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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) With the obesity epidemic being largely attributed to overeating, much research has been aimed at [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of 12 Weeks of β-Hydroxy-β-Methyl-Butyrate Supplementation after Liver Transplantation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092259 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Sarcopenia is a frequent complication in liver transplant (LT) recipients. β-hydroxy-β-methyl-butyrate (HMB) has the potential to increase muscle-performance and tropism. Our study aims at evaluating the effect on muscle mass and functioning, and the safety of 12 weeks of HMB supplementation in patients [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is a frequent complication in liver transplant (LT) recipients. β-hydroxy-β-methyl-butyrate (HMB) has the potential to increase muscle-performance and tropism. Our study aims at evaluating the effect on muscle mass and functioning, and the safety of 12 weeks of HMB supplementation in patients after LT. This is a pilot, randomized study. Male patients undergoing LT were randomly assigned to the HMB or control group. A diet interview, anthropometry and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed at enrollment (T0), after 12 weeks (T1) and after 12 months (T12). Twenty-two liver transplant male patients were enrolled in the study: 12 in the HMB group and 10 as the control group. At enrollment, demographic, clinical and nutritional data were similar. According to the appendicular skeletal muscle index, sarcopenia was present in 50% of patients. The appendix skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) showed a significant increase at T1 and T12 in HMB patients, but not in controls. The mid-arm muscle-circumference and hand grip strength also increased at T1 and T12 versus T0 only in the HMB group. No side effects were reported in either group. The study showed a positive effect of HMB in the recovery of muscle mass and strength after LT. HMB supplement in patients after LT was safe and well tolerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Liver Cirrhosis and Liver Transplantation)
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Open AccessReview
Face-to-Face and Digital Multidomain Lifestyle Interventions to Enhance Cognitive Reserve and Reduce Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias: A Review of Completed and Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092258 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background: Currently, there is no pharmaceutical intervention to treat or delay pathological cognitive decline or Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Multidomain lifestyle interventions are increasingly being studied as a non-pharmacological solution to enhance cognitive reserve, maintain cognition, and reduce the risk of [...] Read more.
Background: Currently, there is no pharmaceutical intervention to treat or delay pathological cognitive decline or Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Multidomain lifestyle interventions are increasingly being studied as a non-pharmacological solution to enhance cognitive reserve, maintain cognition, and reduce the risk of or delay ADRD. Review of completed and prospective face-to-face (FTF) and digital multidomain interventions provides an opportunity to compare studies and informs future interventions and study design. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, clinicaltrials.gov and NIH RePORTER) were searched for multidomain lifestyle programs. Studies were included if the program (1) included a control group, (2) included at least 3 interventions, (3) were at least 6 months in duration, and (4) included measurement of cognitive performance as an outcome. Results: In total, 17 multidomain lifestyle programs aimed at enhancing cognitive reserve and reducing risk of ADRD were found. Thirteen programs are FTF in intervention delivery, with 3 FTF programs replicating the FINGER protocol as part of the World Wide Fingers Consortium. Four programs are delivered digitally (website, Web application, or mobile app). Program characteristics (e.g., target population, duration, frequency, outcomes, and availability) and results of completed and prospective studies are reviewed and discussed. Conclusion: This review updates and discusses completed and current multidomain lifestyle interventions aimed at enhancing cognitive reserve and reducing risk of ADRD. A growing number of international studies are investigating the efficacy and utility of these programs in both FTF and digital contexts. While a diversity of study designs and interventions exist, FTF and digital programs that build upon the foundational work of the FINGER protocol have significant potential to enhance cognitive reserve and reduce risk of ADRD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal Dietary Protein Intake Influences Milk and Offspring Gut Microbial Diversity in a Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092257 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Historically, investigators have assumed microorganisms identified in mother’s milk to be contaminants, but recent data suggest that milk microbiota may contribute to beneficial maternal effects. Microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of newborn mammals are derived, at least in part, from the maternal [...] Read more.
Historically, investigators have assumed microorganisms identified in mother’s milk to be contaminants, but recent data suggest that milk microbiota may contribute to beneficial maternal effects. Microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of newborn mammals are derived, at least in part, from the maternal microbial population. Milk-derived microbiota is an important source of this microbial inocula and we hypothesized that the maternal diet contributes to variation in this microbial community. To evaluate the relationship between a mother’s diet and milk microbiome, we fed female rats a low- or high-protein diet and mated all individuals. Milk and cecal contents were collected from dams at peak lactation (14-day post-partum), and the bacterial composition of each community was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Our findings revealed higher dietary protein intake decreased fecal microbial diversity but increased milk microbial and pup cecum diversity. Further, the higher dietary protein intake resulted in a greater abundance of potentially health-promoting bacteria, such as Lactobacillus spp. These data suggest that dietary protein levels contribute to significant shifts in the composition of maternal milk microbiota and that the functional consequences of these changes in microbial inocula might be biologically important and should be further explored. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immunomodulatory Effects of Fruiting Body Extract and Solid-State-Cultivated Mycelia of Taiwanofungus camphoratus
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092256 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a rare and valuable medicinal mushroom indigenous to Taiwan. It has traditionally been used to promote good health. This study aimed to explore the immunomodulatory effects of “Leader Deluxe Taiwanofungus camphoratus capsule” (LDAC). LDAC is a healthy food product composed [...] Read more.
Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a rare and valuable medicinal mushroom indigenous to Taiwan. It has traditionally been used to promote good health. This study aimed to explore the immunomodulatory effects of “Leader Deluxe Taiwanofungus camphoratus capsule” (LDAC). LDAC is a healthy food product composed of fruiting body extract and solid-state-cultivated mycelia of T. camphoratus. Two complementary studies were performed. In the first, LDAC was orally administered to BABL/c female mice for 6 weeks as part of a non-specific immune study. In the second, mice were treated with LDAC for 8 weeks and immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) in a specific immune study. LDAC increased the growth of splenic immune cells and enhanced the activity of macrophages and natural killer cells. It increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and OVA-IgG, and decreased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, serum IgE, and OVA-IgE. Thus, the findings of this study strongly supported the idea that LDAC possesses immunomodulatory activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Acid Load: A Novel Nutritional Target in Overweight/Obese Children with Asthma?
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092255 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Obesity has been repeatedly linked to asthma, and several potential mechanisms have been proposed in the etiologies of the obese-asthma phenotype. Considering that lungs play an important role in systemic pH and acid–base regulation, are a key organ in asthma development, and that [...] Read more.
Obesity has been repeatedly linked to asthma, and several potential mechanisms have been proposed in the etiologies of the obese-asthma phenotype. Considering that lungs play an important role in systemic pH and acid–base regulation, are a key organ in asthma development, and that nutritional inadequacy of several nutrients and high dietary acid load can affect airway inflammation and reactivity, we aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary acid load may be associated with asthma in children. Data on 699 children (52% females), aged 7–12 years, were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were performed to assess body mass index. Dietary acid load was calculated using potential renal acid load (PRAL) equations from a 24 h dietary recall administrated to children. Adjusted PRAL for total energy intake was applied with the use of the residual method. Lung function and airway reversibility were assessed with spirometry. Asthma was defined by a positive bronchodilation or self-reported medical diagnosis with reported symptoms (wheezing, dyspnea, or dry cough) in the past 12 months. After adjustment for energy intake, sex, age, parent’s education level, and physical activity, positive and significant associations were found between asthma and PRAL [odds ratio (OR) = 1.953, 95% CI = 1.024, 3.730) in overweight/obese children. Our findings suggest that dietary acid load might be a possible mechanism in overweight/obese-asthma phenotype development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Egg White Ovotransferrin Attenuates RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092254 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Ovotransferrin, a member of the transferrin family, is the second main protein found in egg white. Ovotransferrin was reported to have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulating activities. The aim of this work was to characterize the cellular and molecular functions of egg white ovotransferrin [...] Read more.
Ovotransferrin, a member of the transferrin family, is the second main protein found in egg white. Ovotransferrin was reported to have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulating activities. The aim of this work was to characterize the cellular and molecular functions of egg white ovotransferrin on osteoclasts differentiation and function. Osteoclasts were prepared from mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Ovotransferrin inhibited osteoclasts differentiation and the calcium–phosphate resorptive ability via the suppression of RANKL-induced nuclear factor κ-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Ovotransferrin induced apoptosis of matured osteoclasts, accompanied by increased expression of Bcl-2-like protein 11 (Bim) and Bcl-2-assoicated death promoter (Bad), but decreased expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl). We established a novel role of egg white ovotransferrin as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, which may be used for the prevention of osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Impact of Ad Libitum or Intermittent High-Fat Diets on Bingeing Ethanol-Mediated Behaviors
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092253 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background: Dietary factors have significant effects on the brain, modulating mood, anxiety, motivation and cognition. To date, no attention has been paid to the consequences that the combination of ethanol (EtOH) and a high-fat diet (HFD) have on learning and mood disorders during [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary factors have significant effects on the brain, modulating mood, anxiety, motivation and cognition. To date, no attention has been paid to the consequences that the combination of ethanol (EtOH) and a high-fat diet (HFD) have on learning and mood disorders during adolescence. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biochemical and behavioral consequences of ethanol binge drinking and an HFD consumption in adolescent mice. Methods: Animals received either a standard diet or an HFD (ad libitum vs. binge pattern) in combination with ethanol binge drinking and were evaluated in anxiety and memory. The metabolic profile and gene expression of leptin receptors and clock genes were also evaluated. Results: Excessive white adipose tissue and an increase in plasma insulin and leptin levels were mainly observed in ad libitum HFD + EtOH mice. An upregulation of the Lepr gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus was also observed in ad libitum HFD groups. EtOH-induced impairment on spatial memory retrieval was absent in mice exposed to an HFD, although the aversive memory deficits persisted. Mice bingeing on an HFD only showed an anxiolytic profile, without other alterations. We also observed a mismatch between Clock and Bmal1 expression in ad libitum HFD animals, which were mostly independent of EtOH bingeing. Conclusions: Our results confirm the bidirectional influence that occurs between the composition and intake pattern of a HFD and ethanol consumption during adolescence, even when the metabolic, behavioral and chronobiological effects of this interaction are dissociated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
The Benefit of Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation to a Liberalized Phenylalanine-Restricted Diet in Adult Phenylketonuria Patients: Evidence from Adult Pah-Enu2 Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092252 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Many phenylketonuria (PKU) patients cannot adhere to the severe dietary restrictions as advised by the European PKU guidelines, which can be accompanied by aggravated neuropsychological impairments that, at least in part, have been attributed to brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter deficiencies. Supplementation of large neutral [...] Read more.
Many phenylketonuria (PKU) patients cannot adhere to the severe dietary restrictions as advised by the European PKU guidelines, which can be accompanied by aggravated neuropsychological impairments that, at least in part, have been attributed to brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter deficiencies. Supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) to an unrestricted diet has previously been shown to effectively improve brain monoamines in PKU mice of various ages. To determine the additive value of LNAA supplementation to a liberalized phenylalanine-restricted diet, brain and plasma monoamine and amino acid concentrations in 10 to 16-month-old adult C57Bl/6 PKU mice on a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet with LNAA supplementation were compared to those on a non-supplemented severe or less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet. LNAA supplementation to a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet was found to improve both brain monoamine and phenylalanine concentrations. Compared to a severe phenylalanine-restricted diet, it was equally effective to restore brain norepinephrine and serotonin even though being less effective to reduce brain phenylalanine concentrations. These results in adult PKU mice support the idea that LNAA supplementation may enhance the effect of a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet and suggest that cerebral outcome of PKU patients treated with a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet may be helped by additional LNAA treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Expression of Renin-Angiotensin System Components in the Taste Organ of Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092251 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 212
Abstract
The systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of body fluid and sodium homeostasis. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a key active product of the RAS. We previously revealed that circulating AngII suppresses amiloride-sensitive salt taste responses and enhances the responses to sweet [...] Read more.
The systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of body fluid and sodium homeostasis. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a key active product of the RAS. We previously revealed that circulating AngII suppresses amiloride-sensitive salt taste responses and enhances the responses to sweet compounds via the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1) expressed in taste cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of taste function by AngII remain uncharacterized. Here we examined the expression of three RAS components, namely renin, angiotensinogen, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE1), in mouse taste tissues. We found that all three RAS components were present in the taste buds of fungiform and circumvallate papillae and co-expressed with αENaC (epithelial sodium channel α-subunit, a salt taste receptor) or T1R3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3, a sweet taste receptor component). Water-deprived mice exhibited significantly increased levels of renin expression in taste cells (p < 0.05). These results indicate the existence of a local RAS in the taste organ and suggest that taste function may be regulated by both locally-produced and circulating AngII. Such integrated modulation of peripheral taste sensitivity by AngII may play an important role in sodium/calorie homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt Taste, Nutrition, and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Validity of Self-Reported Dietary Intake within a Mediterranean Diet Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial among US Firefighters
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092250 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Collecting dietary intake data is associated with challenges due to the subjective nature of self–administered instruments. Biomarkers may objectively estimate the consumption of specific dietary items or help assess compliance in dietary intervention studies. Our aim was to use a panel of plasma [...] Read more.
Collecting dietary intake data is associated with challenges due to the subjective nature of self–administered instruments. Biomarkers may objectively estimate the consumption of specific dietary items or help assess compliance in dietary intervention studies. Our aim was to use a panel of plasma and urine biomarkers to assess the validity of self-reported dietary intake using a modified Mediterranean Diet Scale (mMDS) among firefighters participating in Feeding America’s Bravest (FAB), an MD cluster-randomized controlled trial. In our nested biomarker pilot study, participants were randomly selected from both the MD intervention group (n = 24) and the control group (n = 24) after 12-months of dietary intervention. At baseline data collection for the pilot study (t = 12-months of FAB), participants in the control group crossed-over to receive the MD intervention (active intervention) for 6-months. Participants in the intervention group continued in a self-sustained continuation phase (SSP) of the intervention. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), 13-item-mMDS questionnaires, 40 plasma fatty acids, inflammatory biomarkers and urinary hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were analyzed at both time points. Spearman’s correlation, t-tests and linear regression coefficients were calculated using SAS software. Overall, the mMDS derived from the FFQ was highly correlated with the specific 13-domain-mMDS (r = 0.74). The concordance between the two questionnaires for low and high adherence to MD was high for all the participants in the parent trial (κ = 0.76). After 6 months of intervention in the pilot study, plasma saturated fatty acid decreased in both groups (active intervention: −1.3 ± 1.7; p = 0.002; SSP: −1.12 ± 1.90; p = 0.014) and oleic acid improved in the SSP (p = 0.013). Intake of olive oil was positively associated with plasma omega-3 (p = 0.004) and negatively with TNF-α (p < 0.001) at baseline. Choosing olive oil as a type of fat was also associated with higher levels of plasma omega-3 (p = 0.019) at baseline and lower TNF-α (p = 0.023) at follow up. Intake of red and processed meats were associated with lower serum omega-3 (p = 0.04) and fish consumption was associated with lower IL-6 at baseline (p = 0.022). The overall mMDS was associated with an increase in plasma omega-3 (p = 0.021). Good correlation was found between nutrient intake from the FFQ and the corresponding plasma biomarkers (omega-3, EPA and DHA). In this MD randomized controlled trial, some key plasma biomarkers were significantly associated with key MD diet components and the overall mMDS supporting the validity of the mMDS questionnaire as well as compliance with the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Biomarkers in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Nutrition Education Intervention with and Without a Mobile Phone Application on Nutrition Knowledge Among Young Endurance Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092249 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Athletes often have significant gaps in their nutrition knowledge. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether young Finnish endurance athletes’ nutrition knowledge and dietary intake can be improved through an education intervention with or without a mobile food application. Seventy-nine [...] Read more.
Athletes often have significant gaps in their nutrition knowledge. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether young Finnish endurance athletes’ nutrition knowledge and dietary intake can be improved through an education intervention with or without a mobile food application. Seventy-nine endurance athletes, 18.0 years (SD: 1.4), participated in this randomized, controlled intervention. We compared the effects of participatory nutrition education sessions alone (group EDU) to those including the use of a mobile food application (group EDU + APP) for four days after each session. Both groups attended three 90-min education sessions fortnightly. The participants completed a validated nutrition knowledge questionnaire in Weeks 0, 5, and 17, and a three-day food diary in Weeks 0 and 17. The education plan was based on the Self-Determination Theory and the concept of meaningful learning process. The EDU group’s nutrition knowledge scores were: 78 (week 0), 85 (week 5), and 84 (week 17) and the EDU + APP group’s 78, 86, and 85, respectively. Nutrition knowledge increased significantly (main effect of time (p < 0.001)), but we observed no significant group × time interaction (p = 0.309). The changes in dietary intakes were minor (p > 0.05). The amount of carbohydrates was below endurance athletes’ recommendations throughout the intervention. The reported energy intakes were also below the estimated energy expenditures. In conclusion, nutrition knowledge improved significantly after only three education sessions and food diary feedback, but the mobile app did not improve learning further. However, the nutrition education intervention alone was not enough to change dietary intake. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Environmental Sustainability Perspectives of the Nordic Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092248 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 349
Abstract
“The Nordic diet” is an umbrella term that encompasses any interpretation that combines Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) with local Nordic foods. The five Nordic countries have collaborated on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for forty years, including FBDGs, so their national guidelines are similar. The [...] Read more.
“The Nordic diet” is an umbrella term that encompasses any interpretation that combines Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) with local Nordic foods. The five Nordic countries have collaborated on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for forty years, including FBDGs, so their national guidelines are similar. The countries also share similar public health issues, including widespread nonconformity to the guidelines, although in different ways. The aim of this concept paper is to discuss environmental sustainability aspects of the Nordic diet, describe the status of and make suggestions for the inclusion of sustainability in future work on the Nordic diet. We exploit the sustainability–health synergy. A food intake more in line with the current FBDGs, which emphasises more plant-based and less animal-based foods, is necessary for high environmental sustainability. In turn, sustainability is an important motivator for health-promoting dietary shifts. Policy development requires long-term efforts. Since the Nordic diet can be considered a further development and improvement of old, traditional diets, there is huge potential to formulate a Nordic diet that benefits both human and planetary health. It is time for concerted engagement and actions—a new Nordic nutrition transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of the Nordic Diet)
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Open AccessArticle
N-Eicosapentaenoyl Dopamine, A Conjugate of Dopamine and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), Exerts Anti-inflammatory Properties in Mouse and Human Macrophages
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092247 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 279
Abstract
A large body of evidence suggests that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), contribute to a reduced inflammatory tone thereby lowering the risk for several chronic and degenerative diseases. Different mechanisms have been proposed [...] Read more.
A large body of evidence suggests that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), contribute to a reduced inflammatory tone thereby lowering the risk for several chronic and degenerative diseases. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain these anti-inflammatory effects, including those involving endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like molecules. In this context, fatty acid amides (FAAs), conjugates of fatty acids with amines or amino acids, are an emerging class of compounds. Dopamine conjugates of DHA (N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine, DHDA) and EPA (N-eicosapentaenoyl dopamine, EPDA) have previously been shown to induce autophagy, apoptosis, and cell death in different tumor lines. Additionally, DHDA has displayed anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. Here, we tested the immune-modulatory properties of EPDA in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP-1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). EPDA suppressed the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both cell lines, and nitric oxide (NO), and macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α (MIP3A) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. At a transcriptional level, EPDA attenuated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in both cell lines and that of MCP-1, IL-6, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in THP-1 macrophages. Although further research is needed to reveal whether EPDA is an endogenous metabolite, our data suggest that this EPA-derived conjugate possesses interesting immune-modulating properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Clinical Importance of 21-Day Combined Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Active Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092246 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The aim of the study was to show the clinical magnitude of short-term feeding: enteral nutrition (EN) combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) in active Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Among 122 eligible inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, 65 met the inclusion criteria. [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to show the clinical magnitude of short-term feeding: enteral nutrition (EN) combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) in active Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Among 122 eligible inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, 65 met the inclusion criteria. Combined EN and PN was administered for 21 days, wherein over the first 3–5 days of treatment, trophic enteral nutrition (300 kcal/day) was used with an energy increase of up to 1500 kcal. An EN was administered using a nasogastric tube or, in case of intolerance, using a naso-jejunal tube. For PN, the “All in One” system was used according to individually prepared admixtures (ESPEN Guidelines). In addition to routine blood measurement (i.e., ALAT, ASPAT, GGTP, creatinine, lipid profile), the following parameters were assessed: adiponectin, leptin, (hs)TNF-α, hsIL-6 and hsIL-10, TSH, NT-proBNP, serum vitamin B12 concentration, and tHcy. The results showed a considerable improvement in all clinically significant parameters (p < 0.05), showing the benefits and importance of short-term well-balanced EN combined with PN for nutritional and clinical status in IBD patients with active disease. The daily work at hospitals with active IBD patients demonstrates the potential of continued administration of home-based nutrition by patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Plant Bioactives and the Prevention of Prostate Cancer: Evidence from Human Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092245 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Prostate cancer has become the most common form of non-cutaneous (internal) malignancy in men, accounting for 26% of all new male visceral cancer cases in the UK. The aetiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer are not understood, but given the age-adjusted geographical variations [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer has become the most common form of non-cutaneous (internal) malignancy in men, accounting for 26% of all new male visceral cancer cases in the UK. The aetiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer are not understood, but given the age-adjusted geographical variations in prostate cancer incidence quoted in epidemiological studies, there is increasing interest in nutrition as a relevant factor. In particular, foods rich in phytochemicals have been proposed to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiological studies have reported evidence that plant-based foods including cruciferous vegetables, garlic, tomatoes, pomegranate and green tea are associated with a significant reduction in the progression of prostate cancer. However, while there is well-documented mechanistic evidence at a cellular level of the manner by which individual dietary components may reduce the risk of prostate cancer or its progression, evidence from intervention studies is limited. Moreover, clinical trials investigating the link between the dietary bioactives found in these foods and prostate cancer have reported varied conclusions. Herein, we review the plant bioactives for which there is substantial evidence from epidemiological and human intervention studies. The aim of this review is to provide important insights into how particular plant bioactives (e.g., sulfur-containing compounds, carotenoids and polyphenols) present in commonly consumed food groups may influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Serum ‘Vitamin-Mineral’ Profiles: Associations with Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk Including Dietary Patterns and Supplementation. A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092244 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Studies evaluating the blood vitamins and minerals status in the breast cancer etiology are limited, and the results are inconclusive. This study analyzed the association between serum vitamin-mineral profiles (V-MPs) and breast cancer [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Studies evaluating the blood vitamins and minerals status in the breast cancer etiology are limited, and the results are inconclusive. This study analyzed the association between serum vitamin-mineral profiles (V-MPs) and breast cancer (BC) risk with including dietary patterns (DPs) and the use of supplements. This case-control study involved 420 women aged 40–79 years from north-eastern Poland, including 190 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases. The fasting serum concentrations of vitamins (folate, cobalamin, 25(OH) vitamin D) and minerals (iron, calcium, magnesium) were measured in 129 post-menopausal women, including 82 controls and 47 cases. Three V-MPs were derived with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the breast cancer risk associated with serum V-MPs and serum levels of single biomarkers. The risk of BC was lower by 88% (OR: 0.12; 95% Cl: 0.02–0.88; p < 0.05) in the upper tertile of the serum ‘Iron-Calcium’ profile compared to the bottom tertile, lower by 67% (OR: 0.33; 95% Cl: 0.11–0.97; p < 0.05) at the level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D ≥24.6 ng/mL and lower by 68% (OR: 0.32; 95% Cl: 0.11–0.91; p < 0.05) at the level of serum calcium ≥9.6 mg/dL. There was an inverse association of the serum ‘Magnesium’ profile or serum level of iron with the risk of BC, which disappeared after adjustment for the set of confounders accounted for: age, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status, overall physical activity, smoking status, age at menarche, number of full-term pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, hormone-replacement therapy use, family history of breast cancer, vitamin/mineral supplement use, the molecular subtype of breast cancer, and dietary patterns. No significant association was found between BC risk and the serum ‘Folate-Cobalamin-Vitamin D’ profile or serum folate, cobalamin or magnesium considered separately. These findings highlight that a higher-normal serum level of both iron and calcium, considered together as the serum profile, as well as a higher-normal serum level of calcium, considered separately, and a slightly below the normal range of serum vitamin D level may protect against breast cancer among postmenopausal women, independent of dietary patterns or the use of vitamin/mineral supplements. Therefore, the maintenance of the adequate status of vitamins and minerals and the regular monitoring of their blood markers should be included in breast cancer prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer: From Prevention to Survivorship)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Sarcopenia and 7-Year Mortality in Very Old Patients with Hip Fracture Admitted to Rehabilitation Units: A Pragmatic Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092243 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Background: Admitted bedridden older patients are at risk of the development of sarcopenia during hospital stay (incident sarcopenia). The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with sarcopenia (incident and chronic) and its impact on mortality in older people with [...] Read more.
Background: Admitted bedridden older patients are at risk of the development of sarcopenia during hospital stay (incident sarcopenia). The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with sarcopenia (incident and chronic) and its impact on mortality in older people with hip fracture. Methods: A multicenter, pragmatic, prospective observational study was designed. Older subjects with hip fracture admitted to two rehabilitation units were included. Sarcopenia was assessed at admission and at discharge according to the revised EWGSOP (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) consensus definition. The mortality was evaluated after 7 years of follow-up. Results: A total of 187 subjects (73.8% women) age 85.2 ± 6.3 years were included. Risk factors associated to incident and chronic sarcopenia were undernutrition (body mass index—BMI and Mini Nutritional Assessment−Short Form—MNA-SF), hand-grip strength and skeletal muscle index. During follow-up 114 patients died (60.5% sarcopenic vs. 39.5% non-sarcopenic, p = 0.001). Cox regression analyses showed that factors associated to increased risk of mortality were sarcopenia (HR: 1.67, 95% CI 1.11–2.51) and low hand-grip strength (HR: 1.76, 95% CI 1.08–2.88). Conclusions: Older patients with undernutrition have a higher risk of developing sarcopenia during hospital stay, and sarcopenic patients have almost two times more risk of mortality than non-sarcopenic patients during follow-up after hip fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status)
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Open AccessArticle
A Lowly Digestible-Starch Diet after Weaning Enhances Exogenous Glucose Oxidation Rate in Female, but Not in Male, Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092242 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Starches of low digestibility are associated with improved glucose metabolism. We hypothesise that a lowly digestible-starch diet (LDD) versus a highly digestible-starch diet (HDD) improves the capacity to oxidise starch, and that this is sex-dependent. Mice were fed a LDD or a HDD [...] Read more.
Starches of low digestibility are associated with improved glucose metabolism. We hypothesise that a lowly digestible-starch diet (LDD) versus a highly digestible-starch diet (HDD) improves the capacity to oxidise starch, and that this is sex-dependent. Mice were fed a LDD or a HDD for 3 weeks directly after weaning. Body weight (BW), body composition (BC), and digestible energy intake (dEI) were determined weekly. At the end of the intervention period, whole-body energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), hydrogen production, and the oxidation of an oral 13C-labelled starch bolus were measured by extended indirect calorimetry. Pancreatic amylase activity and total 13C hepatic enrichment were determined in females immediately before and 4 h after administration of the starch bolus. For both sexes, BW, BC, and basal EE and RER were not affected by the type of starch, but dEI and hydrogen production were increased by the LDD. Only in females, total carbohydrate oxidation and starch-derived glucose oxidation in response to the starch bolus were higher in LDD versus HDD mice; this was not accompanied by differences in amylase activity or hepatic partitioning of the 13C label. These results show that starch digestibility impacts glucose metabolism differently in females versus males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of the Antioxidant Hydroxytyrosol from Tyrosol Present in Beer and Red Wine in a Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092241 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Beer and wine contains the simple phenol tyrosol (TYR) which is endogenously converted into hydroxytyrosol (HT), one of the strongest dietary antioxidants, by CYP2A6 and CYP2D6 polymorphic enzymes. We investigated in humans the rate of this bioconversion after beer and red wine (RW) [...] Read more.
Beer and wine contains the simple phenol tyrosol (TYR) which is endogenously converted into hydroxytyrosol (HT), one of the strongest dietary antioxidants, by CYP2A6 and CYP2D6 polymorphic enzymes. We investigated in humans the rate of this bioconversion after beer and red wine (RW) intake. In a single blind, randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial (n = 20 healthy subjects), we evaluated TYR absorption and biotransformation into HT following a single dose of (i) RW, (ii) Indian pale ale beer (IPA), (iii) blonde beer, and (iv) non-alcoholic beer (free). Individuals were genotyped for CYP2A6 and CYP2D6, and a polygenic activity score (PAS) was derived. RW triggered the highest increase in total TYR recovered, followed by IPA, blonde, and free beers. Although the HT content in beer was minimal, an increase in HT production was observed in all beers following TYR in a dose-response manner, confirming TYR to HT biotransformation. Sex differences were identified in the rate of the conversion following RW. PAS scores correlated linearly with the recoveries of HT (HT:TYR ratios) after RW intake. In conclusion, after beer and RW consumption, TYR is absorbed and endogenously biotransformed into HT. This mechanism could be modulated by sex, genetics, and matrix components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Iron Fortification and Bioavailability of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Seeds and Flour
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092240 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders, and is mainly due to insufficient intake of bioavailable Fe. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) was examined as a potential vehicle for Fe fortification. Fortificants (FeSO4·7H2O (ferrous sulfate [...] Read more.
Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders, and is mainly due to insufficient intake of bioavailable Fe. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) was examined as a potential vehicle for Fe fortification. Fortificants (FeSO4·7H2O (ferrous sulfate hepta-hydrate), FeSO4·H2O (ferrous sulfate mono-hydrate) and NaFeEDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron (iii) sodium salt)) were applied by a spraying and drying method. At 2000 µg g−1 iron fortificant, the fortified split desi seeds (dal), desi flour and kabuli flour supplied 18–19 mg, 16–20 mg and 11–19 mg Fe per 100 g, respectively. The overall consumer acceptability using a nine-point hedonic scale for sensory evaluation demonstrated that NaFeEDTA-fortified cooked chickpea (soup and chapatti) scored the highest among the three fortificants. Lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of Fe-fortified products changed over time. However, no organoleptic changes occurred. Fe bioavailability was increased by 5.8–10.5, 15.3–25.0 and 4.8–9.0 ng ferritin mg−1 protein for cooked split desi seeds (soup), desi chapatti and kabuli chapatti, respectively, when prepared using Fe-fortified chickpea. Desi chapatti showed significantly higher Fe bioavailability than the other two. The increase in Fe concentration and bioavailability in fortified chickpea products demonstrated that these products could provide a significant proportion of the recommended daily Fe requirement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Free Amino Acid Content in Human Milk Is Associated with Infant Gender and Weight Gain during the First Four Months of Lactation
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092239 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Background: There is a growing interest regarding the physiological role of free amino acids (FAA) present in human milk (HM). Recent studies show FAA in HM could be influenced by infants’ gender and could have an important role in their growth and development. [...] Read more.
Background: There is a growing interest regarding the physiological role of free amino acids (FAA) present in human milk (HM). Recent studies show FAA in HM could be influenced by infants’ gender and could have an important role in their growth and development. We studied the concentrations of FAA in HM and potential associations with infants’ gender and their patterns of growth in a cohort of Ecuadorian women. Methods: Human milk samples were collected after approximately eight hours of overnight fast within one week (colostrum), 2 weeks (transition milk), and 2 and/or 4 months (mature milk) after parturition. Free AA were determined by cation-exchange chromatography separation. Results: We observed significantly higher concentrations of Glu 14.40 (1.35, 27.44), Gly 1.82 (0.24, 3.4), Cys 0.36 (0.03, 0.68), and Tyr 0.24 (0.02, 0.46) in HM intended for boys. Free Glu, Gly, Cys, and Tyr concentrations increased with time of lactation. In addition, there were higher concentrations of Glu 28.62 (1.78, 55.46) and Ala 7.16 (1.26, 13.06) in HM for children that presented faster weight gain than for those with slower gain. Conclusions: The present results showed that there are differences in FAA levels in HM intended for male and fast-growing children. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Appetite-Suppressing and Satiety-Increasing Bioactive Phytochemicals: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092238 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Bioactive phytochemicals in food supplements are a trending approach to facilitate dieting and to improve patients’ adherence to reducing food and caloric intake. The aim of this systematic review was to assess efficacy and safety of [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Bioactive phytochemicals in food supplements are a trending approach to facilitate dieting and to improve patients’ adherence to reducing food and caloric intake. The aim of this systematic review was to assess efficacy and safety of the most commonly used bioactive phytochemicals with appetite/hunger-suppressing and/or satiety/fullness-increasing properties. To be eligible, studies needed to have included at least 10 patients per group aged 18 years or older with no serious health problems except for overweight or obesity. Of those studies, 32 met the inclusion criteria, in which 27 different plants were tested alone or as a combination, regarding their efficacy in suppressing appetite/hunger and/or increasing satiety/fullness. The plant extracts most tested were derived from Camellia sinensis (green tea), Capsicum annuum, and Coffea species. None of the plant extracts tested in several trials showed a consistent positive treatment effect. Furthermore, only a few adverse events were reported, but none serious. The findings revealed mostly inconclusive evidence that the tested bioactive phytochemicals are effective in suppressing appetite/hunger and/or increasing satiety/fullness. More systematic and high quality clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefits and safety of phytochemical complementary remedies for dampening the feeling of hunger during dieting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Dairy Intake on Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092237 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased in the US over the last several years. The consumption of low-fat dairy foods has been linked with decreasing the risk of DM but studies have yet to show a clear correlation. We [...] Read more.
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased in the US over the last several years. The consumption of low-fat dairy foods has been linked with decreasing the risk of DM but studies have yet to show a clear correlation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of dairy intake on homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and body weight. In MEDLINE and Embase, we identified and reviewed 49 relevant RCTs: 30 had appropriate data format for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Using the Review Manager 5 software, we calculated the pooled standardized mean differences comparing dairy dietary interventions to control for our outcomes of interest. For HOMA-IR (794 individuals), we found a mean difference of −1.21 (95% CI −1.74 to −0.67; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). For waist circumference (1348 individuals), the mean difference was −1.09 cm (95% CI 1.68 to −0.58; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 94%). For body weight (2362 individuals), the dairy intake intervention group weighed 0.42 kg less than control (p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). Our findings suggest that dairy intake, especially low-fat dairy products, has a beneficial effect on HOMA-IR, waist circumference, and body weight. This could impact dietary recommendations to reduce DM risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Relative Effectiveness of the Multiple Traffic Light and Nutri-Score Front of Package Nutrition Labels
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092236 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 307
Abstract
The objective of this trial was to test two promising front-of-pack nutrition labels, 1) the United Kingdom’s Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL) label and 2) France’s Nutri-Score (NS), relative to a no-label control. We hypothesized that both labels would improve diet quality but NS [...] Read more.
The objective of this trial was to test two promising front-of-pack nutrition labels, 1) the United Kingdom’s Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL) label and 2) France’s Nutri-Score (NS), relative to a no-label control. We hypothesized that both labels would improve diet quality but NS would be more effective due to its greater simplicity. We tested this hypothesis via an online grocery store using a 3 × 3 crossover (within-person) design with 154 participants. Outcomes assessed via within person regression models include a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 (primary), average Nutri-Score, calories purchased, and singular measures of diet quality of purchase orders. Results show that both labels significantly improve modified AHEI scores relative to Control but neither is statistically superior using this measure. NS performed statistically better than MTL and Control based on average Nutri-Score, yet, unlike MTL it did not statistically reduce calories or sugar from beverages. This suggest that NS may be preferred if the goal is to improve overall diet quality but, because calories are clearly displayed on the label, MTL may perform better if the goal is to reduce total energy intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Oral Health Care Agent from Coffee against Virulence Factor of Periodontitis
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092235 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Background: Coffee is a major dietary source of polyphenols. Previous research found that coffee had a protective effect on periodontal disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether coffee extract and its primary phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, affect the growth and protease [...] Read more.
Background: Coffee is a major dietary source of polyphenols. Previous research found that coffee had a protective effect on periodontal disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether coffee extract and its primary phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, affect the growth and protease activity of a periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Methods: Coffee extract and chlorogenic acid were prepared by a two-fold serial dilution. The turbid metric test and plate count method were used to examine the inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid on P. gingivalis. The time-kill assay was used to measure changes in the viability of P. gingivalis after exposure to chlorogenic acid for 0–24 h. The protease activity of P. gingivalis was analyzed using the optical density of a chromogenic substrate. Results: As a result, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorogenic acid was 4 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 16 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid at concentrations above MIC resulted in a longer-lasting inhibitory effect on P. gingivalis viability and significantly reduced associated protease activity. The coffee extract showed antibacterial activity as observed by the disk diffusion test, whereas these inhibitory effects were not affected by different roast degrees of coffee. Conclusions: Collectively, our novel findings indicate that chlorogenic acid not only has antimicrobial activity but also reduced the protease activity of P. gingivalis. In addition, coffee extract inhibits the proliferation of P. gingivalis, which may partly be attributed to the effect of chlorogenic acid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Web-Based 24-H Dietary Recall Could Be a Valid Tool for the Indicative Assessment of Dietary Intake in Older Adults Living in Slovenia
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092234 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The methodology used in dietary surveys could, to a large extent, follow the instructions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), where 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) is recommended for (sub) population studies. However, it is necessary to examine the suitability of 24HDR for [...] Read more.
The methodology used in dietary surveys could, to a large extent, follow the instructions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), where 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) is recommended for (sub) population studies. However, it is necessary to examine the suitability of 24HDR for indicative dietary intake in older adults. This study aimed to compare participants’ dietary intakes with the recommendations and to compare dietary intakes derived from a 24HDR using an OPEN web-based application to those obtained from reference weighed food records (WFRs). Forty-nine Slovenian residential home residents completed both assessments, and a comparison with dietary reference values was performed. Estimates from these two methods were compared and the correlations between them were assessed. The findings revealed that dietary intakes derived from the WFR method mostly differed from the recommended intakes. The 24HDR underestimated dietary intake compared to the WFR for 66% of monitored parameters, while 75% of these parameters were correlated, mostly at a moderate level (0.3–0.69). In conclusion, the diets of residential home residents in this study mostly differed from recommendations. Both methods for dietary intake assessment provided comparable results for most of the monitored parameters in expected deviations. A web-based 24HDR could be a valid tool for the indicative assessment of dietary intake in older adults. However, further validations are required. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Animal Models of Undernutrition and Enteropathy as Tools for Assessment of Nutritional Intervention
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092233 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Undernutrition is a major public health problem leading to 1 in 5 of all deaths in children under 5 years. Undernutrition leads to growth stunting and/or wasting and is often associated with environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). EED mechanisms leading to growth failure include [...] Read more.
Undernutrition is a major public health problem leading to 1 in 5 of all deaths in children under 5 years. Undernutrition leads to growth stunting and/or wasting and is often associated with environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). EED mechanisms leading to growth failure include intestinal hyperpermeability, villus blunting, malabsorption and gut inflammation. As non-invasive methods for investigating gut function in undernourished children are limited, pre-clinical models are relevant to elucidating the pathophysiological processes involved in undernutrition and EED, and to identifying novel therapeutic strategies. In many published models, undernutrition was induced using protein or micronutrient deficient diets, but these experimental models were not associated with EED. Enteropathy models mainly used gastrointestinal injury triggers. These models are presented in this review. We found only a few studies investigating the combination of undernutrition and enteropathy. This highlights the need for further developments to establish an experimental model reproducing the impact of undernutrition and enteropathy on growth, intestinal hyperpermeability and inflammation, that could be suitable for preclinical evaluation of innovative therapeutic intervention. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of B Vitamin Supplementation on Depressive Symptoms, Anxiety, and Stress: Effects on Healthy and ‘At-Risk’ Individuals
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092232 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 567
Abstract
A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to examine and quantify the effects of B vitamin supplementation on mood in both healthy and ‘at-risk’ populations. A systematic search identified all available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of daily supplementation with ≥3 B group vitamins [...] Read more.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to examine and quantify the effects of B vitamin supplementation on mood in both healthy and ‘at-risk’ populations. A systematic search identified all available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of daily supplementation with ≥3 B group vitamins with an intervention period of at least four weeks. Random effects models for a standardized mean difference were used to test for overall effect. Heterogeneity was tested using the I2 statistic. Eighteen articles (16 trials, 2015 participants) were included, of which 12 were eligible for meta-analysis. Eleven of the 18 articles reported a positive effect for B vitamins over a placebo for overall mood or a facet of mood. Of the eight studies in ‘at-risk’ cohorts, five found a significant benefit to mood. Regarding individual facets of mood, B vitamin supplementation benefited stress (n = 958, SMD = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.45, p = 0.03). A benefit to depressive symptoms did not reach significance (n = 568, SMD = 0.15, 95% CI = −0.01, 0.32, p = 0.07), and there was no effect on anxiety (n = 562, SMD = 0.03, 95% CI = −0.13, 0.20, p = 0.71). The review provides evidence for the benefit of B vitamin supplementation in healthy and at-risk populations for stress, but not for depressive symptoms or anxiety. B vitamin supplementation may particularly benefit populations who are at risk due to (1) poor nutrient status or (2) poor mood status. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Equol: A Bacterial Metabolite from The Daidzein Isoflavone and Its Presumed Beneficial Health Effects
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092231 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Epidemiological data suggest that regular intake of isoflavones from soy reduces the incidence of estrogen-dependent and aging-associated disorders, such as menopause symptoms in women, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Equol, produced from daidzein, is the isoflavone-derived metabolite with the greatest estrogenic and antioxidant [...] Read more.
Epidemiological data suggest that regular intake of isoflavones from soy reduces the incidence of estrogen-dependent and aging-associated disorders, such as menopause symptoms in women, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Equol, produced from daidzein, is the isoflavone-derived metabolite with the greatest estrogenic and antioxidant activity. Consequently, equol has been endorsed as having many beneficial effects on human health. The conversion of daidzein into equol takes place in the intestine via the action of reductase enzymes belonging to incompletely characterized members of the gut microbiota. While all animal species analyzed so far produce equol, only between one third and one half of human subjects (depending on the community) are able to do so, ostensibly those that harbor equol-producing microbes. Conceivably, these subjects might be the only ones who can fully benefit from soy or isoflavone consumption. This review summarizes current knowledge on the microorganisms involved in, the genetic background to, and the biochemical pathways of, equol biosynthesis. It also outlines the results of recent clinical trials and meta-analyses on the effects of equol on different areas of human health and discusses briefly its presumptive mode of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Accounting for the Nutritional Context to Correctly Interpret Results from Studies of Exercise and Sedentary Behavior
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092230 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 305
Abstract
There is a wealth of research lauding the benefits of exercise to oppose cardiometabolic disease such as diabetes, CVD and hypertension. However, in the great majority of these studies, the nutritional context (energy balance, deficit, or surplus) has been ignored, despite its profound [...] Read more.
There is a wealth of research lauding the benefits of exercise to oppose cardiometabolic disease such as diabetes, CVD and hypertension. However, in the great majority of these studies, the nutritional context (energy balance, deficit, or surplus) has been ignored, despite its profound effect on responses to both exercise and inactivity. Even a minor energy deficit or surplus can strongly modulate the magnitude and duration of the metabolic responses to an intervention; therefore, failure to account for this important confounding variable obscures clear interpretation of the results from studies of exercise or inactivity. The aim of this review is to highlight key lessons from studies examining the interaction between exercise and sedentary behavior, energy status, and glucose and insulin regulation. In addition to identifying notable problems, we suggest a few potential solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
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