Activities of Daily Living in Hospitalized Patients: Data from the Japanese Sarcopenic Dysphagia Database
by Sayaka Abe, Yoji Kokura, Keisuke Maeda, Shinta Nishioka, Ryo Momosaki, Hiroki Matsuoka, Yasuomi Tomii, Shinnosuke Sugita, Kenta Shimizu, Nanami Esashi and Hidetaka Wakabayashi
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051291 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study examined the effects of undernutrition on swallowing function and activities of daily living in hospitalized patients. Data from the Japanese Sarcopenic Dysphagia Database were used, and hospitalized patients aged ≥20 years with dysphagia were included in the analysis. Participants [...] Read more.
This retrospective cohort study examined the effects of undernutrition on swallowing function and activities of daily living in hospitalized patients. Data from the Japanese Sarcopenic Dysphagia Database were used, and hospitalized patients aged ≥20 years with dysphagia were included in the analysis. Participants were assigned to the undernutrition or normal nutritional status group based on the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition criteria. The primary outcome was the Food Intake Level Scale change, and the secondary outcome was the Barthel Index change. Among 440 residents, 281 (64%) were classified under the undernutrition group. The undernutrition group had a significantly higher Food Intake Level Scale score at baseline and Food Intake Level Scale change (p = 0.001) than the normal nutritional status group. Undernutrition was independently associated with the Food Intake Level Scale change (B = −0.633, 95% confidence interval = −1.099 to −0.167) and the Barthel Index change (B = −8.414, 95% confidence interval = −13.089 to −3.739). This was defined as the period from the date of admission to the hospital until discharge or 3 months later. Overall, our findings indicate that undernutrition is associated with reduced improvement in swallowing function and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation Nutrition in Older People)
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15 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Association between Antibiotic Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-Aged and Older Adults
by Lei Chu, Deqi Su, Hexing Wang, Dilihumaer Aili, Bahegu Yimingniyazi, Qingwu Jiang and Jianghong Dai
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051290 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Background: Although previous studies have shown an association between clinically used antibiotics and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between antibiotic exposure from food and drinking water and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older adults is unclear. ObjectivE: This study was aimed at [...] Read more.
Background: Although previous studies have shown an association between clinically used antibiotics and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between antibiotic exposure from food and drinking water and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older adults is unclear. ObjectivE: This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between antibiotic exposures from different sources and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older people, through urinary antibiotic biomonitoring. MethodS: A total of 525 adults who were 45–75 years of age were recruited from Xinjiang in 2019. The total urinary concentrations of 18 antibiotics in five classes (tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulfonamides and chloramphenicol) commonly used in daily life were measured via isotope dilution ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The antibiotics included four human antibiotics, four veterinary antibiotics and ten preferred veterinary antibiotics. The hazard quotient (HQ) of each antibiotic and the hazard index (HI) based on the mode of antibiotic use and effect endpoint classification were also calculated. Type 2 diabetes was defined on the basis of international levels. Results: The overall detection rate of the 18 antibiotics in middle-aged and older adults was 51.0%. The concentration, daily exposure dose, HQ, and HI were relatively high in participants with type 2 diabetes. After model adjustment for covariates, participants with HI > 1 for microbial effects (OR = 3.442, 95%CI: 1.423–8.327), HI > 1 for preferred veterinary antibiotic use (OR = 3.348, 95%CI: 1.386–8.083), HQ > 1 for norfloxacin (OR = 10.511, 96%CI: 1.571–70.344) and HQ > 1 for ciprofloxacin (OR = 6.565, 95%CI: 1.676–25.715) had a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: Certain antibiotic exposures, mainly those from sources associated with food and drinking water, generate health risks and are associated with type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older adults. Because of this study’s cross-sectional design, additional prospective studies and experimental studies are needed to validate these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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10 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity, Transition to Metabolically Unhealthy Status and Cognitive Function: Results from the Framingham Offspring Study
by Matina Kouvari, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Thomas Tsiampalis, Manja Zec, Domenico Sergi, Nikolaj Travica, Wolfgang Marx, Andrew J. McKune, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos and Nenad Naumovski
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051289 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Aims: To evaluate the association between metabolically healthy overweight/obesity (MHO) status and longitudinal cognitive function while also considering the stability of the condition. Methods: In total, 2892 participants (mean age 60.7 (9.4) years) from Framingham Offspring Study completed health assessments every four years [...] Read more.
Aims: To evaluate the association between metabolically healthy overweight/obesity (MHO) status and longitudinal cognitive function while also considering the stability of the condition. Methods: In total, 2892 participants (mean age 60.7 (9.4) years) from Framingham Offspring Study completed health assessments every four years since 1971. Neuropsychological testing was repeated every four years starting from 1999 (Exam 7) to 2014 (Exam 9) (mean follow-up: 12.9 (3.5) years). Standardized neuropsychological tests were constructed into three factor scores (general cognitive performance, memory, processing speed/executive function). Healthy metabolic status was defined as the absence of all NCEP ATP III (2005) criteria (excluding waist circumference). MHO participants who scored positively for one or more of NCEP ATPIII parameters in the follow-up period were defined as unresilient MHO. Results: No significant difference on the change in cognitive function over time was observed between MHO and metabolically healthy normal weight (MHN) individuals (all p > 0.05). However, a lower processing speed/executive functioning scale score was observed in unresilient MHO participants compared to resilient MHO participants (β = −0.76; 95% CI = −1.44, −0.08; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Retaining a healthy metabolic status over time represents a more important discriminant in shaping cognitive function compared to body weight alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
19 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Application of a New Carbohydrate Food Quality Scoring System: An Expert Panel Report
by Kevin B. Comerford, Adam Drewnowski, Yanni Papanikolaou, Julie Miller Jones, Joanne Slavin, Siddhartha S. Angadi and Judith Rodriguez
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051288 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3814
Abstract
Carbohydrate foods (≥40% energy from carbohydrates) are the main source of energy in the US diet. In contrast to national-level dietary guidance, many regularly consumed carbohydrate foods are low in fiber and whole grains but high in added sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat. [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate foods (≥40% energy from carbohydrates) are the main source of energy in the US diet. In contrast to national-level dietary guidance, many regularly consumed carbohydrate foods are low in fiber and whole grains but high in added sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat. Given the important contribution of higher-quality carbohydrate foods to affordable healthy diets, new metrics are needed to convey the concept of carbohydrate quality to policymakers, food industry stakeholders, health professionals, and consumers. The recently developed Carbohydrate Food Quality Scoring System is well aligned with multiple key healthy messages on nutrients of public health concern from the 2020–2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Two models are described in a previously published paper: one for all non-grain carbohydrate-rich foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables, legumes) known as the Carbohydrate Food Quality Score-4 (CFQS-4), and one for grain foods only known as the Carbohydrate Food Quality Score-5 (CFQS-5). These CFQS models provide a new tool that can guide policy, programs, and people towards improved carbohydrate food choices. Specifically, the CFQS models represent a way to unify and reconcile diverse ways to describe different types of carbohydrate-rich foods (e.g., refined vs. whole, starchy vs. non-starchy, dark green vs. red/orange) and make for more useful and informative messaging that better aligns with a food’s nutritional and/or health contributions. The present paper’s aims are to show that the CFQS models can inform future dietary guidelines and help support carbohydrate food recommendations with other health messages aimed at promoting foods that are nutrient-dense, fiber-rich, and low in added sugar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
15 pages, 321 KiB  
Review
Assessing the Use of Social Cognitive Theory Components in Cooking and Food Skills Interventions
by Paola Gordillo and Melissa Pflugh Prescott
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051287 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4498
Abstract
Increased cooking skill development may reduce the risk of disease and promote healthy eating behaviors in the home. The social cognitive theory (SCT) is one of the most common theories used in cooking and food skill interventions. This narrative review aims to understand [...] Read more.
Increased cooking skill development may reduce the risk of disease and promote healthy eating behaviors in the home. The social cognitive theory (SCT) is one of the most common theories used in cooking and food skill interventions. This narrative review aims to understand how commonly each SCT component is implemented in cooking interventions, as well as identifying which components are associated with positive outcomes. The literature review was conducted using three databases: PubMed, Web of Science (FSTA and CAB), and CINHAL, yielding thirteen included research articles. None of the studies in this review comprehensively included all SCT components; at most, five of the seven were defined. The most prevalent SCT components were behavioral capability, self-efficacy, and observational learning, and the least implemented component was expectations. All studies included in this review yielded positive outcomes for cooking self-efficacy and frequency, except for two studies with null outcomes. Findings from this review suggest that the SCT may not be fully realized, and future studies should continue to define how theory influences intervention design for adult cooking interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
14 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Obesity, Exercise Preferences, and Related Social Cognitive Theory Variables among Breast Cancer Survivors
by Nashira I. Brown, Dorothy W. Pekmezi, Robert A. Oster, Kerry S. Courneya, Edward McAuley, Diane K. Ehlers, Siobhan M. Phillips, Philip Anton and Laura Q. Rogers
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051286 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
Breast cancer survivors with obesity have an increased risk of cancer recurrence, second malignancy, and comorbidities. Though physical activity (PA) interventions are needed, investigation of the relationships between obesity and factors influencing PA program aspects among cancer survivors remain understudied. Thus, we conducted [...] Read more.
Breast cancer survivors with obesity have an increased risk of cancer recurrence, second malignancy, and comorbidities. Though physical activity (PA) interventions are needed, investigation of the relationships between obesity and factors influencing PA program aspects among cancer survivors remain understudied. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study examining associations amongst baseline body mass index (BMI), PA program preferences, PA, cardiorespiratory fitness, and related social cognitive theory variables (self-efficacy, exercise barriers interference, social support, positive and negative outcome expectations) from a randomized controlled PA trial with 320 post-treatment breast cancer survivors. BMI was significantly correlated with exercise barriers interference (r = 0.131, p = 0.019). Higher BMI was significantly associated with preference to exercise at a facility (p = 0.038), lower cardiorespiratory fitness (p < 0.001), lower walking self-efficacy (p < 0.001), and higher negative outcome expectations (p = 0.024), independent of covariates (comorbidity score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index score, income, race, education). Those with class I/II obesity reported a higher negative outcome expectations score compared with class III. Location, walking self-efficacy, barriers, negative outcome expectations, and fitness should be considered when designing future PA programs among breast cancer survivors with obesity. Full article
16 pages, 879 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lactoferrin on Clinical Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: The LAC Randomized Clinical Trial
by Erica Matino, Elena Tavella, Manuela Rizzi, Gian Carlo Avanzi, Danila Azzolina, Antonio Battaglia, Paolo Becco, Mattia Bellan, Giovanni Bertinieri, Massimo Bertoletti, Giuseppe Francesco Casciaro, Luigi Mario Castello, Umberto Colageo, Donato Colangelo, Davide Comolli, Martina Costanzo, Alessandro Croce, Davide D’Onghia, Francesco Della Corte, Luigi De Mitri, Valentina Dodaro, Filippo Givone, Alessia Gravina, Luca Grillenzoni, Graziano Gusmaroli, Raffaella Landi, Anna Lingua, Roberto Manzoni, Vito Marinoni, Bianca Masturzo, Rosalba Minisini, Marina Morello, Anna Nelva, Elena Ortone, Rita Paolella, Giuseppe Patti, Anita Pedrinelli, Mario Pirisi, Lidia Ravizzi, Eleonora Rizzi, Daniele Sola, Mariolina Sola, Nadir Tonello, Stelvio Tonello, Gigliola Topazzo, Aldo Tua, Piera Valenti, Rosanna Vaschetto, Veronica Vassia, Erika Zecca, Nicoletta Zublena, Paolo Manzoni and Pier Paolo Sainaghiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051285 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2978
Abstract
As lactoferrin is a nutritional supplement with proven antiviral and immunomodulatory abilities, it may be used to improve the clinical course of COVID-19. The clinical efficacy and safety of bovine lactoferrin were evaluated in the LAC randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. A total of [...] Read more.
As lactoferrin is a nutritional supplement with proven antiviral and immunomodulatory abilities, it may be used to improve the clinical course of COVID-19. The clinical efficacy and safety of bovine lactoferrin were evaluated in the LAC randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. A total of 218 hospitalized adult patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were randomized to receive 800 mg/die oral bovine lactoferrin (n = 113) or placebo (n = 105), both given in combination with standard COVID-19 therapy. No differences in lactoferrin vs. placebo were observed in the primary outcomes: the proportion of death or intensive care unit admission (risk ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.63–1.79)) or proportion of discharge or National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) ≤ 2 within 14 days from enrollment (RR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.70–1.04)). Lactoferrin showed an excellent safety and tolerability profile. Even though bovine lactoferrin is safe and tolerable, our results do not support its use in hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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13 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
An 8-Week Peer Health Coaching Intervention among College Students: A Pilot Randomized Study
by Zi Yan, Jessica Peacock, Juliana F. W. Cohen, Laura Kurdziel, Sarah Benes, Seungbin Oh and April Bowling
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051284 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2729
Abstract
This study explored the effects of an 8-week peer coaching program on physical activity (PA), diet, sleep, social isolation, and mental health among college students in the United States. A total of 52 college students were recruited and randomized to the coaching (n [...] Read more.
This study explored the effects of an 8-week peer coaching program on physical activity (PA), diet, sleep, social isolation, and mental health among college students in the United States. A total of 52 college students were recruited and randomized to the coaching (n = 28) or the control group (n = 24). The coaching group met with a trained peer health coach once a week for 8 weeks focusing on self-selected wellness domains. Coaching techniques included reflective listening, motivational interviews, and goal setting. The control group received a wellness handbook. PA, self-efficacy for eating healthy foods, quality of sleep, social isolation, positive affect and well-being, anxiety, and cognitive function were measured. No interaction effects between time and group were significant for the overall intervention group (all p > 0.05), while the main effects of group difference on moderate PA and total PA were significant (p < 0.05). Goal-specific analysis showed that, compared to the control group, those who had a PA goal significantly increased vigorous PA Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs) (p < 0.05). The vigorous METs for the PA goal group increased from 1013.33 (SD = 1055.12) to 1578.67 (SD = 1354.09); the control group decreased from 1012.94 (SD = 1322.943) to 682.11 (SD = 754.89); having a stress goal significantly predicted a higher post-coaching positive affect and well-being, controlling the pre-score and other demographic factors: B = 0.37 and p < 0.05. Peer coaching showed a promising effect on improving PA and positive affect and well-being among college students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Behaviors and Obesity)
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20 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
The Emerging Prevalence of Obesity within Families in Europe and its Associations with Family Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle Factors; A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Baseline Data from the Feel4Diabetes Study
by George Siopis, George Moschonis, Kyriakos Reppas, Violeta Iotova, Yuliya Bazdarska, Nevena Chakurova, Imre Rurik, Anette Si Radó, Greet Cardon, Marieke De Craemer, Katja Wikström, Päivi Valve, Luis A. Moreno, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Stavros Liatis, Yannis Manios and on behalf of the Feel4Diabetes-Study Group
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051283 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
The Feel4Diabetes study is a type 2 diabetes prevention program that recruited 12,193 children [age: 8.20 (±1.01) years] and their parents from six European countries. The current work used pre-intervention data collected from 9576 children–parents pairs, to develop a novel family obesity variable [...] Read more.
The Feel4Diabetes study is a type 2 diabetes prevention program that recruited 12,193 children [age: 8.20 (±1.01) years] and their parents from six European countries. The current work used pre-intervention data collected from 9576 children–parents pairs, to develop a novel family obesity variable and to examine its associations with family sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Family obesity, defined as the presence of obesity in at least two family members, had a prevalence of 6.6%. Countries under austerity measures (Greece and Spain) displayed higher prevalence (7.6%), compared to low-income (Bulgaria and Hungary: 7%) and high-income countries (Belgium and Finland: 4.5%). Family obesity odds were significantly lower when mothers (OR: 0.42 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.55]) or fathers (0.72 [95% CI: 0.57, 0.92]) had higher education, mothers were fully (0.67 [95% CI: 0.56, 0.81]) or partially employed (0.60 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81]), families consumed breakfast more often (0.94 [95% CI: 0.91 0.96]), more portions of vegetables (0.90 [95% CI: 0.86, 0.95]), fruits (0.96 [95% CI: 0.92, 0.99]) and wholegrain cereals (0.72 [95% CI: 0.62, 0.83]), and for more physically active families (0.96 [95% CI: 0.93, 0.98]). Family obesity odds increased when mothers were older (1.50 [95% CI: 1.18, 1.91]), with the consumption of savoury snacks (1.11 [95% CI: 1.05, 1.17]), and increased screen time (1.05 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.09]). Clinicians should familiarise themselves with the risk factors for family obesity and choose interventions that target the whole family. Future research should explore the causal basis of the reported associations to facilitate devising tailored family-based interventions for obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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12 pages, 716 KiB  
Article
Prospective Study of Diet Quality and the Risk of Dementia in the Oldest Old
by Ashley C. Flores, Gordon L. Jensen, Diane C. Mitchell, Muzi Na, G. Craig Wood, Christopher D. Still and Xiang Gao
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051282 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
This study examined the associations between overall diet quality and the risk of dementia in a rural cohort among the oldest old. Included in this prospective cohort study were 2232 participants aged 80 years and dementia-free at the baseline according to the [...] Read more.
This study examined the associations between overall diet quality and the risk of dementia in a rural cohort among the oldest old. Included in this prospective cohort study were 2232 participants aged 80 years and dementia-free at the baseline according to the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS), a longitudinal cohort in rural Pennsylvania. In 2009, diet quality was assessed by a validated dietary screening tool (DST). Incident cases of dementia during 2009–2021 were identified using diagnosis codes. This approach was validated by a review of electronic health records. Associations between diet quality scores and the incidence of dementia were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for potential confounders. Across a mean of 6.90 years of follow-up, we identified 408 incident cases of all-cause dementia. Having a higher diet quality was not significantly associated with a lower risk for incidents of all-cause dementia (adjusted HR for the highest compared with the lowest tertile: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.29, P-trend = 0.95). Similarly, we did not observe a significant association between diet quality and altered risks of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Overall, having a higher diet quality was not significantly associated with a lower risk of dementia among the oldest old during the full follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cognition Ageing)
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26 pages, 9093 KiB  
Article
Exposure to Obesogenic Environments during Perinatal Development Modulates Offspring Energy Balance Pathways in Adipose Tissue and Liver of Rodent Models
by Diana Sousa, Mariana Rocha, Andreia Amaro, Marcos Divino Ferreira-Junior, Keilah Valéria Naves Cavalcante, Tamaeh Monteiro-Alfredo, Cátia Barra, Daniela Rosendo-Silva, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, José Magalhães, Armando Caseiro, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Susana P. Pereira, Paulo J. Oliveira, Rodrigo Mello Gomes and Paulo Matafome
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051281 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
Obesogenic environments such as Westernized diets, overnutrition, and exposure to glycation during gestation and lactation can alter peripheral neuroendocrine factors in offspring, predisposing for metabolic diseases in adulthood. Thus, we hypothesized that exposure to obesogenic environments during the perinatal period reprograms offspring energy [...] Read more.
Obesogenic environments such as Westernized diets, overnutrition, and exposure to glycation during gestation and lactation can alter peripheral neuroendocrine factors in offspring, predisposing for metabolic diseases in adulthood. Thus, we hypothesized that exposure to obesogenic environments during the perinatal period reprograms offspring energy balance mechanisms. Four rat obesogenic models were studied: maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO); early-life obesity induced by postnatal overfeeding; maternal glycation; and postnatal overfeeding combined with maternal glycation. Metabolic parameters, energy expenditure, and storage pathways in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the liver were analyzed. Maternal DIO increased VAT lipogenic [NPY receptor-1 (NPY1R), NPY receptor-2 (NPY2R), and ghrelin receptor], but also lipolytic/catabolic mechanisms [dopamine-1 receptor (D1R) and p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)] in male offspring, while reducing NPY1R in females. Postnatally overfed male animals only exhibited higher NPY2R levels in VAT, while females also presented NPY1R and NPY2R downregulation. Maternal glycation reduces VAT expandability by decreasing NPY2R in overfed animals. Regarding the liver, D1R was decreased in all obesogenic models, while overfeeding induced fat accumulation in both sexes and glycation the inflammatory infiltration. The VAT response to maternal DIO and overfeeding showed a sexual dysmorphism, and exposure to glycotoxins led to a thin-outside-fat-inside phenotype in overfeeding conditions and impaired energy balance, increasing the metabolic risk in adulthood. Full article
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11 pages, 557 KiB  
Article
What Has Changed over Years on Complementary Feeding in Italy: An Update
by Marco Congiu, Valeria Cimador, Irene Bettini, Teresa Rongai, Flavio Labriola, Francesca Sbravati, Caterina Marcato and Patrizia Alvisi
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051280 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Current practice regarding complementary feeding (CF) is influenced by socio-cultural background. Our group already investigated the Italian approach to CF in the years 2015–2017. Our aim was to update those data by finding out: if the habits have changed nationwide, how the trends [...] Read more.
Current practice regarding complementary feeding (CF) is influenced by socio-cultural background. Our group already investigated the Italian approach to CF in the years 2015–2017. Our aim was to update those data by finding out: if the habits have changed nationwide, how the trends changed in each area, and if the differences between regions still exist. We devised and submitted to Italian primary care paediatricians (PCP) a questionnaire consisting of four items regarding the suggestions they gave to families about CF and compared the results to the ones from our previous survey. We collected 595 responses. Traditional weaning was the most recommended method, with a significant reduction compared to the period of 2015–2017 (41% vs. 60%); conversely, the proportion of PCP endorsing baby-led weaning (BLW) or traditional spoon-feeding with adult food tastings has increased, while the endorsement of commercial baby foods dropped. BLW is still more popular in the North and Centre compared to the South (24.9%, 22.3%, and 16.7%, respectively). The age to start CF and the habit of giving written information have not changed over time. Our results highlighted that Italian paediatricians encourage BLW and traditional CF with adult tastings more than in the past, at the expense of traditional spoon-feeding. Full article
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13 pages, 886 KiB  
Article
Delayed Macronutrients’ Target Achievement in Parenteral Nutrition Reduces the Risk of Hyperglycemia in Preterm Newborn: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Maria Di Chiara, Gianluigi Laccetta, Daniela Regoli, Lucia Dito, Caterina Spiriti, Benedetta De Santis, Elisa Travaglia, Rita Prota, Pasquale Parisi, Roberto Brunelli, Giovanni Boscarino and Gianluca Terrin
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051279 - 04 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Hyperglycemia (HG) is an independent risk factor of mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Achievement of high nutritional intakes in the first days of life (DoL) by parenteral nutrition (PN) increases the risk of HG. We aim to assess [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia (HG) is an independent risk factor of mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Achievement of high nutritional intakes in the first days of life (DoL) by parenteral nutrition (PN) increases the risk of HG. We aim to assess if a delayed achievement of the PN macronutrient target dose could reduce the occurrence of HG in VLBW. We enrolled 353 VLBW neonates in a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing two PN protocols that differed in the timing of energy and amino acid target dose achievement: (1) early target dose achievement (energy within 4–5 DoL; amino acids within 3–4 DoL) vs. (2) late target dose achievement (energy within 10–12 DoL; amino acids within 5–7 DoL). The primary outcome was the occurrence of HG during the first week of life. An additional endpoint was long-term body growth. We observed a significant difference in the rate of HG between the two groups (30.7% vs. 12.2%, p = 0.003). Significant differences were observed in terms of body growth at 12 months of life between the two groups (weight Z-Score: −0.86 vs. 0.22, p = 0.025; length: −1.29 vs. 0.55, p < 0.001). Delayed achievement of energy and amino acid intake may be useful to reduce the risk of HG along with an increase of growth parameters in VLBW neonates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding in Preterm Infants)
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11 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
Breastfeeding Is Associated with Higher Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in a Spanish Population of Preschoolers: The SENDO Project
by Asier Oliver Olid, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Jose Manuel Moreno-Villares, Maria del Mar Bibiloni, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Víctor de la O, Alejandro Fernandez-Montero and Nerea Martín-Calvo
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051278 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3511
Abstract
Objective: To assess whether breastfeeding during the first months of life is associated with adherence to the Mediterranean dietary (MedDiet) pattern in preschool children. Design: The Seguimiento del Niño para un Desarrollo Óptimo (SENDO) project is an ongoing pediatric cohort with open recruitment, [...] Read more.
Objective: To assess whether breastfeeding during the first months of life is associated with adherence to the Mediterranean dietary (MedDiet) pattern in preschool children. Design: The Seguimiento del Niño para un Desarrollo Óptimo (SENDO) project is an ongoing pediatric cohort with open recruitment, started in 2015 in Spain. Participants, recruited when they are 4 to 5 years old at their primary local health center or school, are followed annually through online questionnaires. For this study, 941 SENDO participants with full data on study variables were included. Breastfeeding history was collected retrospectively at baseline. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with the KIDMED index (range −3 to 12). Results: After accounting for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders, including parental attitudes and knowledge about dietary recommendations for children, breastfeeding was independently associated with a higher adherence to the MedDiet. Compared with children who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months had a one-point increase on their mean KIDMED score (Mean difference +0.93, 95%confidence interval [CI]. 0.52–1.34, p for trend <0.001). The odds ratio of high adherence to the MedDiet (KIDMED index ≥8) was 2.94 (95%CI 1.50–5.36) in children who were breastfed for at least 6 months, as compared to their peers who were never breastfeed. Children who were breastfed for less than 6 months exhibited intermediate levels of adherence (p for trend <0.01). Conclusion: Breastfeeding for 6 months or longer is associated with a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet during the preschool years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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13 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Early-Life Slow Enteral Feeding Progression Pattern Is Associated with Longitudinal Head-Size Growth Faltering and Neurodevelopmental Impairment Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants
by Yung-Chieh Lin, Chi-Hsiang Chu, Yen-Ju Chen, Ray-Bing Chen and Chao-Ching Huang
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051277 - 04 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Objective: To determine whether feeding progression patterns in the first eight postnatal weeks, depicted by clustering analysis of daily enteral feeding volume, are associated with longitudinal head-circumference (HC) growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely preterm (EP) infants. Methods: 200 infants who were admitted [...] Read more.
Objective: To determine whether feeding progression patterns in the first eight postnatal weeks, depicted by clustering analysis of daily enteral feeding volume, are associated with longitudinal head-circumference (HC) growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely preterm (EP) infants. Methods: 200 infants who were admitted at gestational ages 23–27 weeks between 2011 and 2018; survived to discharge; and underwent longitudinal HC growth measurements at birth, term-equivalent age (TEA), corrected age (CA) 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month; and neurodevelopmental assessment using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at CA 24 months were included for analysis. Results: kmlShape analysis identified two distinct enteral feeding progression patterns: fast progression in 131 (66%) infants and slow progression in 69 (34%) infants. Compared to the fast progression group, the slow progression group showed significantly lower daily enteral volumes after day 13, was older in postnatal age reaching full feeding, had a higher rate of Delta z scores of HC (zHC) < −1 (p < 0.001) between birth and TEA, and displayed lower longitudinal zHC from TEA to CA 24 months. The slow progression group also showed higher rates of microcephaly [42% vs. 16%, p < 0.001; adjusted odd ratio (aOR): 3.269, p = 0.001] and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) (38% vs. 19%, p = 0.007; aOR: 2.095, p = 0.035) at CA 24 months. For NDI, the model including feeding progression patterns showed a lower Akaike information criterion score and a better goodness of fit than the model that did not include feeding patterns. Conclusion: Characterizing feeding progression pattern may help identify EP infants at high-risk of head-size growth faltering and NDI at early childhood. Full article
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21 pages, 4755 KiB  
Article
Citrus × paradisi L. Fruit Waste: The Impact of Eco-Friendly Extraction Techniques on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Potential
by Jolita Stabrauskiene, Mindaugas Marksa, Liudas Ivanauskas, Pranas Viskelis, Jonas Viskelis and Jurga Bernatoniene
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051276 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2462
Abstract
Citrus fruits have been the subject of extensive research over the years due to their impressive antioxidant properties, the health benefits of flavanones, and their potential use in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Grapefruit have been shown in studies to improve [...] Read more.
Citrus fruits have been the subject of extensive research over the years due to their impressive antioxidant properties, the health benefits of flavanones, and their potential use in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Grapefruit have been shown in studies to improve overall health, with numerous potential benefits, including improved heart health, reduced risk of certain cancers, improved digestive health, and improved immune system function. The development of cyclodextrin complexes is an exciting approach to increasing the content of flavanones such as naringin and naringenin in the extraction medium while improving the profile of beneficial phenolic compounds and the antioxidant profile. This research aims to optimize the extraction conditions of the flavanones naringin and naringenin with additional compounds to increase their yield from different parts of grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi L.) fruits, such as albedo and segmental membranes. In addition, the total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts produced conventionally and with -cyclodextrin was examined and compared. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured using the radical scavenging activity assay (ABTS), radical scavenging activity assay (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The yield of naringin increased from 10.53 ± 0.52 mg/g to 45.56 ± 5.06 mg/g to 51.11 ± 7.63 mg/g of the segmental membrane when cyclodextrins (α, β-CD) were used; naringenin increased from 65.85 ± 10.96 μg/g to 91.19 ± 15.19 μg/g of the segmental membrane when cyclodextrins (α, β-CD) were used. Furthermore, the results showed that cyclodextrin-assisted extraction had a significant impact in significantly increasing the yield of flavanones from grapefruit. In addition, the process was more efficient and less expensive, resulting in higher yields of flavanones with a lower concentration of ethanol and effort. This shows that cyclodextrin-assisted extraction is an excellent method for extracting valuable compounds from grapefruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Natural Products in Health)
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14 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Use of Caffeine-Containing Energy Drinks by Japanese Middle School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study of Related Factors
by Satoko Yamasaki, Hiromi Kawasaki and Zhengai Cui
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051275 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2088
Abstract
Excessive consumption of caffeine negatively affects individuals’ health. Therefore, we studied the use of energy drinks and the conditions associated with it among Japanese secondary school students. Participants were 236 students in grades 7–9 who completed anonymous questionnaires at home in July 2018. [...] Read more.
Excessive consumption of caffeine negatively affects individuals’ health. Therefore, we studied the use of energy drinks and the conditions associated with it among Japanese secondary school students. Participants were 236 students in grades 7–9 who completed anonymous questionnaires at home in July 2018. We measured the basic attributes and dietary, sleeping, and exercise habits. We used Chi-squared tests to compare differences between users and non-users of energy drinks. Logistic regression analyses were used to elucidate the complex association between the variables. The results showed that boys were more willing to consume energy drinks than girls. The reasons were ‘feeling fatigued’, ‘needing to stay awake’, ‘for curiosity’, and ‘to quench one’s thirst’. Among boys, the following were associated with the use of EDs. Buying their own snacks , not understanding nutritional labels on foods, high caffeinated beverage intake, late bed-times on weekdays, always waking up at about the same time, and weight. Health guidance is needed to prevent overconsumption and dependence on energy drinks. The cooperation of parents and teachers is needed to achieve these goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School-Based Eating Interventions—Are Students Eating Healthily?)
12 pages, 17883 KiB  
Article
Association between Intra- and Extra-Cellular Water Ratio Imbalance and Natriuretic Peptides in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis
by Yui Nakayama, Yosuke Yamada, Shingo Ishii, Mai Hitaka, Keisuke Yamazaki, Motoyuki Masai, Nobuhiko Joki, Ken Sakai and Yasushi Ohashi
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051274 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Natriuretic peptides are associated with malnutrition and volume overload. Over-hydration cannot simply be explained by excess extracellular water in patients undergoing hemodialysis. We assessed the relationship between the extracellular and intracellular water (ECW/ICW) ratio, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), human atrial natriuretic [...] Read more.
Natriuretic peptides are associated with malnutrition and volume overload. Over-hydration cannot simply be explained by excess extracellular water in patients undergoing hemodialysis. We assessed the relationship between the extracellular and intracellular water (ECW/ICW) ratio, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP), and echocardiographic findings. Body composition was examined by segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in 368 patients undergoing maintenance dialysis (261 men and 107 women; mean age, 65 ± 12 years). Patients with higher ECW/ICW ratio quartiles tended to be older, were on dialysis longer, and had higher post-dialysis blood pressure and lower body mass index, ultrafiltration volume, serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine levels (p < 0.05). The ECW/ICW ratio significantly increased with decreasing ICW, but not with ECW. Patients with a higher ECW/ICW ratio and lower percent fat had significantly higher natriuretic peptide levels. After adjusting for covariates, the ECW/ICW ratio remained an independent associated factor for natriuretic peptides (β = 0.34, p < 0.001 for NT-proBNP and β = 0.40, p < 0.001 for hANP) and the left ventricular mass index (β = 0.20, p = 0.002). The ICW-ECW volume imbalance regulated by decreased cell mass may explain the reserve capacity for fluid accumulation in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Full article
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15 pages, 4153 KiB  
Article
Effects of Parental Dietary Restriction on Offspring Fitness in Drosophila melanogaster
by Hye-Yeon Lee, Bora Lee, Eun-Ji Lee and Kyung-Jin Min
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051273 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established strategy to increase lifespan and stress resistance in many eukaryotic species. In addition, individuals fed a restricted diet typically reduce or completely shut down reproduction compared to individuals fed a full diet. Although the parental environment can [...] Read more.
Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established strategy to increase lifespan and stress resistance in many eukaryotic species. In addition, individuals fed a restricted diet typically reduce or completely shut down reproduction compared to individuals fed a full diet. Although the parental environment can lead to changes epigenetically in offspring gene expression, little is known about the role of the parental (F0) diet on the fitness of their offspring (F1). This study investigated the lifespan, stress resistance, development, body weight, fecundity, and feeding rate in offspring from parental flies exposed to a full or restricted diet. The offspring flies of the parental DR showed increases in body weight, resistance to various stressors, and lifespan, but the development and fecundity were unaffected. Interestingly, parental DR reduced the feeding rate of their offspring. This study suggests that the effect of DR can extend beyond the exposed individual to their offspring, and it should be considered in both theoretical and empirical studies of senescence. Full article
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19 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Mediterranean Diet and Lung Function in Adults Current Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the MEDISTAR Project
by Roxana-Elena Catalin, Francisco Martin-Lujan, Patricia Salamanca-Gonzalez, Meritxell Palleja-Millan, Felipe Villalobos, Antoni Santigosa-Ayala, Anna Pedret, Rosa M. Valls-Zamora, Rosa Sola and on behalf of the MEDISTAR Research Group Investigators
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051272 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Background: Previous studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MeDi) has a positive impact on lung function in subjects with lung disease. In subjects free of respiratory diseases, but at risk, this association is not yet well established. Methods: Based on [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MeDi) has a positive impact on lung function in subjects with lung disease. In subjects free of respiratory diseases, but at risk, this association is not yet well established. Methods: Based on the reference data from the MEDISTAR clinical trial (Mediterranean Diet and Smoking in Tarragona and Reus; ISRCTN 03.362.372), an observational study was conducted with 403 middle-aged smokers without lung disease, treated at 20 centres of primary care in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The degree of MeDi adherence was evaluated according to a 14-item questionnaire, and adherence was defined in three groups (low, medium, and high). Lung function were assessed by forced spirometry. Logistic regression and linear regression models were used to analyse the association between adherence to the MeDi and the presence of ventilatory defects. Results: Globally, the pulmonary alteration prevalence (impaired FEV1 and/or FVC) was 28.8%, although it was lower in participants with medium and high adherence to the MeDi, compared to those with a low score (24.2% and 27.4% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.004). Logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between medium and high adherence to the MeDi and the presence of altered lung patterns (OR 0.467 [95%CI 0.266, 0.820] and 0.552 [95%CI 0.313, 0.973], respectively). Conclusions: MeDi adherence is inversely associated with the risk impaired lung function. These results indicate that healthy diet behaviours can be modifiable risk factors to protect lung function and reinforce the possibility of a nutritional intervention to increase adherence to MeDi, in addition to promoting smoking cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lung Disease)
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