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Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2022) | Viewed by 14328

Special Issue Editors

Nutrigenomics Research Group, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
Interests: polyphenols; bioavailability; animal models; nutrigenomics; microRNAs; metabolic syndrome; HPLC-MS; biological rhythms; chrononutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Nutrigenomics Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
Interests: metabolic syndrome; nutrigenomic; HPLC-MS; animal models; metabolomics; polyphenols; bioavailability; phenol characterization; functional food; bioactive compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Organisms exhibit biological rhythms to adapt to the environment, such as daily and seasonal light changes. Biological rhythms, which include circadian and circannual rhythms, are closely related to metabolism and health status. For example, it is known that blood pressure, circulating levels of leptin, prolactin and insulin response varies according to season. Actually, alterations of the rhythms, such as shift work or social jetlag, are linked to metabolic disorders. Therefore, in order to maintain optimal health, it is necessary to keep rhythms under control. In this sense, the intake of nutrients can modulate biological rhythms. Moreover, in recent years, the relation of nutrition and rhythms has been clearly stated. For instance, the activity of bioactive compounds or nutrients from the diet is dependent on the intake time.

Within this framework, nutrigenomics play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of food or their components on the regulation of biological rhythms and their metabolic consequences. In this Special Issue, we welcome cross-sectional animal or human studies that evaluate the molecular mechanisms that explain the relationship between nutrition and biological rhythms and their impact on health.

Dr. Anna Arola-Arnal
Dr. Manuel Suárez Recio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Clock genes
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Circannual rhythms
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Metabolic diseases

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 216 KiB  
Editorial
Do You Have Problems When Reproducing Bioactivities of Food or Food Components? The Importance of Biological Rhythms
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214607 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 992
Abstract
With the onset of omics sciences, in the 20th century, nutritional studies evolved to investigate the effects of diet at a molecular level, giving rise to nutritional genomics, which includes both nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health)

Research

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12 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
Impact of Seasonal Consumption of Local Tomatoes on the Metabolism and Absorption of (Poly)Phenols in Fischer Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102047 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Consuming (poly)phenol-rich fruits and vegetables, including tomato, is associated with health benefits. The health effects of tomato (poly)phenolic compounds have been attributed to their metabolites rather than parent compounds and their bioavailability can be modulated by several factors. This study aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
Consuming (poly)phenol-rich fruits and vegetables, including tomato, is associated with health benefits. The health effects of tomato (poly)phenolic compounds have been attributed to their metabolites rather than parent compounds and their bioavailability can be modulated by several factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of seasonal consumption of local tomatoes on their (poly)phenol bioavailability. For this, (poly)phenol absorption and metabolism were evaluated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and linear ion trap mass spectrometric (uHPLC-MSn) after chronic tomato consumption in Fischer rats exposed to three photoperiods mimicking the seasonal daylight schedule. Tomatoes from two locations in Spain (LT, local tomatoes and NLT, non-local tomatoes) were used in this in vivo feeding study. The bioavailability of tomato (poly)phenols depended on the photoperiod to which the rats were exposed, the metabolite concentrations significantly varying between seasons. In-season tomato consumption allowed obtaining the highest concentration of total circulating metabolites. In addition, the origin of the tomato administered generated marked differences in the metabolic profiles, with higher serum concentrations reached upon NLT ingestion. We concluded that in-season tomato consumption led to an increase in (poly)phenol circulation, whereas LT consumption showed lower circulating metabolites than NLT ones. Thus, the origin of the tomato and the seasonal daylight schedule affect the bioavailability of tomato (poly)phenols, which could also affect their bioactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health)
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18 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Mitigate the Disturbances Caused by an Abrupt Photoperiod Change in Healthy and Obese Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091834 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Variations in the light/dark cycle and obesogenic diets trigger physiological and behavioral disorders. Proanthocyanidins, in addition to their healthy properties, have recently demonstrated a modulating effect on biological rhythms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the administration of a grape [...] Read more.
Variations in the light/dark cycle and obesogenic diets trigger physiological and behavioral disorders. Proanthocyanidins, in addition to their healthy properties, have recently demonstrated a modulating effect on biological rhythms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the administration of a grape seed proanthocyanidin-rich extract (GSPE) to mitigate the disruption caused by a sudden photoperiod change in healthy and cafeteria (CAF)-diet obese rats. For this, 48 photoperiod-sensitive Fischer 344 rats were fed standard or CAF diets for 6 weeks under a standard (12 h light/day, L12) conditions. Then, rats were switched to a long (18 h light/day, L18) or short (6 h light/day, L6) photoperiod and administered vehicle or GSPE (25 mg/kg) for 1 week. Body weight (BW) and food intake (FI) were recorded weekly. Animal activity and serum hormone concentrations were studied before and after the photoperiod change. Hormone levels were measured both at 3 h (ZT3) and 15 h (ZT15) after the onset of light. Results showed the impact of the CAF diet and photoperiod on the BW, FI, activity, and hormonal status of the animals. GSPE administration resulted in an attenuation of the changes produced by the photoperiod disruption. Specifically, GSPE in L6 CAF-fed rats reduced serum corticosterone concentration, restoring its circadian rhythm, increased the T3-to-T4 ratio, and increased light phase activity, while under L18, it decreased BW and testosterone concentration and increased the animal activity. These results suggest that GSPE may contribute to the adaptation to the new photoperiods. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the metabolic pathways and processes involved in these events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health)
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14 pages, 1348 KiB  
Article
Gut Seasons: Photoperiod Effects on Fecal Microbiota in Healthy and Cafeteria-Induced Obese Fisher 344 Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030722 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
Gut microbiota and biological rhythms are emerging as key factors in the modulation of several physiological and metabolic processes. However, little is known about their interaction and how this may affect host physiology and metabolism. Several studies have shown oscillations of gut microbiota [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota and biological rhythms are emerging as key factors in the modulation of several physiological and metabolic processes. However, little is known about their interaction and how this may affect host physiology and metabolism. Several studies have shown oscillations of gut microbiota that follows a circadian rhythmicity, but, in contrast, variations due to seasonal rhythms have not been sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the impact of different photoperiods, which mimic seasonal changes, on fecal microbiota composition and how this interaction affects diet-induced obesity development. To this aim, Fisher 344 male rats were housed under three photoperiods (L6, L12 and L18) and fed with standard chow diet or cafeteria diet (CAF) for 9 weeks. The 16S ribosomal sequencing of collected fecal samples was performed. The photoperiod exposure significantly altered the fecal microbiota composition under L18, especially in CAF-fed rats. Moreover, these alterations were associated with changes in body weight gain and different fat parameters. These findings suggest a clear impact of seasonal rhythms on gut microbiota, which ultimately translates into different susceptibilities to diet-induced obesity development. This is the first time to our knowledge that the photoperiod impact on gut microbiota composition has been described in an obesity context although further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health)
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15 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Consumption of Cherries from Different Origins Affects Metabolic Markers and Gene Expression of Lipogenic Enzymes in Rat Liver: A Preliminary Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103643 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
The phytochemical composition of fruits, especially polyphenols, depends on the environmental conditions under which these fruits are cultivated and the agronomic practices followed. Therefore, the consumption of fruits from different origins, with different polyphenol signatures, could have differential effects on health. In addition, [...] Read more.
The phytochemical composition of fruits, especially polyphenols, depends on the environmental conditions under which these fruits are cultivated and the agronomic practices followed. Therefore, the consumption of fruits from different origins, with different polyphenol signatures, could have differential effects on health. In addition, recent studies have shown that variation in the biological rhythms due to changes in the photoperiod in the different seasons differentially affect the metabolism in animal models, thus conditioning their response to food consumption. Considering all, this article evaluates the effects of consumption of sweet cherry from different sources, local (LC) and non-local (nLC), on plasma metabolic parameters and the gene expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism in Fischer 344 rats under photoperiods simulating different seasons. Animals were classified into three photoperiods (L6, L12 and L18) and three treatments (LC, nLC and VH). Both the photoperiod and the treatments significantly affected the evaluated parameters. An effect of the photoperiod on triacylglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and the mRNA concentration of crucial enzymes from the hepatic lipid metabolism was observed. Furthermore, the consumption of fruit in L12 lowered blood glucose, while the different treatments affected the hepatic expression of genes related with lipidic enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health)
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Review

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17 pages, 2036 KiB  
Review
Nutrients and the Circadian Clock: A Partnership Controlling Adipose Tissue Function and Health
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102084 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3033
Abstract
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a metabolic organ with flexibility to retract and expand based on energy storage and utilization needs, processes that are driven via the coordination of different cells within adipose tissue. WAT is comprised of mature adipocytes (MA) and cells [...] Read more.
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a metabolic organ with flexibility to retract and expand based on energy storage and utilization needs, processes that are driven via the coordination of different cells within adipose tissue. WAT is comprised of mature adipocytes (MA) and cells of the stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF), which include adipose progenitor cells (APCs), adipose endothelial cells (AEC) and infiltrating immune cells. APCs have the ability to proliferate and undergo adipogenesis to form MA, the main constituents of WAT being predominantly composed of white, triglyceride-storing adipocytes with unilocular lipid droplets. While adiposity and adipose tissue health are controlled by diet and aging, the endogenous circadian (24-h) biological clock of the body is highly active in adipose tissue, from adipocyte progenitor cells to mature adipocytes, and may play a unique role in adipose tissue health and function. To some extent, 24-h rhythms in adipose tissue rely on rhythmic energy intake, but individual circadian clock proteins are also thought to be important for healthy fat. Here we discuss how and why the clock might be so important in this metabolic depot, and how temporal and qualitative aspects of energy intake play important roles in maintaining healthy fat throughout aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Biological Rhythms: Impact on Human Health)
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