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Article

Effects of Water Restriction and Supplementation on Cognitive Performances and Mood among Young Adults in Baoding, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
2
Laboratory of Toxicological Research and Risk Assessment for Food Safety, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
3
Chinese Nutrition Society, 6 Guang An Men Nei Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100053, China
4
School of Public Health, Hebei University Health Science Center, 342 Yuhua Road, Lianchi District, Baoding 071000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103645
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 18 October 2021
The brain is approximately 75% water. Therefore, insufficient water intake may affect the cognitive performance of humans. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of water restriction and supplementation on cognitive performances and mood, and the optimum amount of water to alleviate the detrimental effects of dehydration, among young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 76 young, healthy adults aged 18–23 years old from Baoding, China. After fasting overnight for 12 h, at 8:00 a.m. of day 2, the osmolality of the first morning urine and blood, cognitive performance, and mood were measured as a baseline test. After water restriction for 24 h, at 8:00 a.m. of day 3, the same indexes were measured as a dehydration test. Participants were randomly assigned into four groups: water supplementation group (WS group) 1, 2, or 3 (given 1000, 500, or 200 mL purified water), and the no water supplementation group (NW group). Furthermore, participants were instructed to drink all the water within 10 min. Ninety minutes later, the same measurements were performed as a rehydration test. Compared with the baseline test, participants were all in dehydration and their scores on the portrait memory test, vigor, and self-esteem decreased (34 vs. 27, p < 0.001; 11.8 vs. 9.2, p < 0.001; 7.8 vs. 6.4, p < 0.001). Fatigue and TMD (total mood disturbance) increased (3.6 vs. 4.8, p = 0.004; 95.7 vs. 101.8, p < 0.001) in the dehydration test. Significant interactions between time and volume were found in hydration status, fatigue, vigor, TMD, symbol search test, and operation span test (F = 6.302, p = 0.001; F = 3.118, p = 0.029; F = 2.849, p = 0.043; F = 2.859, p = 0.043; F = 3.463, p = 0.021) when comparing the rehydration and dehydration test. Furthermore, the hydration status was better in WS group 1 compared to WS group 2; the fatigue and TMD scores decreased, and the symbol search test and operation span test scores increased, only in WS group 1 and WS group 2 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between them (p > 0.05). Dehydration impaired episodic memory and mood. Water supplementation improved processing speed, working memory, and mood, and 1000 mL was the optimum volume. View Full-Text
Keywords: water restriction; water supplementation; dehydration; rehydration; cognitive performances; mood water restriction; water supplementation; dehydration; rehydration; cognitive performances; mood
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Ma, G.; Du, S.; Liu, S.; Zhang, N. Effects of Water Restriction and Supplementation on Cognitive Performances and Mood among Young Adults in Baoding, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Nutrients 2021, 13, 3645. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103645

AMA Style

Zhang J, Ma G, Du S, Liu S, Zhang N. Effects of Water Restriction and Supplementation on Cognitive Performances and Mood among Young Adults in Baoding, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3645. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Jianfen, Guansheng Ma, Songming Du, Shufang Liu, and Na Zhang. 2021. "Effects of Water Restriction and Supplementation on Cognitive Performances and Mood among Young Adults in Baoding, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3645. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103645

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