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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Fermented foods have seen a surge in popularity in the Western world, mainly due to the proposed [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and 25-Hydroxivitamin D and Related Analytes among Hispanic/Latino Adults: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081959
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Although the association of vitamin D levels with cardiovascular risk profiles among Hispanics/Latinos has been studied, little is known about this association among Hispanics/Latinos with chronic conditions. This pilot study determined serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in a sample of [...] Read more.
Although the association of vitamin D levels with cardiovascular risk profiles among Hispanics/Latinos has been studied, little is known about this association among Hispanics/Latinos with chronic conditions. This pilot study determined serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in a sample of participants from the University of Illinois at the Chicago Cohort of Patients, Family and Friends (UIC Cohort) and examined their association with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. From July 2012 to June 2016, the UIC Cohort study enrolled and conducted clinical examinations on men and women ages 18 years and older, who had one or more diagnosed chronic diseases/conditions (excluding cancer). This pilot study sample included 40 participants from the six main Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States, namely Dominican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Central American, and South American, and were grouped by Caribbean or mainland origin. No substantial differences were noted in the vitamin D-related measures by Hispanic/Latino background, but the PTH levels were somewhat higher in the Caribbean vs. mainland group (43.0 ± 4.6 vs. 38.6 ± 2.7 pg/mL). The associations between selected CVD risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), total cholesterol, glucose) and PTH and vitamin D-related analytes were investigated using interval-censored multivariate regression models adjusted for age, sex, percent body fat, serum albumin/calcium, and Hispanic/Latino background. A negative association between total 25[OH]D and blood pressure was corroborated (SBP: β = −1.2, 95%CI = −2.0, −0.3; DBP: β = −0.7, 95% CI = −1.2, −0.1), whereas a positive association with total cholesterol was observed (β = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.02, 3.7). Levels of 1, 25[OH]2D were not associated with CVD risk factors, whereas 24, 25[OH]2D3 was associated with blood pressure (SBP: β = −13.0, 95% CI = −20.7, −5.2; DBP: β = −6.3, 95% CI = −11.6, −1.0). Estimated free 25[OH]D was inversely associated with both SBP (β = −3.5, 95% CI = −6.1, −0.9) and DBP (β = −2.1, 95% CI = −3.8, −0.3). Similarly, calculated bioavailable 25[OH]D was inversely associated with both SBP (β = −9.2, 95% CI = −15.9, −2.4) and DBP(β = −5.3, 95% CI = −9.8, −0.8). In conclusion, a negative association between 25[OH]D with BP was observed and a positive association with lipids is suggested. Due to the small sample size, most associations did not reach statistical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Open AccessCommunication
Supplementation of Plants with Immunomodulatory Properties during Pregnancy and Lactation—Maternal and Offspring Health Effects
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081958
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
A pregnant woman’s diet consists of many products, such as fruits, vegetables, cocoa, tea, chocolate, coffee, herbal and fruit teas, and various commercially available dietary supplements, which contain a high number of biological active plant-derived compounds. Generally, these compounds play beneficial roles in [...] Read more.
A pregnant woman’s diet consists of many products, such as fruits, vegetables, cocoa, tea, chocolate, coffee, herbal and fruit teas, and various commercially available dietary supplements, which contain a high number of biological active plant-derived compounds. Generally, these compounds play beneficial roles in women’s health and the development of fetus health. There are, however, some authors who report that consuming excessive amounts of plants that contain high concentrations of polyphenols may negatively affect the development of the fetus and the offspring’s health. Important and problematic issues during pregnancy and lactation are bacterial infections treatment. In the treatment are proposals to use plant immunomodulators, which are generally considered safe for women and their offspring. Additional consumption of biologically active compounds from plants, however, may increase the risk of occurrences to irreversible changes in the offspring’s health. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out safety tests for immunomodulators before introducing them into a maternal diet. Here, we present data from animal experiments for the four most-studied plants immunomodulators genus: Rhodiola, Echinacea, Panax, and Camellia, which were used in maternal nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health)
Open AccessCommunication
Gluten and FODMAPS—Sense of a Restriction/When Is Restriction Necessary?
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081957
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Gluten-free diet (GFD) is enjoying increasingly popularity, although gluten-free products are considerably more expensive. GFD is absolutely necessary for patients with celiac disease, as in this case even minor amounts of gluten can lead to the destruction of the intestinal mucosa. In addition, [...] Read more.
Gluten-free diet (GFD) is enjoying increasingly popularity, although gluten-free products are considerably more expensive. GFD is absolutely necessary for patients with celiac disease, as in this case even minor amounts of gluten can lead to the destruction of the intestinal mucosa. In addition, GFD is currently the best therapy to improve clinical symptoms of patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the diet may not be as strict as that for patients with celiac disease. Beside gluten, other wheat components such as oligosaccharides and amylase trypsin inhibitors are discussed as triggers of NCGS in this review. An overlap between gastrointestinal symptoms in NCGS and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is described. Patients with NCGS attribute their symptoms to the consumption of gluten, while patients with IBS rarely describe gluten as a trigger. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that the introduction of a low FODMAP (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet reduced gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS and this diet is suggested as the first choice of therapy in IBS. However, a low FODMAP diet also eliminates prebiotica and may negatively influence the gut microbiota. For this reason, the diet should be liberalized after symptom improvement. There is no evidence that a GFD is healthier than the standard diet. In contrast, GFD often is accompanied by nutritional deficiencies, mainly minerals and vitamins. Therefore, GFD and low FODMAP diets are not recommended for healthy subjects. Since wheat contains fructans belonging to FODMAPs), a GFD is not only gluten-free but also has less FODMAPs. Thus, symptom improvement cannot be correctly correlated with the reduction of either one or the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Gluten-Associated Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Lifestyle and Metabolic Syndrome: Contribution of the Endocannabinoidome
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081956
Received: 16 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Lifestyle is a well-known environmental factor that plays a major role in facilitating the development of metabolic syndrome or eventually exacerbating its consequences. Various lifestyle factors, especially changes in dietary habits, extreme temperatures, unusual light–dark cycles, substance abuse, and other stressful factors, are [...] Read more.
Lifestyle is a well-known environmental factor that plays a major role in facilitating the development of metabolic syndrome or eventually exacerbating its consequences. Various lifestyle factors, especially changes in dietary habits, extreme temperatures, unusual light–dark cycles, substance abuse, and other stressful factors, are also established modifiers of the endocannabinoid system and its extended version, the endocannabinoidome. The endocannabinoidome is a complex lipid signaling system composed of a plethora (>100) of fatty acid-derived mediators and their receptors and anabolic and catabolic enzymes (>50 proteins) which are deeply involved in the control of energy metabolism and its pathological deviations. A strong link between the endocannabinoidome and another major player in metabolism and dysmetabolism, the gut microbiome, is also emerging. Here, we review several examples of how lifestyle modifications (westernized diets, lack or presence of certain nutritional factors, physical exercise, and the use of cannabis) can modulate the propensity to develop metabolic syndrome by modifying the crosstalk between the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome and, hence, how lifestyle interventions can provide new therapies against cardiometabolic risk by ensuring correct functioning of both these systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Youth with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder: Examining Differences by Age, Weight Status, and Symptom Duration
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081955
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences among youth with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) by age, weight status, and symptom duration. A secondary goal was to report the frequencies of ARFID using DSM-5 clinical presentations (i.e., fear of aversive [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences among youth with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) by age, weight status, and symptom duration. A secondary goal was to report the frequencies of ARFID using DSM-5 clinical presentations (i.e., fear of aversive consequences, lack of interest in food, sensory sensitivities). Participants (N = 102), ages 8–18 years, were recruited through an eating disorder service within a pediatric hospital. They were evaluated using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Patients were assigned to groups according to age, weight status, and symptom duration. Frequencies of clinical presentations, including combinations of DSM-5 categories, were also examined. Our findings suggest that adolescents presented with higher rates of Depression (p = 0.04). Youth with chronic ARFID symptoms presented with significantly lower weight (p = 0.03), and those with acute symptoms rated significantly higher suicidal ideation and/or self- harm (p = 0.02). Half of patients met criteria for more than one ARFID symptom presentation. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth with ARFID differ in clinical presentation depending on age, weight status, and symptom duration, and highlights safety concerns for those with acute symptoms of ARFID. High rates of overlapping symptom presentations might suggest a dimensional approach in the conceptualization of ARFID. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Eating and Feeding Disturbances)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D-Related Genes, Blood Vitamin D Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Western European Populations
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081954 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well [...] Read more.
Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the VDR, GC, and CYP27B1 genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (LRP2, CUBN, NCOA7, and HDAC9). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini–Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling was associated with CRC risk (P ≤ 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being SMAD7 (PBH = 0.008) and SMAD3 (PBH = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites (P = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction P = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
Open AccessReview
How Lifestyle Factors Affect Cognitive and Executive Function and the Ability to Learn in Children
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081953
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
In today’s research environment, children’s diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors are commonly studied in the context of health, independent of their effect on cognition and learning. Moreover, there is little overlap between the two literatures, although it is reasonable to expect [...] Read more.
In today’s research environment, children’s diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors are commonly studied in the context of health, independent of their effect on cognition and learning. Moreover, there is little overlap between the two literatures, although it is reasonable to expect that the lifestyle factors explored in the health-focused research are intertwined with cognition and learning processes. This thematic review provides an overview of knowledge connecting the selected lifestyle factors of diet, physical activity, and sleep hygiene to children’s cognition and learning. Research from studies of diet and nutrition, physical activity and fitness, sleep, and broader influences of cultural and socioeconomic factors related to health and learning, were summarized to offer examples of research that integrate lifestyle factors and cognition with learning. The literature review demonstrates that the associations and causal relationships between these factors are vastly understudied. As a result, current knowledge on predictors of optimal cognition and learning is incomplete, and likely lacks understanding of many critical facts and relationships, their interactions, and the nature of their relationships, such as there being mediating or confounding factors that could provide important knowledge to increase the efficacy of learning-focused interventions. This review provides information focused on studies in children. Although basic research in cells or animal studies are available and indicate a number of possible physiological pathways, inclusion of those data would distract from the fact that there is a significant gap in knowledge on lifestyle factors and optimal learning in children. In a climate where childcare and school feeding policies are continuously discussed, this thematic review aims to provide an impulse for discussion and a call for more holistic approaches to support child development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake, Brain Development and Learning)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Glutathionylation in Infection and Inflammation
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081952
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Glutathionylation, that is, the formation of mixed disulfides between protein cysteines and glutathione (GSH) cysteines, is a reversible post-translational modification catalyzed by different cellular oxidoreductases, by which the redox state of the cell modulates protein function. So far, most studies on the identification [...] Read more.
Glutathionylation, that is, the formation of mixed disulfides between protein cysteines and glutathione (GSH) cysteines, is a reversible post-translational modification catalyzed by different cellular oxidoreductases, by which the redox state of the cell modulates protein function. So far, most studies on the identification of glutathionylated proteins have focused on cellular proteins, including proteins involved in host response to infection, but there is a growing number of reports showing that microbial proteins also undergo glutathionylation, with modification of their characteristics and functions. In the present review, we highlight the signaling role of GSH through glutathionylation, particularly focusing on microbial (viral and bacterial) glutathionylated proteins (GSSPs) and host GSSPs involved in the immune/inflammatory response to infection; moreover, we discuss the biological role of the process in microbial infections and related host responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutathione Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Malnutrition is Associated with Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Dementia in Older Women with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081951
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
We examined the nutritional status and its association with behavioral psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among 741 memory clinic patients (normal cognition (NC), 152; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 271; early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD), 318). Nutritional status and BPSD were assessed using the Mini [...] Read more.
We examined the nutritional status and its association with behavioral psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among 741 memory clinic patients (normal cognition (NC), 152; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 271; early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD), 318). Nutritional status and BPSD were assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) and the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale (DBD), respectively. Compared to subjects with NC, more subjects with MCI and early-stage AD were at risk of malnutrition (MNA-SF, 8–11: NC, 34.2%; MCI, 47.5%; early-stage AD, 53.8%) and were malnourished (MNA-SF, 0–7: NC, 4.6%; MCI, 5.9%; early-stage AD, 8.2%). Among patients with MCI or early-stage AD, those at risk of/with malnutrition showed higher DBD scores than those well-nourished (12.7 ± 9.0 vs. 9.5 ± 7.3; p < 0.001). Moreover, analysis of covariance adjusting for confounders showed that nutritional status was significantly associated with specific BPSD, including “verbal aggressiveness/emotional disinhibition” (F = 5.87, p = 0.016) and “apathy/memory impairment” (F = 15.38, p < 0.001), which were revealed by factor analysis of DBD. Our results suggest that malnutrition is common among older adults with mild cognitive decline, and possibility that nutritional problems are associated with individual BPSD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prevalence of Coeliac Disease in Women with Infertility
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081950
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in women with reproductive problems. A systematic review of English published articles until June 2019 was performed in PubMed and Scopus using the terms: (infertility and (coeliac disease OR gluten) [...] Read more.
We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in women with reproductive problems. A systematic review of English published articles until June 2019 was performed in PubMed and Scopus using the terms: (infertility and (coeliac disease OR gluten) OR (miscarriage and (coeliac disease OR gluten) OR (abortion and (coeliac disease OR gluten). All articles showing numerical data of anti-transglutaminase type 2 or anti-endomisium antibodies, or intestinal biopsy information were included. The study group comprised women with overall infertility, unexplained infertility, or recurrent spontaneous abortions. Two authors independently performed data extraction using a predefined data sheet. The initial search yielded 310 articles, and 23 were selected for data extraction. After meta-analysis, the pooled seroprevalence was very similar for overall and unexplained infertility, with a pooled proportion of around 1.3%–1.6%. This implies three times higher odds of having CD in infertility when compared to controls. The pooled prevalence could not be accurately calculated due to the small sample sizes. Further studies with increased sample sizes are necessary before giving specific recommendations for CD screening in women with reproductive problems, but current data seem to support a higher risk of CD in these women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Celiac Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Risk of Breast Cancer Based on Hormone Receptor Status: A Case-Control Study in Korea
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081949
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and the risk of developing breast cancer is associated with inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and breast cancer in Korean women [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and the risk of developing breast cancer is associated with inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and breast cancer in Korean women and investigate whether the tumor’s hormone receptor status affects this association. In this case-control study, we enrolled 364 breast cancer patients and 364 age-matched controls. DII scores were calculated from dietary intake evaluated by a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. The DII score was significantly higher in cases than in controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was higher in the highest DII tertile (OR = 3.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.34–5.80, p for trend < 0.0001) than in the lowest tertile. We found that higher DII scores were related to an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ tumors regardless of menopausal status (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.37–4.88 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.01 for premenopausal women; OR = 11.00, 95% CI: 2.93–41.30 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.0004 for postmenopausal women), but not for ER−/PR− status. Our results suggested that the DII scores are positively associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women and that this relationship is more robust in ER+/PR+ tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Milk and Alternatives and Their Contribution to Nutrient Intakes among Canadian Adults: Evidence from the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081948
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
As a staple food and dense source of nutrients, milk and alternatives play an important role in nutrient adequacy. The aims of this study were to quantify the consumption of milk and alternatives within Canadian self-selected diets and determine their contribution to intakes [...] Read more.
As a staple food and dense source of nutrients, milk and alternatives play an important role in nutrient adequacy. The aims of this study were to quantify the consumption of milk and alternatives within Canadian self-selected diets and determine their contribution to intakes of nutrients and energy. First, 24-h dietary recalls from the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition were used to assess 1-d food and nutrient intakes among Canadian adults ≥19 y (n = 13,616). Foods were classified as milk and alternatives according to the 2007 Canada’s Food Guide. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate daily servings of milk and alternatives by different age groups and demographic characteristics. Population ratios were used to discern their contribution to total intakes of nutrients and energy. Mean daily servings (±SE) were highest for milk (0.60 ± 0.02) and cheese (0.42 ± 0.01), intermediate for frozen dairy (0.16 ± 0.01) and yoghurt (0.14 ± 0.01), and lowest for soy and other dairy (<0.03). Intakes were lowest among Canadians 51 + y (1.3 ± 0.03), females (1.25 ± 0.03), non-Caucasians (1.06 ± 0.05), those with less than a secondary education (1.19 ± 0.05), and British Columbians (1.17 ± 0.05). Milk and alternatives contributed >20% to total intakes of calcium (52.62 ± 0.46%), vitamin D (38.53 ± 0.78%), saturated fat (28.84 ± 0.51%), vitamin B12 (27.73 ± 0.57%), vitamin A (26.16 ± 0.58%), phosphorus (24.76 ± 0.35%), and riboflavin (24.43 ± 0.37%), of which milk was the top source. Milk and alternatives contribute substantially to nutrient intakes and thus warrant further attention in terms of mitigating nutrient inadequacy among the Canadian population. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Determination of Urinary Caffeine Metabolites as Biomarkers for Drug Metabolic Enzyme Activities
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081947
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Caffeine is commonly taken via the daily dietary consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The absorbed caffeine is metabolized to yield various metabolites by drug-metabolizing enzymes, and measuring the levels of each caffeine metabolite can provide useful information for evaluating the phenotypes of those enzymes. [...] Read more.
Caffeine is commonly taken via the daily dietary consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The absorbed caffeine is metabolized to yield various metabolites by drug-metabolizing enzymes, and measuring the levels of each caffeine metabolite can provide useful information for evaluating the phenotypes of those enzymes. In this study, the urinary concentrations of caffeine and its 13 metabolites were determined, and the phenotypes of drug metabolic enzymes were investigated based on the caffeine metabolite ratios. Human urine samples were pretreated using solid phase extraction, and caffeine and its metabolites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the urinary caffeine metabolite concentrations, the caffeine metabolite ratios were calculated for six human subjects at specified time points after caffeine intake. Variations in urinary metabolite levels among individuals and time points were reported. In addition, the resultant enzyme activities showed different patterns, depending on the metabolite ratio equations applied. However, some data presented a constant metabolite ratio range, irrespective of time points, even at pre-dose. This suggests the possibility of urinary caffeine metabolite analysis for routine clinical examination. These findings show that urinary caffeine and the metabolite analysis would be useful in evaluating metabolic phenotypes for personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Multidimensional Analysis of Food Consumption Reveals a Unique Dietary Profile Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081946
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
There is a significant increase in overweight and obesity in adolescents worldwide. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to examine the potential association between food consumption profiles and overweight in a large number of adolescents from Brazil. Sampling by clusters and conglomerates was [...] Read more.
There is a significant increase in overweight and obesity in adolescents worldwide. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to examine the potential association between food consumption profiles and overweight in a large number of adolescents from Brazil. Sampling by clusters and conglomerates was carried out in students of public schools in Salvador, Brazil, between June and December 2009 and 1496 adolescents were evaluated. Data on socio-epidemiological data, anthropometric status and food consumption were captured. Multivariate analyses, such as hierarchical clustering and correlation networks, were used to perform a detailed description of food consumption profiles. There were differences in age and anthropometric status related to sex. Four clusters of food groups were identified based on the intake profile in the study population. No disparities in food intake were observed in individuals stratified by sex or anthropometric status. Furthermore, network analysis revealed that overweight or obesity were hallmarked by a selectivity in the ingestion of food groups that resulted in the appearance of inverse correlations of consumption, which was not present in eutrophic adolescents. Thus, overweight and obesity are associated with preferential choices of ingestion of specific food groups, which result in the appearance of inverse correlations of consumption. Such knowledge may serve as basis for future targeted nutritional interventions in adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The Two Faces of Cow’s Milk and Allergy: Induction of Cow’s Milk Allergy vs. Prevention of Asthma
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081945
Received: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Cow’s milk has been consumed by humans for over 5000 years and contributed to a drastic change in lifestyle form nomadic to settled communities. As the composition of cow’s milk is relatively comparable to breast milk, it has for a very long time [...] Read more.
Cow’s milk has been consumed by humans for over 5000 years and contributed to a drastic change in lifestyle form nomadic to settled communities. As the composition of cow’s milk is relatively comparable to breast milk, it has for a very long time been used as an alternative to breastfeeding. Today, cow’s milk is typically introduced into the diet of infants around 6 months, except when breastfeeding is not an option. In that case, most often cow’s milk based infant formulas are given. Some children will develop cow’s milk allergy (CMA) during the first year of life. However, epidemiological evidence also suggests that consumption of unprocessed, “raw” cow’s milk is associated with a lowered prevalence of other allergies. This Special Issue of Nutrients on “Cow’s Milk and Allergy” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients/special_issues/milk_allergy) is dedicated to these two different sides of cow’s milk and allergy, ranging from epidemiology of CMA, clinical presentation and sensitization patterns, treatment and prevention, effects of milk processing, and current management guidelines for CMA, but also the epidemiological evidence linking cow’s milk to lower asthma prevalence as well as the tolerance-inducing effect of raw cow’s milk in food allergy models. In this editorial, we discuss these issues by highlighting the contributions in this Special Issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle
Antitumor, Inhibition of Metastasis and Radiosensitizing Effects of Total Nutrition Formula on Lewis Tumor-Bearing Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081944
Received: 23 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
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Abstract
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) causes high mortality. Radiotherapy is an induction regimen generally applied to patients with NSCLC. In view of therapeutic efficacy, the outcome is not appealing in addition to bringing about unwanted side effects. Total nutrition is a new trend in [...] Read more.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) causes high mortality. Radiotherapy is an induction regimen generally applied to patients with NSCLC. In view of therapeutic efficacy, the outcome is not appealing in addition to bringing about unwanted side effects. Total nutrition is a new trend in cancer therapy, which benefits cancer patients under radiotherapy. Male C57BL/6JNarl mice were experimentally divided into five groups: one control group, one T group (borne with Lewis lung carcinoma but no treatment), and three Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing groups administrated with a total nutrition formula (T + TNuF group), a local radiotherapy plus daily 3 Gy in three fractions (T + R group), or a combination TNuF and radiotherapy (T + R + TNuF group). These mice were assessed for their mean tumor volumes, cachectic symptoms and tumor metastasis. TNuF administration significantly suppressed tumor growth and activated apoptotic cell death in NSCLC-bearing mice under radiation. The body-weight gain was increased, while the radiation-induced cachexia was alleviated. Analysis of mechanisms suggests that TNuF downregulates EGFR and VEGF signaling pathways, inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. In light of radiation-induced tumor cell death, mitigation of radiation-induced cachexia and inhibition of tumor cell distant metastasis, the combination of TNuF and radiotherapy synergistically downregulates EGFR and VEGF signaling in NSCLC-bearing mice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Short-Chain Fatty Acid Acetate in Body Weight Control and Insulin Sensitivity
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081943
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
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Abstract
The interplay of gut microbiota, host metabolism, and metabolic health has gained increased attention. Gut microbiota may play a regulatory role in gastrointestinal health, substrate metabolism, and peripheral tissues including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreas via its metabolites short-chain fatty acids [...] Read more.
The interplay of gut microbiota, host metabolism, and metabolic health has gained increased attention. Gut microbiota may play a regulatory role in gastrointestinal health, substrate metabolism, and peripheral tissues including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreas via its metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Animal and human data demonstrated that, in particular, acetate beneficially affects host energy and substrate metabolism via secretion of the gut hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY, which, thereby, affects appetite, via a reduction in whole-body lipolysis, systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and via an increase in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Thus, potential therapies to increase gut microbial fermentation and acetate production have been under vigorous scientific scrutiny. In this review, the relevance of the colonically and systemically most abundant SCFA acetate and its effects on the previously mentioned tissues will be discussed in relation to body weight control and glucose homeostasis. We discuss in detail the differential effects of oral acetate administration (vinegar intake), colonic acetate infusions, acetogenic fiber, and acetogenic probiotic administrations as approaches to combat obesity and comorbidities. Notably, human data are scarce, which highlights the necessity for further human research to investigate acetate’s role in host physiology, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Serine Phosphorylation of IRS1 Correlates with Aβ-Unrelated Memory Deficits and Elevation in Aβ Level Prior to the Onset of Memory Decline in AD
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081942
Received: 23 July 2019 / Revised: 3 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
The biological effects of insulin signaling are regulated by the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at serine (Ser) residues. In the brain, phosphorylation of IRS1 at specific Ser sites increases in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its animal models. However, [...] Read more.
The biological effects of insulin signaling are regulated by the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at serine (Ser) residues. In the brain, phosphorylation of IRS1 at specific Ser sites increases in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its animal models. However, whether the activation of Ser sites on neural IRS1 is related to any type of memory decline remains unclear. Here, we show the modifications of IRS1 through its phosphorylation at etiology-specific Ser sites in various animal models of memory decline, such as diabetic, aged, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in NL-G-F (APPKINL-G-F) mice. Substantial phosphorylation of IRS1 at specific Ser sites occurs in type 2 diabetes- or age-related memory deficits independently of amyloid-β (Aβ). Furthermore, we present the first evidence that, in APPKINL-G-F mice showing Aβ42 elevation, the increased phosphorylation of IRS1 at multiple Ser sites occurs without memory impairment. Our findings suggest that the phosphorylation of IRS1 at specific Ser sites is a potential marker of Aβ-unrelated memory deficits caused by type 2 diabetes and aging; however, in Aβ-related memory decline, the modifications of IRS1 may be a marker of early detection of Aβ42 elevation prior to the onset of memory decline in AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Growth Hormone and Glutamine on Intestinal Stem Cells: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081941
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
Growth hormone (GH) and glutamine (Gln) stimulate the growth of the intestinal mucosa. GH activates the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs), enhances the formation of crypt organoids, increases ISC stemness markers in the intestinal organoids, and drives the differentiation of ISCs into [...] Read more.
Growth hormone (GH) and glutamine (Gln) stimulate the growth of the intestinal mucosa. GH activates the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs), enhances the formation of crypt organoids, increases ISC stemness markers in the intestinal organoids, and drives the differentiation of ISCs into Paneth cells and enterocytes. Gln enhances the proliferation of ISCs and increases crypt organoid formation; however, it mainly acts on the post-proliferation activity of ISCs to maintain the stability of crypt organoids and the intestinal mucosa, as well as to stimulate the differentiation of ISCs into goblet cells and possibly Paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells. Since GH and Gln have differential effects on ISCs. Their use in combination may have synergistic effects on ISCs. In this review, we summarize the evidence of the actions of GH and/or Gln on crypt cells and ISCs in the literature. Overall, most studies demonstrated that GH and Gln in combination exerted synergistic effects to activate the proliferation of crypt cells and ISCs and enhance crypt organoid formation and mucosal growth. This treatment influenced the proliferation of ISCs to a similar degree as GH treatment alone and the differentiation of ISCs to a similar degree as Gln treatment alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases and Disorders)
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Open AccessEditorial
GDM and Nutrition—Answered and Unanswered Questions—There’s More Work to Do!
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081940
Received: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the commonest medical pregnancy complication, and a growing problem around the world as the obesity epidemic continues. Ways to prevent GDM are urgently required, the management of GDM still poses many unanswered questions, and the postpartum prevention of [...] Read more.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the commonest medical pregnancy complication, and a growing problem around the world as the obesity epidemic continues. Ways to prevent GDM are urgently required, the management of GDM still poses many unanswered questions, and the postpartum prevention of the progression of GDM to type 2 diabetes remains a challenge. With GDM, the impact of any intervention on the offspring is always a major concern. Nutritional interventions come to the fore as one of our few levers in reducing the short-term pregnancy risk and long-term cardiometabolic risks to both mother and child. This special issue reports on the relationship between several nutrients and foods and the development and management of GDM, behavioural strategies to enhance lifestyle choices, the issues raised by prior bariatric surgery and ways to screen for GDM. The work identifies further unanswered questions over nutritional strategies to reduce the impact of GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle
Premenstrual Syndrome Is Associated with Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from Sharjah, UAE
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081939
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical late luteal phase disorder of the menstrual cycle whereby the daily functioning of women is affected by emotional and physical symptoms substantially interfering with their quality of life. Little is known about PMS in the United Arab [...] Read more.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical late luteal phase disorder of the menstrual cycle whereby the daily functioning of women is affected by emotional and physical symptoms substantially interfering with their quality of life. Little is known about PMS in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of PMS among university students in Sharjah, UAE, and clarify its associations with dietary habits, lifestyle behaviors, and anthropometric factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on female college students at the University of Sharjah, UAE. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and anthropometric assessments. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Participants were 300 adult university students aged 18–24 years (mean age 20.07 ± 1.53 years). In total, 95% of participants reported at least one PMS symptom during their menstrual period. The prevalence of PMS was 35.3%, with mild symptoms being the most commonly reported. Multiple regression analysis showed that smoking was associated with increased risk of reporting psychological (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1–5.8; p < 0.05) and behavioral symptoms (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.9; p < 0.05), while high calorie/fat/sugar/salt foods intake was associated with increased risk of reporting physical symptoms (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4–7.3; p < 0.05). However, fruit consumption (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.125–0.92; p < 0.05) was associated with a decreased risk of reporting behavioral symptoms. A high prevalence of PMS was reported among university students, with smoking and high calorie/fat/sugar/salt food consumption identified as strong risk factors for PMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Estrogen Metabolism and Women's Health)
Open AccessArticle
A 5Ad Dietary Protocol for Functional Bowel Disorders
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081938
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) affect around 20% of the population worldwide and are associated with reduced quality of life and high healthcare costs. Dietary therapies are frequently implemented to assist with symptom relief in these individuals, however, there are concerns regarding their complexity, [...] Read more.
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) affect around 20% of the population worldwide and are associated with reduced quality of life and high healthcare costs. Dietary therapies are frequently implemented to assist with symptom relief in these individuals, however, there are concerns regarding their complexity, restrictiveness, nutritional adequacy, and effectiveness. Thus, to overcome these limitations, a novel approach, the 5Ad Dietary Protocol, was designed and tested for its efficacy in reducing the severity of a range of gastrointestinal symptoms in 22 subjects with FBDs. The protocol was evaluated in a repeated measures MANOVA design (baseline week and intervention week). Measures of stool consistency and frequency were subtyped based on the subject baseline status. Significant improvements were seen in all abdominal symptom measures (p < 0.01). The effect was independent of body mass index (BMI), age, gender, physical activity level, and whether or not the subjects were formally diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) prior to participation. Stool consistency and frequency also improved in the respective contrasting subtypes. The 5Ad Dietary Protocol proved to be a promising universal approach for varying forms and severities of FBDs. The present study paves the way for future research encompassing a longer study duration and the exploration of underlying physiological mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Grain Intake, Nutrient Intake, and Diet Quality of Canadians: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081937
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
The new Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommends whole grains foods as the primary choice of grain products in the daily diet. This study examined whether higher shares of whole-grain consumption, beyond the recommended levels (i.e., above half) of the daily grain intake, are [...] Read more.
The new Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommends whole grains foods as the primary choice of grain products in the daily diet. This study examined whether higher shares of whole-grain consumption, beyond the recommended levels (i.e., above half) of the daily grain intake, are linked with optimal diet quality and intakes of some key nutrients, for both children and adolescents and adults in Canada. To meet the objective of this study, we used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)–Nutrition 2015, which is a nationally representative data. We employed the propensity score matching (PSM) method in this study. PSM estimates the exposure effect when a set of individuals are exposed to a specific treatment (food group intake in this study) in a non-experimental setting. The results of our analyses implied that a high consumption of whole grains is associated with a good diet quality. However, after a certain level of whole-grain consumption, no significant differences can be observed in diet quality scores of children and adolescents and adults. Moreover, it was observed that the proportion of obese and overweight individuals was significantly lower among adults that had balanced intakes of whole and non-whole grains. The results of logistic regression analyses also showed the probability of being obese and overweight is significantly lower in the case of adults with balanced intakes of grains. However, no significant differences were observed in the prevalence of obesity and overweight across whole grains consumption patterns for children and adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Dietary Isoflavone Intake and Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms in Polish Caucasian Individuals
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081936
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
Currently there are contradictory observations regarding the associations between the isoflavone intake and inflammatory bowel disease in terms of its prevention and treatment, and this may be attributed to the diversity of applied doses and influence of various isoflavones. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Currently there are contradictory observations regarding the associations between the isoflavone intake and inflammatory bowel disease in terms of its prevention and treatment, and this may be attributed to the diversity of applied doses and influence of various isoflavones. The aim of the presented cross-sectional study is to analyze the association between intake of various isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, glicytein and total isoflavones) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (fecal blood, mucus and pus) in Polish Caucasian individuals in confirmed remission. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data obtained from patients’ three-day dietary records and their individual assessments of symptoms. A total of 56 Caucasian patients with ulcerative colitis in confirmed remission were recruited for the study (37 females and 19 males, aged 18–80). For individuals with no fecal mucus observed, higher daidzein (p = 0.035, 122 vs. 19 µg) and total isoflavone intakes (p = 0.034, 302.2 vs. 123.7 µg) were observed in comparison with individuals not declaring this symptom, while for daidzein it was confirmed for the component density of their diets. The opposite association was stated for fecal pus, as for individuals with a lack of this symptom, lower daidzein intake was stated in comparison with individuals declaring this symptom (p = 0.049, 103.3 vs. 206.7 µg), but it was not confirmed for the component density of the diets. It was stated that the high intake of isoflavones by Caucasian individuals, as in a western diet, may influence the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, with the strongest influence by daidzein. Taking this into account, isoflavones may be included into the diets of ulcerative colitis patients in remission if well-tolerated, but there is a need for further study. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Maternal Fructose Intake on Perinatal ER-Stress: A Defective XBP1s Nuclear Translocation Affects the ER-stress Resolution
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081935
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is crucial to appropriate cell functioning, and when disturbed, a safeguard system called unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. Fructose consumption modifies ER homeostasis and has been related to metabolic syndrome. However, fructose sweetened beverages intake is allowed during [...] Read more.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is crucial to appropriate cell functioning, and when disturbed, a safeguard system called unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. Fructose consumption modifies ER homeostasis and has been related to metabolic syndrome. However, fructose sweetened beverages intake is allowed during gestation. Therefore, we investigate whether maternal fructose intake affects the ER status and induces UPR. Thus, administrating liquid fructose (10% w/v) to pregnant rats partially activated the ER-stress in maternal and fetal liver and placenta. In fact, a fructose-induced increase in the levels of pIRE1 (phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme-1) and its downstream effector, X-box binding protein-1 spliced form (XBP1s), was observed. XBP1s is a key transcription factor, however, XBP1s nuclear translocation and the expression of its target genes were reduced in the liver of the carbohydrate-fed mothers, and specifically diminished in the fetal liver and placenta in the fructose-fed mothers. These XBP1s target genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system, used to buffer ER-stress and to restore ER-homeostasis. It is known that XBP1s needs to form a complex with diverse proteins to migrate into the nucleus. Since methylglyoxal (MGO) content, a precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), was augmented in the three tissues in the fructose-fed mothers and has been related to interfere with the functioning of many proteins, the role of MGO in XBP1s migration should not be discarded. In conclusion, maternal fructose intake produces ER-stress, but without XBP1s nuclear migration. Therefore, a complete activation of UPR that would resolve ER-stress is lacking. A state of fructose-induced oxidative stress is probably involved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consumers’ Perceptions of Five Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels: An Experimental Study Across 12 Countries
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081934
Received: 25 July 2019 / Revised: 11 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
Consumers’ perceptions of five front-of-pack nutrition label formats (health star rating (HSR), multiple traffic lights (MTL), Nutri-Score, reference intakes (RI) and warning label) were assessed across 12 countries (Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Mexico, Singapore, Spain, the UK and the USA). [...] Read more.
Consumers’ perceptions of five front-of-pack nutrition label formats (health star rating (HSR), multiple traffic lights (MTL), Nutri-Score, reference intakes (RI) and warning label) were assessed across 12 countries (Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Mexico, Singapore, Spain, the UK and the USA). Perceptions assessed included liking, trust, comprehensibility, salience and desire for the label to be mandatory. A sample of 12,015 respondents completed an online survey in which they rated one of the five (randomly allocated) front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) along the perception dimensions described above. Respondents viewing the MTL provided the most favourable ratings. Perceptions of the other FoPLs were mixed or neutral. No meaningful or consistent patterns were observed in the interactions between country and FoPL type, indicating that culture was not a strong predictor of general perceptions. The overall ranking of the FoPLs differed somewhat from previous research assessing their objective performance in terms of enhancing understanding of product healthiness, in which the Nutri-Score was the clear front-runner. Respondents showed a strong preference for mandatory labelling, regardless of label condition, which is consistent with past research showing that the application of labels across all products leads to healthier choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Labeling: Analysis, Understanding, and Perception)
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Open AccessEditorial
Diet and Immune Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081933
Received: 9 August 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
A well-functioning immune system is critical for survival. The immune system must be constantly alert, monitoring for signs of invasion or danger. Cells of the immune system must be able to distinguish self from non-self and furthermore discriminate between non-self molecules which are [...] Read more.
A well-functioning immune system is critical for survival. The immune system must be constantly alert, monitoring for signs of invasion or danger. Cells of the immune system must be able to distinguish self from non-self and furthermore discriminate between non-self molecules which are harmful (e.g., those from pathogens) and innocuous non-self molecules (e.g., from food). This Special Issue of Nutrients explores the relationship between diet and nutrients and immune function. In this preface, we outline the key functions of the immune system, and how it interacts with nutrients across the life course, highlighting the work included within this Special Issue. This includes the role of macronutrients, micronutrients, and the gut microbiome in mediating immunological effects. Nutritional modulation of the immune system has applications within the clinical setting, but can also have a role in healthy populations, acting to reduce or delay the onset of immune-mediated chronic diseases. Ongoing research in this field will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the role of diet and nutrients in immune function and will facilitate the use of bespoke nutrition to improve human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview
Children in Need—Diagnostics, Epidemiology, Treatment and Outcome of Early Onset Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081932
Received: 25 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
Knowledge of anorexia nervosa (AN) in childhood is scarce. This review gives a state-of-the-art overview on the definition, classification, epidemiology and etiology of this serious disorder. The typical features of childhood AN in comparison to adolescent AN and avoidant restrictive eating disorder (ARFID) [...] Read more.
Knowledge of anorexia nervosa (AN) in childhood is scarce. This review gives a state-of-the-art overview on the definition, classification, epidemiology and etiology of this serious disorder. The typical features of childhood AN in comparison to adolescent AN and avoidant restrictive eating disorder (ARFID) are described. Other important issues discussed in this article are somatic and psychiatric comorbidity, differential diagnoses and medical and psychological assessment of young patients with AN. Special problems in the medical and psychological treatment of AN in children are listed, although very few studies have investigated age-specific treatment strategies. The physical and mental outcomes of childhood AN appear to be worse than those of adolescent AN, although the causes for these outcomes are unclear. There is an urgent need for ongoing intensive research to reduce the consequences of this debilitating disorder of childhood and to help patients recover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Eating and Feeding Disturbances)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Long-Term Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation with or without Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention on Muscle Strength in Older Adults: Secondary Analysis of the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT)
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081931
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
Background: The benefits of long-term omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3-PUFA) supplementation on muscle strength in older adults remains to be investigated. Objectives: We assessed the effect of ω3-PUFA supplementation and a multidomain (physical activity, cognitive training, and nutritional advice), alone or in [...] Read more.
Background: The benefits of long-term omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3-PUFA) supplementation on muscle strength in older adults remains to be investigated. Objectives: We assessed the effect of ω3-PUFA supplementation and a multidomain (physical activity, cognitive training, and nutritional advice), alone or in combination, compared with placebo, on muscle strength. We also hypothesized that ω3-PUFA supplementation resulted in additional benefit in participants with a low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) erythrocyte level at baseline and high adherence to the multidomain intervention sessions. Design: We performed secondary analyses of the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT), a 3-year, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with four parallel groups. Participants were non-demented, aged 70 years or older. They were recruited in 13 memory clinics in France and Monaco between 30 May 2008 and 24 February 2011. Participants were randomly assigned to either ω3-PUFA alone (two capsules a day providing a total daily dose of 800 mg DHA and 225 mg EPA), ω3-PUFA plus the multidomain intervention (43 group sessions integrating advice for physical activity (PA), and nutrition, cognitive training, and three preventive consultations), the multidomain intervention plus placebo, or placebo alone. Our primary outcome was the change from baseline to 36 months of the muscle strength assessed with the repeated chair stand test and handgrip strength. Results: A total of 1680 participants (75.34 years ± 4.42) were randomized. In the modified intention-to-treat population (n = 1679), no significant differences at 3-year follow-up were observed in the repeated chair stand test score between any of the three intervention groups and the placebo group. The between-group differences compared with placebo were −0.05388 (−0.6800 to 0.5723; Standard Error, SE = 0.3192; p = 0.8660) for the ω3-PUFA group, −0.3936 (−1.0217 to 0.2345; SE = 0.3180; p = 0.2192) for the multidomain intervention plus placebo group, and −0.6017 (−1.2255 to 0.02222; SE = 0.2092; p = 0.3202) for the combined intervention group. No significant effect was also found for the handgrip strength. Sensitivity analyses performed among participants with low (DHA+EPA) erythrocyte level at baseline (first quartile vs. others) or highly adherent participants (≥75% of the multidomain intervention sessions) revealed similar results. Conclusion: Low dose ω3-PUFA supplementation, either alone or in combination with a multidomain lifestyle intervention comprising physical activity counselling, had no significant effects on muscle strength over 3 years in elderly people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty: Role of Nutrition and Exercise)
Open AccessArticle
The Metabolic Benefits of Menopausal Hormone Therapy Are Not Mediated by Improved Nutritional Habits. The OsteoLaus Cohort
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081930
Received: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
Menopause alters body composition by increasing fat mass. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with decreased total and visceral adiposity. It is unclear whether MHT favorably affects energy intake. We aimed to assess in the OsteoLaus cohort whether total energy intake (TEI) and/or [...] Read more.
Menopause alters body composition by increasing fat mass. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with decreased total and visceral adiposity. It is unclear whether MHT favorably affects energy intake. We aimed to assess in the OsteoLaus cohort whether total energy intake (TEI) and/or diet quality (macro- and micronutrients, dietary patterns, dietary scores, dietary recommendations)—evaluated by a validated food frequency questionnaire—differ in 839 postmenopausal women classified as current, past or never MHT users. There was no difference between groups regarding TEI or consumption of macronutrients. After multivariable adjustment, MHT users were less likely to adhere to the unhealthy pattern ‘fat and sugar: Current vs. never users [OR (95% CI): 0.48 (0.28–0.82)]; past vs. never users [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.27–0.78)]. Past users exhibited a better performance in the revised score for Mediterranean diet than never users (5.00 ± 0.12 vs. 4.63 ± 0.08, p < 0.04). Differences regarding compliance with dietary recommendations were no longer significant after adjustment for covariates. Overall, these results argue against a major role of TEI and diet quality as possible mediators of the MHT metabolic benefits. Future research on this relationship should focus on other potential targets of MHT, such as resting energy expenditure and physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Estrogen Metabolism and Women's Health)
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