Special Issue "Diet and Immune Function"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Elizabeth A Miles
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Univ Southampton, Human Dev & Hlth Acad Unit, Fac Med, Southampton SO16 6YD, Hants, England
Prof. Philip Calder
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Univ Southampton, Human Dev & Hlth Acad Unit, Fac Med, Southampton, Hants, England
Dr. Caroline E Childs
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Univ Southampton, Acad Unit Human Dev & Hlth, Fac Med, Southampton, Hants, England

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Supporting initiation, development and resolution of appropriate immune responses is key to survival. Many nutrients and dietary components have been purported to have a role in supporting optimal immune function. This is vital throughout the life course, from the development and programming of the immune system in early life, to supporting immunity and reducing chronic inflammation in older people. In this special issue of Nutrients, we examine the evidence for the role of diet and dietary components in promoting protective immunity.

Dr. Elizabeth A Miles
Prof. Philip Calder
Dr. Caroline E Childs
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diet
  • immune function
  • immunity
  • inflammation
  • micronutrients
  • nutrients
  • prebiotics
  • vitamin

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Diet and Immune Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081933 - 16 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A well-functioning immune system is critical for survival. The immune system must be constantly alert, monitoring for signs of invasion or danger. Cells of the immune system must be able to distinguish self from non-self and furthermore discriminate between non-self molecules which are [...] Read more.
A well-functioning immune system is critical for survival. The immune system must be constantly alert, monitoring for signs of invasion or danger. Cells of the immune system must be able to distinguish self from non-self and furthermore discriminate between non-self molecules which are harmful (e.g., those from pathogens) and innocuous non-self molecules (e.g., from food). This Special Issue of Nutrients explores the relationship between diet and nutrients and immune function. In this preface, we outline the key functions of the immune system, and how it interacts with nutrients across the life course, highlighting the work included within this Special Issue. This includes the role of macronutrients, micronutrients, and the gut microbiome in mediating immunological effects. Nutritional modulation of the immune system has applications within the clinical setting, but can also have a role in healthy populations, acting to reduce or delay the onset of immune-mediated chronic diseases. Ongoing research in this field will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the role of diet and nutrients in immune function and will facilitate the use of bespoke nutrition to improve human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Inflammatory Markers in Anorexia Nervosa: An Exploratory Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111573 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Inflammation has been suggested to play a pathophysiological role in anorexia nervosa (AN). In this exploratory cross-sectional study, we measured serum concentrations of 40 inflammatory markers (including cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in people with AN (n [...] Read more.
Inflammation has been suggested to play a pathophysiological role in anorexia nervosa (AN). In this exploratory cross-sectional study, we measured serum concentrations of 40 inflammatory markers (including cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in people with AN (n = 27) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 13). Many of these inflammatory markers had not been previously quantified in people with AN. Eating disorder (ED) and general psychopathology symptoms were assessed. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition data were obtained. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-15, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 concentrations were significantly elevated and concentrations of BDNF, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were significantly lower in AN participants compared to HCs. Age, BMI, and percentage body fat mass were identified as potential confounding variables for several of these inflammatory markers. Of particular interest is that most of the quantified markers were unchanged in people with AN, despite them being severely underweight with evident body fat loss, and having clinically significant ED symptoms and severe depression and anxiety symptoms. Future research should examine the replicability of our findings and consider the effect of additional potential confounding variables, such as smoking and physical activity, on the relationship between AN and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
Open AccessArticle
TGF-β2, EGF, and FGF21 Growth Factors Present in Breast Milk Promote Mesenteric Lymph Node Lymphocytes Maturation in Suckling Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091171 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Breast milk, due to its large number of nutrients and bioactive factors, contributes to optimal development and immune maturation in early life. In this study, we aimed to assess the influence of some growth factors present in breast milk, such as transforming growth [...] Read more.
Breast milk, due to its large number of nutrients and bioactive factors, contributes to optimal development and immune maturation in early life. In this study, we aimed to assess the influence of some growth factors present in breast milk, such as transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), on the immune response development. Newborn Wistar rats were supplemented daily with TGF-β2, EGF, or FGF21, throughout the suckling period. At day 14 and 21 of life, lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were isolated, immunophenotyped, and cultured to evaluate their ability to proliferate and release cytokines. The main results demonstrated that supplementation with TGF-β2, EGF, or FGF21 modified the lymphocyte composition in MLNs. At day 14, all supplementations were able to induce a lower percentage of natural killer (NK) cells with the immature phenotype (CD8+), and they reduced the CD8αα/CD8αβ ratio at day 21. Moreover, the cytokine pattern was modified by the three treatments, with a down regulation of interleukin (IL)-13 secretion. These results showed the contribution of these growth factors in the lymphocytes MLNs immune maturation during the neonatal period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum on the Inflammatory Response in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081039 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Currently, the effect of fermented milk on the T-helper 17 response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of milks fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum on the Th1/Th17 response in a murine model [...] Read more.
Currently, the effect of fermented milk on the T-helper 17 response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of milks fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum on the Th1/Th17 response in a murine model of mild IBD. Exopolysaccharide (EPS), lactic acid (LA), and total protein (TP) contents and bacterial concentration were determined. Male C57Bl/6 mice intragastrically received either raw (FM) or pasteurized (PFM) fermented milk before and during a dextran sulfate infusion protocol. Blood, spleen, and colon samples were collected at Weeks 6 and 10. IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα were determined in serum, and IL-17, IL-23, and IFNγ were determined in intestinal mucosa and serum. The FM groups did not differ in cell concentration, LA, or TP content (p > 0.05); FM-J28 had the highest EPS content. Spleen weight and colon length did not differ among the FM groups (p > 0.05). In the FM-J20 and PFM-J20 groups, IL-17 and IFNγ decreased, and the IL-10 concentration was enhanced (p < 0.05) at Week 6. IL-6, TNFα, IL-23, and IFNγ did not differ in serum and mucosa (p > 0.05), and IL-17 was lowest in FM-J28 and FM-J20. Therefore, FM appears to potentially play a role in decreasing the Th17 response. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the FM-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms in IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Infant Complementary Feeding of Prebiotics for the Microbiome and Immunity
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020364 - 09 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Complementary feeding transitions infants from a milk-based diet to solid foods, providing essential nutrients to the infant and the developing gut microbiome while influencing immune development. Some of the earliest microbial colonisers readily ferment select oligosaccharides, influencing the ongoing establishment of the microbiome. [...] Read more.
Complementary feeding transitions infants from a milk-based diet to solid foods, providing essential nutrients to the infant and the developing gut microbiome while influencing immune development. Some of the earliest microbial colonisers readily ferment select oligosaccharides, influencing the ongoing establishment of the microbiome. Non-digestible oligosaccharides in prebiotic-supplemented formula and human milk oligosaccharides promote commensal immune-modulating bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, which decrease in abundance during weaning. Incorporating complex, bifidogenic, non-digestible carbohydrates during the transition to solid foods may present an opportunity to feed commensal bacteria and promote balanced concentrations of beneficial short chain fatty acid concentrations and vitamins that support gut barrier maturation and immunity throughout the complementary feeding window. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
Vitamin D: Nutrient, Hormone, and Immunomodulator
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111656 - 03 Nov 2018
Cited by 33
Abstract
The classical functions of vitamin D are to regulate calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and control bone metabolism. However, vitamin D deficiency has been reported in several chronic conditions associated with increased inflammation and deregulation of the immune system, such as diabetes, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. [...] Read more.
The classical functions of vitamin D are to regulate calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and control bone metabolism. However, vitamin D deficiency has been reported in several chronic conditions associated with increased inflammation and deregulation of the immune system, such as diabetes, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. These observations, together with experimental studies, suggest a critical role for vitamin D in the modulation of immune function. This leads to the hypothesis of a disease-specific alteration of vitamin D metabolism and reinforces the role of vitamin D in maintaining a healthy immune system. Two key observations validate this important non-classical action of vitamin D: first, vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed by the majority of immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; second, there is an active vitamin D metabolism by immune cells that is able to locally convert 25(OH)D3 into 1,25(OH)2D3, its active form. Vitamin D and VDR signaling together have a suppressive role on autoimmunity and an anti-inflammatory effect, promoting dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell differentiation and reducing T helper Th 17 cell response and inflammatory cytokines secretion. This review summarizes experimental data and clinical observations on the potential immunomodulating properties of vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
The Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Polyphenols
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111618 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 40
Abstract
This review offers a systematic understanding about how polyphenols target multiple inflammatory components and lead to anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It provides a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds. Polyphenols regulate immunity by interfering with immune cell regulation, proinflammatory cytokines’ [...] Read more.
This review offers a systematic understanding about how polyphenols target multiple inflammatory components and lead to anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It provides a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds. Polyphenols regulate immunity by interfering with immune cell regulation, proinflammatory cytokines’ synthesis, and gene expression. They inactivate NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and modulate mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPk) and arachidonic acids pathways. Polyphenolic compounds inhibit phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/AkT), inhibitor of kappa kinase/c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (IKK/JNK), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which is a protein complex that controls protein synthesis, and JAK/STAT. They can suppress toll-like receptor (TLR) and pro-inflammatory genes’ expression. Their antioxidant activity and ability to inhibit enzymes involved in the production of eicosanoids contribute as well to their anti-inflammation properties. They inhibit certain enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species ROS production like xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) while they upregulate other endogenous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px). Furthermore, they inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) leading to a reduction in the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) and inflammation antagonism. The effects of these biologically active compounds on the immune system are associated with extended health benefits for different chronic inflammatory diseases. Studies of plant extracts and compounds show that polyphenols can play a beneficial role in the prevention and the progress of chronic diseases related to inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases, among other conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Vitamin E in Immunity
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111614 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that can protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the membrane from oxidation, regulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and modulate signal transduction. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin E have been [...] Read more.
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that can protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the membrane from oxidation, regulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and modulate signal transduction. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin E have been observed in animal and human models under normal and disease conditions. With advances in understating of the development, function, and regulation of dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, and B cells, recent studies have focused on vitamin E’s effects on specific immune cells. This review will summarize the immunological changes observed with vitamin E intervention in animals and humans, and then describe the cell-specific effects of vitamin E in order to understand the mechanisms of immunomodulation and implications of vitamin E for immunological diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
The Microbiotic Highway to Health—New Perspective on Food Structure, Gut Microbiota, and Host Inflammation
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111590 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This review provides evidence that not only the content of nutrients but indeed the structural organization of nutrients is a major determinant of human health. The gut microbiota provides nutrients for the host by digesting food structures otherwise indigestible by human enzymes, thereby [...] Read more.
This review provides evidence that not only the content of nutrients but indeed the structural organization of nutrients is a major determinant of human health. The gut microbiota provides nutrients for the host by digesting food structures otherwise indigestible by human enzymes, thereby simultaneously harvesting energy and delivering nutrients and metabolites for the nutritional and biological benefit of the host. Microbiota-derived nutrients, metabolites, and antigens promote the development and function of the host immune system both directly by activating cells of the adaptive and innate immune system and indirectly by sustaining release of monosaccharides, stimulating intestinal receptors and secreting gut hormones. Multiple indirect microbiota-dependent biological responses contribute to glucose homeostasis, which prevents hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory conditions. The composition and function of the gut microbiota vary between individuals and whereas dietary habits influence the gut microbiota, the gut microbiota influences both the nutritional and biological homeostasis of the host. A healthy gut microbiota requires the presence of beneficial microbiotic species as well as vital food structures to ensure appropriate feeding of the microbiota. This review focuses on the impact of plant-based food structures, the “fiber-encapsulated nutrient formulation”, and on the direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota participate in host immune function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111564 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 20
Abstract
Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is [...] Read more.
Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is an essential nutrient for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities, and neutrophil bacterial killing. Glutamine release to the circulation and availability is mainly controlled by key metabolic organs, such as the gut, liver, and skeletal muscles. During catabolic/hypercatabolic situations glutamine can become essential for metabolic function, but its availability may be compromised due to the impairment of homeostasis in the inter-tissue metabolism of amino acids. For this reason, glutamine is currently part of clinical nutrition supplementation protocols and/or recommended for immune suppressed individuals. However, in a wide range of catabolic/hypercatabolic situations (e.g., ill/critically ill, post-trauma, sepsis, exhausted athletes), it is currently difficult to determine whether glutamine supplementation (oral/enteral or parenteral) should be recommended based on the amino acid plasma/bloodstream concentration (also known as glutaminemia). Although the beneficial immune-based effects of glutamine supplementation are already established, many questions and evidence for positive in vivo outcomes still remain to be presented. Therefore, this paper provides an integrated review of how glutamine metabolism in key organs is important to cells of the immune system. We also discuss glutamine metabolism and action, and important issues related to the effects of glutamine supplementation in catabolic situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
Immune Function and Micronutrient Requirements Change over the Life Course
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101531 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
As humans age, the risk and severity of infections vary in line with immune competence according to how the immune system develops, matures, and declines. Several factors influence the immune system and its competence, including nutrition. A bidirectional relationship among nutrition, infection and [...] Read more.
As humans age, the risk and severity of infections vary in line with immune competence according to how the immune system develops, matures, and declines. Several factors influence the immune system and its competence, including nutrition. A bidirectional relationship among nutrition, infection and immunity exists: changes in one component affect the others. For example, distinct immune features present during each life stage may affect the type, prevalence, and severity of infections, while poor nutrition can compromise immune function and increase infection risk. Various micronutrients are essential for immunocompetence, particularly vitamins A, C, D, E, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, iron, selenium, and zinc. Micronutrient deficiencies are a recognized global public health issue, and poor nutritional status predisposes to certain infections. Immune function may be improved by restoring deficient micronutrients to recommended levels, thereby increasing resistance to infection and supporting faster recovery when infected. Diet alone may be insufficient and tailored micronutrient supplementation based on specific age-related needs necessary. This review looks at immune considerations specific to each life stage, the consequent risk of infection, micronutrient requirements and deficiencies exhibited over the life course, and the available evidence regarding the effects of micronutrient supplementation on immune function and infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
Selenium, Selenoproteins, and Immunity
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091203 - 01 Sep 2018
Cited by 29
Abstract
Selenium is an essential micronutrient that plays a crucial role in development and a wide variety of physiological processes including effect immune responses. The immune system relies on adequate dietary selenium intake and this nutrient exerts its biological effects mostly through its incorporation [...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential micronutrient that plays a crucial role in development and a wide variety of physiological processes including effect immune responses. The immune system relies on adequate dietary selenium intake and this nutrient exerts its biological effects mostly through its incorporation into selenoproteins. The selenoproteome contains 25 members in humans that exhibit a wide variety of functions. The development of high-throughput omic approaches and novel bioinformatics tools has led to new insights regarding the effects of selenium and selenoproteins in human immuno-biology. Equally important are the innovative experimental systems that have emerged to interrogate molecular mechanisms underlying those effects. This review presents a summary of the current understanding of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in regulating immune cell functions and how dysregulation of these processes may lead to inflammation or immune-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Immune System Development
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081038 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Maternal milk contains compounds that may affect newborn immunity. Among these are a group of oligosaccharides that are synthesized in the mammary gland from lactose; these oligosaccharides have been termed human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The amount of HMOs present in human milk is [...] Read more.
Maternal milk contains compounds that may affect newborn immunity. Among these are a group of oligosaccharides that are synthesized in the mammary gland from lactose; these oligosaccharides have been termed human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The amount of HMOs present in human milk is greater than the amount of protein. In fact, HMOs are the third-most abundant solid component in maternal milk after lactose and lipids, and are thus considered to be key components. The importance of HMOs may be explained by their inhibitory effects on the adhesion of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa, the growth of pathogens through the production of bacteriocins and organic acids, and the expression of genes that are involved in inflammation. This review begins with short descriptions of the basic structures of HMOs and the gut immune system, continues with the beneficial effects of HMOs shown in cell and animal studies, and it ends with the observational and randomized controlled trials carried out in humans to date, with particular emphasis on their effect on immune system development. HMOs seem to protect breastfed infants against microbial infections. The protective effect has been found to be exerted through cell signaling and cell-to-cell recognition events, enrichment of the protective gut microbiota, the modulation of microbial adhesion, and the invasion of the infant intestinal mucosa. In addition, infants fed formula supplemented with selected HMOs exhibit a pattern of inflammatory cytokines closer to that of exclusively breastfed infants. Unfortunately, the positive effects found in preclinical studies have not been substantiated in the few randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, controlled trials that are available, perhaps partly because these studies focus on aspects other than the immune response (e.g., growth, tolerance, and stool microbiota). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
Zinc and Sepsis
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080976 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Sepsis, defined as a “life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host-response to infection” is a major health issue worldwide and still lacks a fully elucidated pathobiology and uniform diagnostic tests. The trace element zinc is known to be crucial to ensure an [...] Read more.
Sepsis, defined as a “life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host-response to infection” is a major health issue worldwide and still lacks a fully elucidated pathobiology and uniform diagnostic tests. The trace element zinc is known to be crucial to ensure an appropriate immune response. During sepsis a redistribution of zinc from serum into the liver has been observed and several studies imply a correlation between zinc and sepsis outcome. Therefore the alterations of zinc concentrations in different tissues might serve as one part of the host’s defense mechanism against pathogens during sepsis by diverse mechanisms. It has been suggested that zinc is involved in nutritional immunity, acts as a hepatoprotective agent, or a differentiation signal for innate immune cells, or supports the synthesis of acute phase proteins. Further knowledge about these events could help in the evaluation of how zinc could be optimally applied to improve treatment of septic patients. Moreover, the changes in zinc homeostasis are substantial and correlate with the severity of the disease, suggesting that zinc might also be useful as a diagnostic marker for evaluating the severity and predicting the outcome of sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessReview
Immunomodulatory Protein Hydrolysates and Their Application
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070904 - 14 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Immunomodulatory protein hydrolysate consumption may delay or prevent western immune-related diseases. In order to purposively develop protein hydrolysates with an optimal and reproducible immunomodulatory effect, knowledge is needed on which components in protein hydrolysates are responsible for the immune effects. Important advances have [...] Read more.
Immunomodulatory protein hydrolysate consumption may delay or prevent western immune-related diseases. In order to purposively develop protein hydrolysates with an optimal and reproducible immunomodulatory effect, knowledge is needed on which components in protein hydrolysates are responsible for the immune effects. Important advances have been made on this aspect. Also, knowledge on mechanisms underlying the immune modulating effects is indispensable. In this review, we discuss the most promising application possibilities for immunomodulatory protein hydrolysates. In order to do so, an overview is provided on reported in vivo immune effects of protein hydrolysates in both local intestinal and systemic organs, and the current insights in the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Furthermore, we discuss current knowledge and physicochemical approaches to identify the immune active protein sequence(s). We conclude that multiple hydrolysate compositions show specific immune effects. This knowledge can improve the efficacy of existing hydrolysate-containing products such as sports nutrition, clinical nutrition, and infant formula. We also provide arguments for why immunomodulatory protein hydrolysates could be applied to manage the immune response in the increasing number of individuals with a higher risk of immune dysfunction due to, for example, increasing age or stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Obesity, Inflammation, Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Fatty Acids
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040432 - 30 Mar 2018
Cited by 50
Abstract
Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to [...] Read more.
Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is acknowledged as one of the main triggers of the obesity-induced inflammatory response. The aim of the present review is to describe the role that is played by the TLR4 signaling pathway in the inflammatory response and its modulation by saturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies indicate that saturated fatty acids can induce inflammation by activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, exert anti-inflammatory actions through the attenuation of the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by either lipopolysaccharides or saturated fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
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