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Nutrients, Volume 13, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 371 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Elevations in the circulating concentration of androgens are thought to have a positive effect on the anabolic processes leading to improved athletic performance. Anabolic-androgenic steroids have often been used by competitive athletes to augment this effect. Although there has been concerted effort on examining how manipulating training variables (e.g., intensity and volume of training) can influence the androgen response to exercise, there has been much less effort directed at understanding how changes in both macronutrient and micronutrient intake can impact the androgen response. Thus, the focus of this review is to examine the effect that manipulating energy and nutrient intake has on circulating concentrations of testosterone and what the potential mechanism is governing these changes. View this paper
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Article
Immunoreactive Trypsinogen and Free Carnitine Changes on Newborn Screening after Birth in Patients Who Develop Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103669 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Are free carnitine concentrations on newborn screening (NBS) 48–72 h after birth lower in patients who develop type 1 diabetes than in controls? A retrospective case-control study of patients with type 1 diabetes was conducted. NBS results of patients from a Sydney hospital [...] Read more.
Are free carnitine concentrations on newborn screening (NBS) 48–72 h after birth lower in patients who develop type 1 diabetes than in controls? A retrospective case-control study of patients with type 1 diabetes was conducted. NBS results of patients from a Sydney hospital were compared against matched controls from the same hospital (1:5). Multiple imputation was performed for estimating missing data (gestational age) using gender and birthweight. Conditional logistic regression was used to control for confounding and to generate parameter estimates (α = 0.05). The Hommel approach was used for post-hoc analyses. Results are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. A total of 159 patients were eligible (80 females). Antibodies were detectable in 86. Median age at diagnosis was 8 years. Free carnitine concentrations were lower in patients than controls (25.50 µmol/L;18.98–33.61 vs. 27.26; 21.22–34.86 respectively) (p = 0.018). Immunoreactive trypsinogen was higher in this group (20.24 µg/L;16.15–29–52 vs. 18.71; 13.96–26.92) (p = 0.045), which did not persist in the post-hoc analysis. Carnitine levels are lower and immunoreactive trypsinogen might be higher, within 2–3 days of birth and years before development of type 1 diabetes as compared to controls, although the differences were well within reference ranges and provide insight into the pathogenesis into neonatal onset of type 1 diabetes development rather than use as a diagnostic tool. Given trypsinogen’s use for evaluation of new-onset type 1 diabetes, larger studies are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
Article
Weight Gain Associated with COVID-19 Lockdown in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3668; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103668 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4056
Abstract
Background: Lockdown is an effective nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, but it restricts daily activity. We aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on pediatric body weight and body mass index (BMI). Methods: The systematic review and meta-analysis were [...] Read more.
Background: Lockdown is an effective nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, but it restricts daily activity. We aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on pediatric body weight and body mass index (BMI). Methods: The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Four online databases (EMBASE, Medline, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL) were searched. Results: The pooled results showed that lockdown was associated with significant body weight gain (MD 2.67, 95% CI 2.12–3.23; p < 0.00001). The BMI of children with comorbidities or obesity did not change significantly. The BMI of general population was significantly higher during lockdown than before the pandemic (MD 0.94, 95% CI 0.32–1.56; p = 0.003). However, heterogeneity was high (I2 = 84%). Among changes in weight classification, increases in the rates of obesity (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10–1.37; p = 0.0002) and overweight (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06–1.29; p = 0.001) were reported. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed significant increases in body weight and BMI during lockdown among school-age children and adolescents. The prevalence of obesity and overweight also increased. The COVID-19 pandemic worsened the burden of childhood obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of COVID-19 on Lifestyle Behaviors in Children with Obesity)
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Article
Pregnancy Is Enough to Provoke Deleterious Effects in Descendants of Fructose-Fed Mothers and Their Fetuses
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103667 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
The role of fructose in the global obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic is widely recognized. However, its consumption is allowed during pregnancy. We have previously demonstrated that maternal fructose intake in rats induces detrimental effects in fetuses. However, these effects only appeared in [...] Read more.
The role of fructose in the global obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic is widely recognized. However, its consumption is allowed during pregnancy. We have previously demonstrated that maternal fructose intake in rats induces detrimental effects in fetuses. However, these effects only appeared in adult descendants after a re-exposure to fructose. Pregnancy is a physiological state that leads to profound changes in metabolism and hormone response. Therefore, we wanted to establish if pregnancy in the progeny of fructose-fed mothers was also able to provoke an unhealthy situation. Pregnant rats from fructose-fed mothers (10% w/v) subjected (FF) or not (FC) to a fructose supplementation were studied and compared to pregnant control rats (CC). An OGTT was performed on the 20th day of gestation, and they were sacrificed on the 21st day. Plasma and tissues from mothers and fetuses were analyzed. Although FF mothers showed higher AUC insulin values after OGTT in comparison to FC and CC rats, ISI was lower and leptinemia was higher in FC and FF rats than in the CC group. Accordingly, lipid accretion was observed both in liver and placenta in the FC and FF groups. Interestingly, fetuses from FC and FF mothers also showed the same profile observed in their mothers on lipid accumulation, leptinemia, and ISI. Moreover, hepatic lipid peroxidation was even more augmented in fetuses from FC dams than those of FF mothers. Maternal fructose intake produces in female progeny changes that alter their own pregnancy, leading to deleterious effects in their fetuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
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Review
Modulation of Adipocyte Metabolism by Microbial Short-Chain Fatty Acids
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103666 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
Obesity and its complications—including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers—constitute a rising global epidemic that has imposed a substantial burden on health and healthcare systems over the years. It is becoming increasingly clear that there is a link between obesity and [...] Read more.
Obesity and its complications—including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers—constitute a rising global epidemic that has imposed a substantial burden on health and healthcare systems over the years. It is becoming increasingly clear that there is a link between obesity and the gut microbiota. Gut dysbiosis, characterized as microbial imbalance, has been consistently associated with obesity in both humans and animal models, and can be reversed with weight loss. Emerging evidence has shown that microbial-derived metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)—including acetate, propionate, and butyrate—provide benefits to the host by impacting organs beyond the gut, including adipose tissue. In this review, we summarize what is currently known regarding the specific mechanisms that link gut-microbial-derived SCFAs with adipose tissue metabolism, such as adipogenesis, lipolysis, and inflammation. In addition, we explore indirect mechanisms by which SCFAs can modulate adipose tissue metabolism, such as via perturbation of gut hormones, as well as signaling to the brain and the liver. Understanding how the modulation of gut microbial metabolites such as SCFAs can impact adipose tissue function could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives, Gut Microbiota, and Human Health)
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Article
Berberine Phospholipid Is an Effective Insulin Sensitizer and Improves Metabolic and Hormonal Disorders in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A One-Group Pretest–Post-Test Explanatory Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103665 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrine disease in females of reproductive age and is characterized by multifactorial unhealthy conditions related to hormonal unbalance and also to dysmetabolism and inflammation. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that natural plant-based products may play [...] Read more.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrine disease in females of reproductive age and is characterized by multifactorial unhealthy conditions related to hormonal unbalance and also to dysmetabolism and inflammation. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that natural plant-based products may play a role in PCOS management. The aim of this one-group pretest–post-test explanatory study was to evaluate, in normal–overweight PCOS women with normal menses, the effectiveness of berberine on: Insulin resistance (IR) by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); Inflammation by C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α); Lipid metabolism; Sex hormone profile and symptoms correlated to hyperandrogenism, such as acne, by Global Acne Grading System (GAGS) and Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI); Body composition by DXA. Finally, adverse effects were assessed by liver and kidney functions and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). All these parameters were collected at baseline and 60 days after supplementation with a new bioavailable and safe berberine formulation. Twelve females (aged 26.6 ± 4.9, BMI 25.3 ± 3.6) were supplied for 60 days with two tablets/day (550 mg/table) of the bioavailable berberine. Results showed a statistically significant decrease in HOMA, CRP, TNF-α, Triglycerides, testosterone, Body Mass Index (BMI), Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT), fat mass, GAGS and CADI scores, and a statistically significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Liver and kidney functions and CPK are not statistically significantly different. Therefore, berberine can represent a safe novel dietary supplement, helpful in treatment strategy for PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Insulin Resistance)
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Article
Non-Conjugated-Industrially-Produced-Trans Fatty in Lebanese Foods: The Case of Elaidic and Linolelaidic Acids
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103664 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
To determine Industrially-Produced Trans fatty acids (IP-TFAs) distribution of Lebanese traditional foods, especially regarding Elaidic acid (EA; 9t18:1) and Linolelaidic acid (LEA; 9t12t18:2), a mapping exercise was enrolled between January 2019 and April 2021 in which 145 food samples of three categories (traditional [...] Read more.
To determine Industrially-Produced Trans fatty acids (IP-TFAs) distribution of Lebanese traditional foods, especially regarding Elaidic acid (EA; 9t18:1) and Linolelaidic acid (LEA; 9t12t18:2), a mapping exercise was enrolled between January 2019 and April 2021 in which 145 food samples of three categories (traditional dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products) were analyzed using Gas chromatography methods. Results showed that about 93% of the products tested in Lebanon, between 2019 and 2021, met the World Health Organization recommendations, while about 7% exceeded the limit. The mean level of the IP-TFAs Elaidic and Linolelaidic acid in most Traditional dishes (0.9%), Arabic sweets (0.6%), butter and margarine (1.6%), and market foods (0.52%) were relatively low compared with other countries. Despite that, the relative impact of IP-TFAs on heart diseases mortality in Lebanon is limited but unambiguously still substantial. The persistence of food products with high IP-TFAs levels threatens the health of Lebanese people. Fortunately, this problem is fairly easy to solve in Lebanon via proper legislation. Full article
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Review
Does Acute Caffeine Supplementation Improve Physical Performance in Female Team-Sport Athletes? Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103663 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Introduction: Recent original research and meta-analyses suggest that acute caffeine supplementation improves exercise performance in team-sport athletes (TSA). Nonetheless, most of the studies testing the effects of caffeine on TSA included samples of male athletes, and there is no meta-analysis of the performance-enhancing [...] Read more.
Introduction: Recent original research and meta-analyses suggest that acute caffeine supplementation improves exercise performance in team-sport athletes (TSA). Nonetheless, most of the studies testing the effects of caffeine on TSA included samples of male athletes, and there is no meta-analysis of the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine on female TSA. The aim of the present study was to synthesize the existing literature regarding the effect of caffeine supplementation on physical performance in adult female TSA. Methods: A search was performed in Pubmed/Medline, SPORTDiscus and Scopus. The search was performed from the inception of indexing until 1 September 2021. Crossover randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the effects of oral caffeine intake on several aspects of performance in female TSA were selected. The methodological quality and risk of bias were assessed for individual studies using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale (PEDro) and the RoB 2 tool. A random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) was performed for several performance variables. Results: The search retrieved 18 articles that fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Overall, most of the studies were of excellent quality with a low risk of bias. The meta-analysis results showed that caffeine increased performance in specific team-sport skills (SMD: 0.384, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.077–0.691), countermovement jump (SMD: 0.208, CI: 0.079–0.337), total body impacts (SMD: 0.488; 95% CI: 0.050, 0.927) and handgrip strength (SMD: 0.395, CI: 0.126–0.665). No effects were found on the ratings of perceived exertion, squat jumps, agility, repeated sprint ability or agility tests performed after fatigue. Conclusions: The results of the meta-analysis revealed that acute caffeine intake was effective in increasing some aspects of team-sports performance in women athletes. Hence, caffeine could be considered as a supplementation strategy for female athletes competing in team sports. Full article
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Systematic Review
Vitamin D Supplementation and Mental Health in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3662; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103662 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are associated with decreased quality of life and mental health problems. Among various approaches to supportive therapy that aims to improve mental health in affected individuals, vitamin D supplementation is considered to be an [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are associated with decreased quality of life and mental health problems. Among various approaches to supportive therapy that aims to improve mental health in affected individuals, vitamin D supplementation is considered to be an effective method which may also be beneficial in alleviating the symptoms during the course of IBDs and IBS. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature presenting the data regarding the influence of vitamin D supplementation on mental health in adults with inflammatory and functional bowel diseases, including IBDs and IBS. This study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (Registration number CRD42020155779). A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed, and the intervention studies published until September 2021 were included. The human studies eligible to be included in the review should have described any intervention involving vitamin D as a supplement in a group of adult patients suffering from IBDs and/or IBS and should have assessed any component of mental health, but studies presenting the effects of combined supplementation of multiple nutrients were excluded. After eliminating the duplicates, a total of 8514 records were screened and assessed independently by two researchers. Further evaluation was carried out on the basis of title, abstract, and full text. Finally, 10 studies (four for IBDs and six for IBS) were selected for the current systematic review, and their quality was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). The studies analyzed the influence of various doses of vitamin D on bowel diseases, compared the results of vitamin D supplementation with placebo, or administered specific doses of vitamin D to obtain the required level in the blood. Supplementation was performed for at least 6 weeks. The analyzed mental health outcomes mainly included disease-specific quality of life/quality of life, anxiety, and depression. The majority of studies (including high-quality ones) confirmed the positive effect of vitamin D supplementation on the mental health of IBD and IBS patients, which was proven by all research works evaluating anxiety and depression and by the majority of research works evaluating quality of life. Although the studies followed different dosage regimens and supplementation protocols, the positive influence of vitamin D on mental health was found to be consistent. The number of studies on patients suffering from ulcerative colitis and the availability of trials randomized against the placebo group was low in the current review, which is considered to be a limitation of the present study and could also reflect the final outcome of the analysis. The conducted systematic review established the positive effect of vitamin D supplementation on the mental health of IBD and IBS patients, but this result requires further investigation, particularly in relation to other mental health outcomes. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Specific Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Antioxidant Vitamins on Gait and Functional Capacity Parameters in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3661; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103661 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by, among other symptoms, impaired functional capacity and walking difficulties. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to improve MS patients’ clinical outcomes; however, their effect on other parameters associated with daily living activities need further [...] Read more.
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by, among other symptoms, impaired functional capacity and walking difficulties. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to improve MS patients’ clinical outcomes; however, their effect on other parameters associated with daily living activities need further investigation. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a 24-month supplementation with a cocktail dietary supplement formula, the NeuroaspisTM PLP10, containing specific omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs and specific antioxidant vitamins on gait and functional capacity parameters of patients with MS. Fifty-one relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with low disability scores (age: 38.4 ± 7.1 years; 30 female) were randomized 1:1 to receive either a 20 mL daily dose of the dietary formula containing a mixture of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs (12,150 mg), vitamin A (0.6 mg), vitamin E (22 mg), and γ-tocopherol (760 mg), the OMEGA group (n = 27; age: 39 ± 8.3 years), or 20 mL placebo containing virgin olive oil, the placebo group (n = 24; age: 37.8 ± 5.3 years). The mean ± SD (standard deviation) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score for the placebo group was 2.36 and for the OMEGA group 2.22. All enrolled patients in the study were on Interferon-β treatment. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and gait deviation index (GDI) were assessed using a motion capture system. Functional capacity was examined using various functional tests such as the six-minute walk test (6MWT), two sit-to-stand tests (STS-5 and STS-60), and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Isometric handgrip strength was assessed by a dynamometer. Leg strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. All assessments were performed at baseline and at 12 and 24 months of supplementation. A total of 36 patients completed the study (18 from each group). Six patients from the placebo group and 9 patients from the OMEGA group dropped out from the study or were lost to follow-up. The dietary supplement significantly improved the single support time and the step and stride time (p < 0.05), both spatiotemporal gait parameters. In addition, while GDI of the placebo group decreased by about 10% at 24 months, it increased by about 4% in the OMEGA group (p < 0.05). Moreover, performance in the STS-60 test improved in the OMEGA group (p < 0.05) and there was a tendency for improvement in the 6MWT and TUG tests. Long-term supplementation with high dosages of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs (compared to previous published clinical studies using PUFAs) and specific antioxidant vitamins improved some functional capacity and gait parameters in RRMS patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Multiple Sclerosis)
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Article
Chrysanthemum morifolium Flower Extract Ameliorates Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Increases the Muscle Mitochondria Content and AMPK/SIRT1 Activities in Obese Rats
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103660 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Decreased energy expenditure and chronically positive energy balance contribute to the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunctions, such as dyslipidemia, hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation, and muscle mitochondrial defects. We investigated the effects of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flower extract (CE) on obesity-induced inflammation [...] Read more.
Decreased energy expenditure and chronically positive energy balance contribute to the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunctions, such as dyslipidemia, hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation, and muscle mitochondrial defects. We investigated the effects of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flower extract (CE) on obesity-induced inflammation and muscle mitochondria changes. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed either a normal diet, 45% high-fat diet (HF), HF containing 0.2% CE, or 0.4% CE for 13 weeks. CE alleviated HF-increased adipose tissue mass and size, dyslipidemia, hepatic fat deposition, and systematic inflammation, and increased energy expenditure. CE significantly decreased gene expression involved in adipogenesis, pro-inflammation, and the M1 macrophage phenotype, as well as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activities in epididymal adipose tissue. Moreover, CE supplementation improved hepatic fat accumulation and modulated gene expression related to fat synthesis and oxidation with an increase in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in the liver. Furthermore, CE increased muscle mitochondrial size, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function, including sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and PGC-1α-target genes, along with AMPK-SIRT1 activities in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that CE attenuates obesity-associated inflammation by modulating the muscle AMPK-SIRT1 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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Article
Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Delays Progression of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Senescence Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3659; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103659 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
There have been many reports on the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, in which the most well-known active compounds found are diterpenoids, such as erinacine A. Previously, erinacine A-enriched Hericeum erinaceus mycelium (EAHEM) was shown to decrease amyloid plaque aggregation and improve [...] Read more.
There have been many reports on the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, in which the most well-known active compounds found are diterpenoids, such as erinacine A. Previously, erinacine A-enriched Hericeum erinaceus mycelium (EAHEM) was shown to decrease amyloid plaque aggregation and improve cognitive disability in Alzheimer’s disease model APP/PS1 mice. However, its effects on brain aging have not yet been touched upon. Here, we used senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice as a model to elucidate the mechanism by which EAHEM delays the aging of the brain. Three-month-old SAMP8 mice were divided into three EAHEM dosage groups, administered at 108, 215 and 431 mg/kg/BW/day, respectively. During the 12th week of EAHEM feeding, learning and memory of the mice were evaluated by single-trial passive avoidance and active avoidance test. After sacrifice, the amyloid plaques, induced nitric oxidase synthase (iNOS) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-OHdG levels were analyzed. We found that the lowest dose of 108 mg/kg/BW EAHEM was sufficient to significantly improve learning and memory in the passive and active avoidance tests. In all three EAHEM dose groups, iNOS, TBARS and 8-OHdG levels all decreased significantly and showed a dose-dependent response. The results indicate that EAHEM improved learning and memory and delayed degenerative aging in mice brains. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Risk Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases in Overweight Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103658 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
The assessment of anthropometric variables has been shown to be useful as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese patients. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the relationship between breast volume and body mass index as [...] Read more.
The assessment of anthropometric variables has been shown to be useful as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese patients. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the relationship between breast volume and body mass index as an indicator of cardiovascular risk in premenopausal women with overweight and mild obesity. A prospective observational study of 93 premenopausal women was performed. Evaluation of anthropometric measures included age, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, breast projection, and ptosis. Cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated using the Framingham cardiovascular risk score, the triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio and the waist-hip ratio. Ninety-three women were included, with a mean 36.4 ± 7.5 years. Mean BMI was 27.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2, waist-to-Hip ratio was 0.8 ± 0.07, and mammary volume was 1045 ± 657.4 cm3. Mean body fat mass was 30.6 + 3.6% and mean visceral fat was 6.6 + 3.2%. The mean triglycerides to HDL ratio was 1.7 ± 0.8 and waist-to-hip ratio was 0.8 ± 0.07. Breast volume related to body mass index can be used as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in premenopausal women who are overweight and mildly obese. Full article
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Article
Variations in the Strength of Association between Food Neophobia and Food and Beverage Acceptability: A Data-Driven Exploratory Study of an Arousal Hypothesis
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3657; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103657 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
The negative impact of food neophobia (FN) on food and beverage (F&B) liking extends beyond foods and beverages that are novel. In addition, F&Bs that are high in flavour intensity, perceived as dangerous, or have connections to other cultures are likely to elicit [...] Read more.
The negative impact of food neophobia (FN) on food and beverage (F&B) liking extends beyond foods and beverages that are novel. In addition, F&Bs that are high in flavour intensity, perceived as dangerous, or have connections to other cultures are likely to elicit rejection by those high in FN. Each of these factors have been established as producing increased arousal, potentially to an unpleasant degree. The aim of this study was to explore the hypothesis that increased arousal underlies all causes of rejection due to FN. To do this, we analysed and interpreted existing data based on online surveys that measured FN and liking for a broad range of F&B names from 8906 adult consumers in the USA, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany and Denmark. Negative associations between FN and liking of varying strengths were evident for 90% of the F&Bs. Consistent with the arousal hypothesis, F&Bs (a) with high flavour intensity, whether produced by chilli, other spices, or flavours, (b) from other cultures, (c) often perceived as dangerous, or (d) that were novel or had novel ingredients showed the strongest negative relationships between FN and liking. Conversely, F&Bs whose liking scores were only very weakly related to FN had low arousal characteristics: high familiarity, sweetness, mild flavours, strong connections to national food cultures, or some combination of these factors. Since this study was exploratory and conducted on existing data, there was no direct measure of arousal, but this is recommended for future, stronger tests of this arousal hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Picky Eating Behavior—What Role Does It Play?)
Article
Obesity Modulates the Gut Microbiome in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103656 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, molecularly heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. Obesity is associated with increased incidence and worse prognosis in TNBC through various potential mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays a central role in the progression of [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, molecularly heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. Obesity is associated with increased incidence and worse prognosis in TNBC through various potential mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays a central role in the progression of cancer, and that imbalances or dysbiosis in the population of commensal microbiota can lead to inflammation and contribute to tumor progression. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation, and gut dysbiosis is associated with obesity, chronic inflammation, and failure of cancer immunotherapy. However, the debate on what constitutes a “healthy” gut microbiome is ongoing, and the connection among the gut microbiome, obesity, and TNBC has not yet been addressed. This study aims to characterize the role of obesity in modulating the gut microbiome in a syngeneic mouse model of TNBC. 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses were performed to analyze and annotate genus and taxonomic profiles. Our results suggest that obesity decreases alpha diversity in the gut microbiome. Metagenomic analysis revealed that obesity was the only significant factor explaining the similarity of the bacterial communities according to their taxonomic profiles. In contrast to the analysis of taxonomic profiles, the analysis of variation of functional profiles suggested that obesity status, tumor presence, and the obesity–tumor interaction were significant in explaining the variation of profiles, with obesity having the strongest correlation. The presence of tumor modified the profiles to a greater extent in obese than in lean animals. Further research is warranted to understand the impact of the gut microbiome on TNBC progression and immunotherapy. Full article
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Betel Nut Chewing Decreased Calcaneus Ultrasound T-Score in a Large Taiwanese Population Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3655; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103655 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
Chewing betel nut is common in Taiwan. Although previous studies have shown that chewing betel nuts is associated with adverse health effects, findings about the impact on bone density have been inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation [...] Read more.
Chewing betel nut is common in Taiwan. Although previous studies have shown that chewing betel nuts is associated with adverse health effects, findings about the impact on bone density have been inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between betel nut chewing and calcaneus ultrasound T-score in a longitudinal study of 118,856 participants from the Taiwan Biobank. Of these participants, 27,002 were followed up with for a median of 4 years. The T-score of the calcaneus was measured in the non-dominant foot using ultrasound. Multivariable analysis showed that a history of chewing betel nut (coefficient β = −0.232; p < 0.001) was significantly associated with low baseline T-score in all participants (n = 118,856). In addition, a long duration of betel nut chewing (per 1 year; coefficient β = −0.003; p = 0.022) was significantly associated with a low baseline T-score in the participants with a history of chewing betel nut (n = 7210). Further, a long duration of betel nut chewing (per 1 year; coefficient β = −0.004; p = 0.039) was significantly associated with a low ΔT-score in the participants with a history of chewing betel nut (n = 1778) after 4 years of follow-up. In conclusion, our results showed that betel nut chewing was associated with a decrease in calcaneus ultrasound T-score, and thus, it is important to stop chewing betel nut to help prevent an increased risk of osteoporosis in the Taiwanese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Stress Responsiveness and Emotional Eating Depend on Youngsters’ Chronic Stress Level and Overweight
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3654; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103654 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
The persistent coexistence of stress and paediatric obesity involves interrelated psychophysiological mechanisms, which are believed to function as a vicious circle. Here, a key mechanistic role is assumed for stress responsiveness and eating behaviour. After a stress induction by the Trier Social Stress [...] Read more.
The persistent coexistence of stress and paediatric obesity involves interrelated psychophysiological mechanisms, which are believed to function as a vicious circle. Here, a key mechanistic role is assumed for stress responsiveness and eating behaviour. After a stress induction by the Trier Social Stress Test in youngsters (n = 137, 50.4% boys, 6–18 years), specifically those high in chronic stress level and overweight (partial η2 = 0.03–0.07) exhibited increased stress vulnerability (stronger relative salivary cortisol reactivity and weaker happiness recovery) and higher fat/sweet snack intake, compared to the normal-weight and low-stress reference group. Stress responsiveness seems to stimulate unhealthy and emotional eating, i.e., strong cortisol reactivity was linked to higher fat/sweet snack intake (β = 0.22) and weak autonomic system recovery was linked to high total and fat/sweet snack intake (β = 0.2–0.3). Additionally, stress responsiveness acted as a moderator. As a result, stress responsiveness and emotional eating might be targets to prevent stress-induced overweight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarker of Stress, Metabolic Syndrome and Human Health)
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Article
Odor–Taste–Texture Interactions as a Promising Strategy to Tackle Adolescent Overweight
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103653 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
The adolescence period is characterized by a considerable risk to weight gain due to the high consumption of food rich in sugar. A promising strategy to reduce sugar consumption may lie in exploiting the ability of our senses to interact to each other [...] Read more.
The adolescence period is characterized by a considerable risk to weight gain due to the high consumption of food rich in sugar. A promising strategy to reduce sugar consumption may lie in exploiting the ability of our senses to interact to each other (cross-modal interactions). The aims were to investigate the cross-modal interactions and gustatory function in normal-weight and overweight adolescents. Fifty adolescents (25 overweight and 25 normal-weight) were involved. Subjects rated liking and attribute intensity in pudding samples obtained by adding vanilla aroma (0.1%; 0.3%), butter aroma (0.05%; 0.1%) or a thickener agent (1%; 1.5%) to a base formulation. The gustatory function was also measured through the “taste strips” methodology. Overweight adolescents were found to have a significantly (p < 0.001) worse ability to correctly identify all tastes. Cross-modal interactions occurred differently according to their body mass index, with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in sensory desirable characteristics (e.g., sweet and creaminess) due to aroma addition, especially in overweight subjects. Furthermore, butter aroma significantly increased hedonic responses only in overweight subjects. Tricking our senses in the way of perceiving sensory attributes could be a promising strategy to develop innovative food formulations with a reduced sugar amount, which will lead to a potential decrease in caloric intake and help to tackle the obesity epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Taste and Olfaction in Nutrition and Health)
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Article
Coffeeberry Activates the CaMKII/CREB/BDNF Pathway, Normalizes Autophagy and Apoptosis Signaling in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Rodent Model
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103652 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) shows extensive liver cell destruction with lipid accumulation, which is frequently accompanied by metabolic comorbidities and increases mortality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of coffeeberry (CB) on regulating the redox status, the CaMKII/CREB/BDNF pathway, autophagy, and [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) shows extensive liver cell destruction with lipid accumulation, which is frequently accompanied by metabolic comorbidities and increases mortality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of coffeeberry (CB) on regulating the redox status, the CaMKII/CREB/BDNF pathway, autophagy, and apoptosis signaling by a NAFLD rodent model senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8). Three-month-old male SAMP8 mice were divided into a control group and three CB groups (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW), and fed for 12 weeks. The results show that CB reduced hepatic malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein levels. CB significantly enhanced Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reduced the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB ratio. In addition, CB increased the silent information regulator T1 level, promoted Beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II expressions, and reduced phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream p-p70s6k levels. CB also inhibited the expressions of apoptosis-related factors poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and the apoptosis-inducing factor. In conclusion, CB might protect the liver by reducing oxidative stress, activating the CaMKII/CREB/BDNF pathway, and improving autophagic and apoptotic expressions in a dose-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Article
A Cross-Sectional Study of the Street Foods Purchased by Customers in Urban Areas of Central Asia
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103651 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
This study aimed to describe street food purchases in cities from Central Asia, considering customers’ characteristics and the nutritional composition of the foods and beverages. Cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2016/2017 in Dushanbe (Tajikistan), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan). Direct observation [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe street food purchases in cities from Central Asia, considering customers’ characteristics and the nutritional composition of the foods and beverages. Cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2016/2017 in Dushanbe (Tajikistan), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan). Direct observation was used to collect data on the purchases made by street food customers, selected by random and systematic sampling. Nutritional composition was estimated using data from chemical analyses, food composition tables or food labels. A total of 714 customers (56.6% females, 55.5% aged ≥35 years, 23.3% overweight/obese) were observed, who bought 852 foods and beverages, the most frequent being savoury pastries/snacks (23.2%), main dishes (19.0%), sweet pastries/confectionery (17.9%), tea/coffee (11.3%) and soft drinks/juices (9.8%). Fruit was the least purchased food (1.1%). Nearly one-third of customers purchased industrial food items (31.9%). The median energy content of a street food purchase was 529 kcal/serving. Saturated and trans-fat median contents were 4.7 g/serving and 0.36 g/serving (21.4% and 16.5% of maximum daily intake recommendations, respectively). Median sodium and potassium contents were 745 mg/serving (37.3% of maximum recommendation) and 304 mg/serving (8.7% of minimum recommendation), respectively. In general, the purchases observed presented high contents of energy, saturated-fat, trans-fat and sodium, and low levels of potassium. Policies towards the improvement of these urban food environments should be encouraged. Full article
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Review
Precision Food Parenting: A Proposed Conceptual Model and Research Agenda
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103650 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
Precision medicine, nutrition and behavioral interventions are attempting to move beyond the specification of therapies applied to groups, since some people benefit, some do not and some are harmed by the same therapy. Instead, precision therapies are attempting to employ diverse sets of [...] Read more.
Precision medicine, nutrition and behavioral interventions are attempting to move beyond the specification of therapies applied to groups, since some people benefit, some do not and some are harmed by the same therapy. Instead, precision therapies are attempting to employ diverse sets of data to individualize or tailor interventions to optimize the benefits for the receiving individuals. The benefits to be achieved are mostly in the distant future, but the research needs to start now. While precision pediatric nutrition will combine diverse demographic, behavioral and biological variables to specify the optimal foods a child should eat to optimize health, precision food parenting will combine diverse parent and child psychosocial and related variables to identify the optimal parenting practices to help a specific child accept and consume the precision nutrition specified foods. This paper presents a conceptual overview and hypothetical model of factors we believe are needed to operationalize precision food parenting and a proposed research agenda to better understand the many specified relationships, how they change over the age of the child, and how to operationalize them to encourage food parenting practices most likely to be effective at promoting healthy child food choices. Full article
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Systematic Review
Hospital Food Service Strategies to Improve Food Intakes among Inpatients: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103649 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
This review aims to identify hospital food service strategies to improve food consumption among hospitalized patients. A systematic search that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was manually conducted through Web of Science and Scopus by an author, and the ambiguities were clarified [...] Read more.
This review aims to identify hospital food service strategies to improve food consumption among hospitalized patients. A systematic search that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was manually conducted through Web of Science and Scopus by an author, and the ambiguities were clarified by two senior authors. The quality assessment was separately conducted by two authors, and the ambiguities were clarified with all the involved authors. Qualitative synthesis was used to analyze and summarized the findings. A total of 2432 articles were identified by searching the databases, and 36 studies were included. The majority of the studies applied menu modifications and meal composition interventions (n = 12, 33.3%), or included the implementation of the new food service system (n = 8, 22.2%), protected mealtimes, mealtime assistance and environmental intervention (n = 7, 19.4%), and attractive meal presentation (n = 3, 8.3%). Previous studies that used multidisciplinary approaches reported a significant improvement in food intake, nutritional status, patient satisfaction and quality of life (n = 6, 16.7%). In conclusion, it is suggested that healthcare institutions consider applying one or more of the listed intervention strategies to enhance their foodservice operation in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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Article
Association of Obesity with the Risk of Hyperhomocysteinemia among the Chinese Community Residents: A Prospective Cohort Study in Shanghai, China
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103648 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
A prospective community-based cohort study was conducted to investigate the effects of obesity on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in community residents from Shanghai, China, with a median follow-up period of 2.98 years. The exposures were high body mass index (BMI) (BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m2 [...] Read more.
A prospective community-based cohort study was conducted to investigate the effects of obesity on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in community residents from Shanghai, China, with a median follow-up period of 2.98 years. The exposures were high body mass index (BMI) (BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m2) and high waist circumference (WC) (WC ≥ 85.0 cm for female and WC ≥ 90.0 for male) at baseline investigation, and the outcome was the incident of HHcy after the follow-up. A restricted cubic spline (RCS) was performed to assess the possible nonlinear relationship of BMI and WC with HHcy. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to evaluate the association between BMI and WC measured obesity and the risk of HHcy (Hcy level > 15 µmol/L). No significant non-linearity was found between BMI and WC with HHcy. Cox regression model showed that underweight measured by BMI was negatively associated with the risk of HHcy after controlling for confounder variables (adjusted HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.99). While abdominal obesity was positively associated with the risk of HHcy for those without CVD-related comorbidities (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.51). Our results suggested that individuals could maintain a relatively low BMI and normal WC to lower the risk of HHcy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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Article
Children with Intestinal Failure Maintain Their Renal Function on Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103647 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Background: Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) has been associated with renal complications, including hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, proteinuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Pediatric data are scarce and mostly short-term. Our study aimed to evaluate renal complications in children with intestinal failure (IF) receiving long-term [...] Read more.
Background: Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) has been associated with renal complications, including hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, proteinuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Pediatric data are scarce and mostly short-term. Our study aimed to evaluate renal complications in children with intestinal failure (IF) receiving long-term PN. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in a tertiary pediatric IF clinic of patients receiving home-PN treatment for more than 1 year. Data regarding medical background, anthropometrics, laboratory investigations and abdominal sonography were retrieved. Results: Complete data were available for 15 children (67% males), with a median age of 6 (range 1.5–15) years and a median (IQR) PN duration of 4 (1.5–6) years. Low-grade proteinuria was identified in 61% and microalbuminuria in 30% of the cohort. Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria were present in 50% and 46%, respectively. One patient had nephrocalcinosis. The estimated GFR was normal in all but one patient who had pre-existing kidney disease. Conclusions: Pediatric IF patients can present with preserved kidney function after years of PN treatment. Despite the high prevalence of hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis was not common. Base line and long-term monitoring of various aspects of renal function would be essential to characterize the effects of prolonged PN on kidney functions in pediatric patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intravenous Feeding in Infants and Children)
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Review
Nutraceuticals for Peripheral Vestibular Pathology: Properties, Usefulness, Future Perspectives and Medico-Legal Aspects
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103646 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Vestibular disorders may generate complex signs and symptoms, which may alter patients’ balance and the quality of life. Dizziness and vertigo can strongly affect daily activities and relations. Despite the presence of conventional drugs, maneuvers, and surgery, another interesting therapeutic opportunity is offered [...] Read more.
Vestibular disorders may generate complex signs and symptoms, which may alter patients’ balance and the quality of life. Dizziness and vertigo can strongly affect daily activities and relations. Despite the presence of conventional drugs, maneuvers, and surgery, another interesting therapeutic opportunity is offered by nutraceuticals. These molecules are often used in the treatment of dizziness and vertigo, but the rationale of their application is not always solidly demonstrated by the scientific evidence. Several substances have shown a variable level of efficacy/usefulness in this field, but there is lack of important evidence for most of them. From a medico-legal point of view, specific information must be provided to the patient regarding the efficacy and possibilities that the use of these preparations can allow. Administering the right nutraceutical to the proper patient is a fundamental clinical skill. Integrating conventional drug treatment with nutraceutical administration seems to be easy, but it may be difficult considering the (in part unexplored) pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of nutraceuticals. The aim of the scientific community should be to elevate nutraceuticals to the same law and technical dignity of conventional drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Article
Effects of Water Restriction and Supplementation on Cognitive Performances and Mood among Young Adults in Baoding, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103645 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6765
Abstract
The brain is approximately 75% water. Therefore, insufficient water intake may affect the cognitive performance of humans. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of water restriction and supplementation on cognitive performances and mood, and the optimum amount of water to alleviate [...] Read more.
The brain is approximately 75% water. Therefore, insufficient water intake may affect the cognitive performance of humans. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of water restriction and supplementation on cognitive performances and mood, and the optimum amount of water to alleviate the detrimental effects of dehydration, among young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 76 young, healthy adults aged 18–23 years old from Baoding, China. After fasting overnight for 12 h, at 8:00 a.m. of day 2, the osmolality of the first morning urine and blood, cognitive performance, and mood were measured as a baseline test. After water restriction for 24 h, at 8:00 a.m. of day 3, the same indexes were measured as a dehydration test. Participants were randomly assigned into four groups: water supplementation group (WS group) 1, 2, or 3 (given 1000, 500, or 200 mL purified water), and the no water supplementation group (NW group). Furthermore, participants were instructed to drink all the water within 10 min. Ninety minutes later, the same measurements were performed as a rehydration test. Compared with the baseline test, participants were all in dehydration and their scores on the portrait memory test, vigor, and self-esteem decreased (34 vs. 27, p < 0.001; 11.8 vs. 9.2, p < 0.001; 7.8 vs. 6.4, p < 0.001). Fatigue and TMD (total mood disturbance) increased (3.6 vs. 4.8, p = 0.004; 95.7 vs. 101.8, p < 0.001) in the dehydration test. Significant interactions between time and volume were found in hydration status, fatigue, vigor, TMD, symbol search test, and operation span test (F = 6.302, p = 0.001; F = 3.118, p = 0.029; F = 2.849, p = 0.043; F = 2.859, p = 0.043; F = 3.463, p = 0.021) when comparing the rehydration and dehydration test. Furthermore, the hydration status was better in WS group 1 compared to WS group 2; the fatigue and TMD scores decreased, and the symbol search test and operation span test scores increased, only in WS group 1 and WS group 2 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between them (p > 0.05). Dehydration impaired episodic memory and mood. Water supplementation improved processing speed, working memory, and mood, and 1000 mL was the optimum volume. Full article
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Article
Serum and Amniotic Fluid Metabolic Profile Changes in Response to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and the Association with Maternal–Fetal Outcomes
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103644 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
This study was designed to identify serum and amniotic fluid (AF) metabolic profile changes in response to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and explore the association with maternal–fetal outcomes. We established the GDM rat models by combining a high-fat diet (HFD) with an injection [...] Read more.
This study was designed to identify serum and amniotic fluid (AF) metabolic profile changes in response to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and explore the association with maternal–fetal outcomes. We established the GDM rat models by combining a high-fat diet (HFD) with an injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), detected the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of pregnant rats in the second and third trimester, and collected AF and fetal rats by cesarean section on gestational day 19 (GD19), as well as measuring the weight and crown–rump length (CRL) of fetal rats. We applied liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the untargeted metabolomics analyses of serum and AF samples and then explored their correlation with maternal–fetal outcomes via the co-occurrence network. The results showed that 91 and 68 metabolites were upregulated and 125 and 78 metabolites were downregulated in serum and AF samples exposed to GDM, respectively. In maternal serum, the obvious alterations emerged in lipids and lipid-like molecules, while there were great changes in carbohydrate and carbohydrate conjugates, followed by amino acids, peptides, and analogs in amniotic fluid. The altered pathways both in serum and AF samples were amino acid, lipid, nucleotide, and vitamin metabolism pathways. In response to GDM, changes in the steroid hormone metabolic pathway occurred in serum, and an altered carbohydrate metabolism pathway was found in AF samples. Among differential metabolites in two kinds of samples, there were 34 common biochemicals shared by serum and AF samples, and a mutual significant association existed. These shared differential metabolites were implicated in several metabolism pathways, including choline, tryptophan, histidine, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and among them, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, 5’-methylthioadenosine, and kynurenic acid were significantly associated with both maternal FPG and fetal growth. In conclusion, serum and AF metabolic profiles were remarkably altered in response to GDM. N1-Methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, 5’-methylthioadenosine, and kynurenic acid have the potential to be taken as biomarkers for maternal–fetal health status of GDM. The common and inter-related differential metabolites both in the serum and AF implied the feasibility of predicting fetal health outcomes via detecting the metabolites in maternal serum exposed to GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolism in the First 1,000 Days of Life)
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Article
Seasonal Consumption of Cherries from Different Origins Affects Metabolic Markers and Gene Expression of Lipogenic Enzymes in Rat Liver: A Preliminary Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103643 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
The phytochemical composition of fruits, especially polyphenols, depends on the environmental conditions under which these fruits are cultivated and the agronomic practices followed. Therefore, the consumption of fruits from different origins, with different polyphenol signatures, could have differential effects on health. In addition, [...] Read more.
The phytochemical composition of fruits, especially polyphenols, depends on the environmental conditions under which these fruits are cultivated and the agronomic practices followed. Therefore, the consumption of fruits from different origins, with different polyphenol signatures, could have differential effects on health. In addition, recent studies have shown that variation in the biological rhythms due to changes in the photoperiod in the different seasons differentially affect the metabolism in animal models, thus conditioning their response to food consumption. Considering all, this article evaluates the effects of consumption of sweet cherry from different sources, local (LC) and non-local (nLC), on plasma metabolic parameters and the gene expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism in Fischer 344 rats under photoperiods simulating different seasons. Animals were classified into three photoperiods (L6, L12 and L18) and three treatments (LC, nLC and VH). Both the photoperiod and the treatments significantly affected the evaluated parameters. An effect of the photoperiod on triacylglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and the mRNA concentration of crucial enzymes from the hepatic lipid metabolism was observed. Furthermore, the consumption of fruit in L12 lowered blood glucose, while the different treatments affected the hepatic expression of genes related with lipidic enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health)
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Article
A Systems Approach Dissociates Fructose-Induced Liver Triglyceride from Hypertriglyceridemia and Hyperinsulinemia in Male Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103642 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
The metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as the co-occurrence of disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, has become increasingly prevalent in the world over recent decades. Dietary and other environmental factors interacting with genetic predisposition are likely contributors to this epidemic. [...] Read more.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as the co-occurrence of disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, has become increasingly prevalent in the world over recent decades. Dietary and other environmental factors interacting with genetic predisposition are likely contributors to this epidemic. Among the involved dietary factors, excessive fructose consumption may be a key contributor. When fructose is consumed in large amounts, it can quickly produce many of the features of MetS both in humans and mice. The mechanisms by which fructose contributes to metabolic disease and its potential interactions with genetic factors in these processes remain uncertain. Here, we generated a small F2 genetic cohort of male mice derived from crossing fructose-sensitive and -resistant mouse strains to investigate the interrelationships between fructose-induced metabolic phenotypes and to identify hepatic transcriptional pathways that associate with these phenotypes. Our analysis indicates that the hepatic transcriptional pathways associated with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia are distinct from those that associate with fructose-mediated changes in body weight and liver triglyceride. These results suggest that multiple independent mechanisms and pathways may contribute to different aspects of fructose-induced metabolic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose Metabolism and Metabolic Health Effects)
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Review
Personalized Nutritional Therapy Based on Blood Data Analysis for Malaise Patients
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103641 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1098
Abstract
As medical doctors, we routinely check patient blood chemistry and CBC data to diagnose disease. However, these data and methods of analysis are very rarely used to find pre-disease conditions or treat undiagnosed malaise. Masatoshi Kaneko Ph.D. found that many pre-disease conditions and [...] Read more.
As medical doctors, we routinely check patient blood chemistry and CBC data to diagnose disease. However, these data and methods of analysis are very rarely used to find pre-disease conditions or treat undiagnosed malaise. Masatoshi Kaneko Ph.D. found that many pre-disease conditions and types of malaise could be detected using his unique method of blood data analysis, and could also be treated using personalized nutritional therapy as an alternative to using drugs. The authors of this article introduce personalized nutritional therapy based on blood data analysis (Kaneko’s method), and present and discuss some clinical cases. In total, 253 pre-disease or undiagnosed patients were treated using this nutritional therapy approach, and most of them recovered from their chronic symptoms and pre-disease conditions. This novel nutritional therapy has the potential to help many presymptomatic and undiagnosed patients suffering from malaise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Various Cancer Risks, and Strategies to Avoid Them)
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Review
Interventions to Improve Hydration in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103640 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Dehydration is common in the elderly, especially when hospitalised. This study investigated the impact of interventions to improve hydration in acutely unwell or institutionalised older adults for hydration and hydration linked events (constipation, falls, urinary tract infections) as well as patient satisfaction. Four [...] Read more.
Dehydration is common in the elderly, especially when hospitalised. This study investigated the impact of interventions to improve hydration in acutely unwell or institutionalised older adults for hydration and hydration linked events (constipation, falls, urinary tract infections) as well as patient satisfaction. Four databases were searched from inception to 13 May 2020 for studies of interventions to improve hydration. Nineteen studies (978 participants) were included and two studies (165 participants) were meta-analysed. Behavioural interventions were associated with a significant improvement in hydration. Environmental, multifaceted and nutritional interventions had mixed success. Meta-analysis indicated that groups receiving interventions to improve hydration consumed 300.93 mL more fluid per day than those in the usual care groups (95% CI: 289.27 mL, 312.59 mL; I2 = 0%, p < 0.00001). Overall, there is limited evidence describing interventions to improve hydration in acutely unwell or institutionalised older adults. Behavioural interventions appear promising. High-quality studies using validated rather than subjective methods of assessing hydration are needed to determine effective interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status of Older Adults)
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