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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Life Style Intervention Improves Retinopathy Status—The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071691 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to find out whether participation in earlier intervention had an effect on the occurrence of retinopathy in study participants. We also examined risk factors (age, sex, weight, fasting and 2 h glucose, fasting insulin, blood pressure, serum [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to find out whether participation in earlier intervention had an effect on the occurrence of retinopathy in study participants. We also examined risk factors (age, sex, weight, fasting and 2 h glucose, fasting insulin, blood pressure, serum lipids) for early retinal changes. The study included 522 individuals (mean 55 years old, range 40–64 years) with impaired glucose tolerance who were randomized into intervention (weight loss, healthy diet, and physical activity, N = 265) and control groups (N = 257). Intervention lasted for median of four years in 1993–2000, after which annual follow-up visits at study clinics were conducted. In the years 2002–2006 (at least five years after stopping intervention), fundus photography was offered for all study participants in four of five study clinics. Photographs were assessed by two experienced ophthalmologists (A.A. and K.K.), masked for the group assignment. After exclusion of poor quality photographs, the data of 211 individuals (N = 113 for intervention and N = 98 for control group) were included in the present study. The occurrence of microaneurysms was significantly higher in the control (37/98, 38%) than in the intervention group (27/113, 24%; p = 0.029). In the model, including age, sex, diabetes diagnosis before the retinal assessment, body mass index (BMI), and treatment group, the odds ratio for microaneurysms was markedly lower in intervention group (OR 0.52; 0.28–0.97, p = 0.039). The only risk factor that predicted the occurrence of microaneurysms was serum triglycerides at baseline (mean ± SD 1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7, mmol/L, with and without microaneurysms, respectively, p = 0.003). Triglycerides associated with decreased microaneurysms in regression analysis for age, sex, fasting glucose, and intervention group (OR 1.92, p = 0.018). Lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance showed decreased occurrence of retinal microaneurysms. Elevated serum triglycerides were associated to the development of early diabetic microangiopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Content of Squeeze Pouch Foods for Infants and Toddlers Sold in the United States in 2015
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071689 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: To describe the availability and nutrient composition of U.S. commercially available squeeze pouch infant and toddler foods in 2015. Materials and Methods: Data were from information presented on nutrition labels for 703 ready-to-serve, pureed food products from 24 major U.S. infant and [...] Read more.
Background: To describe the availability and nutrient composition of U.S. commercially available squeeze pouch infant and toddler foods in 2015. Materials and Methods: Data were from information presented on nutrition labels for 703 ready-to-serve, pureed food products from 24 major U.S. infant and toddler food brands. We described nutritional components (e.g., calories, fat) and compared them between packaging types (squeeze pouch versus other packaging types) within food categories. Results: 397 (56%) of the analyzed food products were packaged as squeeze pouches. Differences in 13 nutritional components between squeeze pouch versus other packaging types were generally small and varied by food category. Squeeze pouches in the fruits and vegetables, fruit-based, and vegetable-based categories were more likely to contain added sugars than other package types. Conclusion: In 2015, squeeze pouches were prevalent in the U.S. commercial infant and toddler food market. Nutrient composition differed between squeeze pouches and other packaging types for some macro- and micronutrients. Although it is recommended that infants and toddlers under two years old not consume any added sugars, a specific area of concern may be the inclusion of sources of added sugar in squeeze pouches. Linking this information with children’s dietary intake would facilitate understanding how these differences affect overall diet quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bovine κ-Casein Fragment Induces Hypo-Responsive M2-Like Macrophage Phenotype
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071688 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Immunomodulatory nutraceuticals have garnered special attention due to their therapeutic potential for the amelioration of many chronic inflammatory conditions. Macrophages are key players in the induction, propagation and resolution of inflammation, actively contributing to the pathogenesis and resolution of inflammatory disorders. As such, [...] Read more.
Immunomodulatory nutraceuticals have garnered special attention due to their therapeutic potential for the amelioration of many chronic inflammatory conditions. Macrophages are key players in the induction, propagation and resolution of inflammation, actively contributing to the pathogenesis and resolution of inflammatory disorders. As such, this study aimed to investigate the possible therapeutic effects bovine casein derived nutraceuticals exert on macrophage immunological function. Initial studies demonstrated that sodium caseinate induced a M2-like macrophage phenotype that was attributed to the kappa-casein subunit. Kappa-casein primed macrophages acquired a M2-like phenotype that expressed CD206, CD54, OX40L, CD40 on the cell surface and gene expression of Arg-1, RELM-α and YM1, archetypical M2 markers. Macrophages stimulated with kappa-casein secreted significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-10 in response to TLR stimulation through a mechanism that targeted the nuclear factor-κB signal transduction pathway. Macrophage proteolytic processing of kappa-casein was required to elicit these suppressive effects, indicating that a fragment other than C-terminal fragment, glycomacropeptide, induced these modulatory effects. Kappa-casein treated macrophages also impaired T-cell responses. Given the powerful immuno-modulatory effects exhibited by kappa-casein and our understanding of immunopathology associated with inflammatory diseases, this fragment has the potential as an oral nutraceutical and therefore warrants further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on the Risk of Hypertension in a Large Cohort of French Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071687 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: Healthy lifestyle factors are widely recommended for hypertension prevention and control. Nevertheless, little is known about their combined impact on hypertension, in the general population. Our aim was to compute a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) comprising the main non-pharmacological measures usually recommended [...] Read more.
Background: Healthy lifestyle factors are widely recommended for hypertension prevention and control. Nevertheless, little is known about their combined impact on hypertension, in the general population. Our aim was to compute a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) comprising the main non-pharmacological measures usually recommended to improve hypertension prevention: normal weight, regular physical activity, limited alcohol consumption, adoption of a healthy diet; to evaluate their combined impact on hypertension incidence. Methods: We prospectively followed the incidence of hypertension among 80,426 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Self-reported dietary, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health data were assessed at baseline and yearly using a dedicated website; the association between HLI and hypertension risk was assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, family history of hypertension, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Hypothetical Population Attributable Risks associated to each factor were estimated. Results: During a median follow-up of 3.5 years (IQR: 1.5–5.3), 2413 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Compared with no or one healthy lifestyle factor, the hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.67–0.85) for two factors, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.42–0.53) for three factors and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.30–0.41) for all healthy lifestyle factors (p-trend <0.0001). Compared with adhering to 0, 1, 2 or 3 healthy lifestyles, adhering to all of them was found associated with a reduction of the hypertension risk of half (HR = 0.55 (95% CI, 0.46–0.65)). Conclusion: Active promotion of healthy lifestyle factors at population level is a key leverage to fight the hypertension epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Open AccessArticle
Interaction of Dietary Linoleic Acid and α-Linolenic Acids with rs174547 in FADS1 Gene on Metabolic Syndrome Components among Vegetarians
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071686 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene controls the fatty acid metabolism pathway in the human body. The lower intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) than linoleic acid (LA) among vegetarians may disrupt the fatty acid metabolism and limit the conversion of ALA [...] Read more.
Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene controls the fatty acid metabolism pathway in the human body. The lower intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) than linoleic acid (LA) among vegetarians may disrupt the fatty acid metabolism and limit the conversion of ALA to anti-inflammatory products such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the interaction of rs174547 in FADS1 gene with LA and ALA on metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. A total of 200 Chinese and Indian vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia participated in the present study. The data on socio-demographic characteristics, vegetarianism practices, dietary practices, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP), and overnight venous fasting blood samples were collected from the vegetarians. The rs174547 in FADS1 gene was significantly associated with MetS and its components such as waist circumference (WC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that vegetarians with TT genotype of rs174547 in FADS1 gene had higher odds for MetS, larger WC, higher BP, and a lower level of HDL-c. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that LA interacts with rs174547 in FADS1 gene to affect HDL-c (p < 0.05) among vegetarians. The present findings suggest the need to develop dietary guidelines for vegetarians in Malaysia. Prospective studies are also needed to affirm the interaction between LA and rs174547 in FADS1 gene on HDL-c among Malaysian vegetarians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Initial Dietary Protein Intake Influence Muscle Function Adaptations in Older Men and Women Following High-Intensity Interval Training Combined with Citrulline
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071685
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: This study evaluates whether the initial amount of dietary protein intake could influence the combined effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and citrulline (CIT), or HIIT alone, on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacities in obese older adults. Methods: Seventy-three sedentary [...] Read more.
Background: This study evaluates whether the initial amount of dietary protein intake could influence the combined effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and citrulline (CIT), or HIIT alone, on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacities in obese older adults. Methods: Seventy-three sedentary obese older men and women who completed a 12-week elliptical HIIT program with double-blinded randomized supplementation of CIT or placebo (PLA) were divided into four groups according to their initial protein intake (CIT–PROT+: n = 21; CIT–PROT−: n = 19; PLA–PROT+: n = 19; PLA–PROT−: n = 14). Body composition (fat and fat-free masses), handgrip (HSr) strength, knee extensor (KESr) strength, muscle power, and functional capacities were measured pre-intervention and post-intervention. Results: Following the intervention, the four groups improved significantly regarding all the parameters measured. For the same initial amount of protein intake, the CIT–PROT− group decreased more gynoid fat mass (p = 0.04) than the PLA–PROT− group. The CIT–PROT+ group increased more KESr (p = 0.04) than the PLA–PROT+ group. In addition, the CIT–PROT− group decreased more gynoid FM (p = 0.02) and improved more leg FFM (p = 0.02) and HSr (p = 0.02) than the CIT–PROT+ group. Conclusion: HIIT combined with CIT induced greater positive changes than in the PLA groups. The combination seems more beneficial in participants consuming less than 1 g/kg/d of protein, since greater improvements on body composition and muscle strength were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty: Role of Nutrition and Exercise)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Food Intolerances
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071684
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Food intolerances are estimated to affect up to 20% of the population but complete understanding of diagnosis and management is complicated, given presentation and non-immunological mechanisms associated vary greatly. This review aims to provide a scientific update on common food intolerances resulting in [...] Read more.
Food intolerances are estimated to affect up to 20% of the population but complete understanding of diagnosis and management is complicated, given presentation and non-immunological mechanisms associated vary greatly. This review aims to provide a scientific update on common food intolerances resulting in gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. FODMAP sensitivity has strong evidence supporting its mechanisms of increased osmotic activity and fermentation with the resulting distention leading to symptoms in those with visceral hypersensitivity. For many of the other food intolerances reviewed including non-coeliac gluten/wheat sensitivity, food additives and bioactive food chemicals, the findings show that there is a shortage of reproducible well-designed double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, making understanding of the mechanisms, diagnosis and management difficult. Enzyme deficiencies have been proposed to result in other food sensitivities including low amine oxidase activity resulting in histamine intolerance and sucrase-isomaltase deficiency resulting in reduced tolerance to sugars and starch. Lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers for all food intolerances result in an inability to target specific foods in the individual. As such, a trial-and-error approach is used, whereby suspected food constituents are reduced for a short-period and then re-challenged to assess response. Future studies should aim to identify biomarkers to predict response to dietary therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Supplementation with Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice Causes a Greater Increase in Plasma Nitrite and Reduction in Blood Pressure of Older Compared to Younger Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071683
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in younger and older adults via increased nitric oxide production. However, it is unclear whether the level of effects differs between the two groups. We hypothesized that acute supplementation with [...] Read more.
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in younger and older adults via increased nitric oxide production. However, it is unclear whether the level of effects differs between the two groups. We hypothesized that acute supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice would improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in older and younger adults, with the potential for greater improvements in older adults. Thirteen younger (18–30 years) and 11 older (50–70 years) adults consumed either 150 mL of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR; 10.5 mmol nitrate) or placebo (PL; 1 mmol nitrate) in a double-blind, crossover design, 2.25 h prior to a 30-min treadmill walk. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cognitive function, mood and perceptual tests were performed throughout the trial. BR consumption significantly increased plasma nitrate (p < 0.001) and nitrite (p = 0.003) concentrations and reduced systolic BP (p < 0.001) in both age groups and reduced diastolic BP (p = 0.013) in older adults. Older adults showed a greater elevation in plasma nitrite (p = 0.038) and a greater reduction in diastolic BP (p = 0.005) following BR consumption than younger adults. Reaction time was improved in the Stroop test following BR supplementation for both groups (p = 0.045). Acute BR supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentrations and reduced diastolic BP to a greater degree in older adults; whilst systolic BP was reduced in both older and younger adults, suggesting nitrate-rich BR may improve cardiovascular health, particularly in older adults due to the greater benefits from reductions in diastolic BP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Red Meat on Colorectal Cancer Occurrence Is Dependent on the Genetic Polymorphisms of S-Glutathione Transferase Genes
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071682
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: It is postulated that both individual genotype and environmental factors such as diet may modify the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The influences of GST gene polymorphism and red meat intake on CRC occurrence in the Polish population were analyzed in [...] Read more.
Background: It is postulated that both individual genotype and environmental factors such as diet may modify the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The influences of GST gene polymorphism and red meat intake on CRC occurrence in the Polish population were analyzed in this study. Methods: Genotyping was performed with the qPCR method. Results: A high frequency of meat consumption was associated with an over 2-fold increase in the risk of colorectal cancer odds ratio (OR) adjusted for sex and age = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.3–4.4). However, after analyzing the genetic profiles, in the absence of polymorphisms of all three analyzed genes, there was no association between a high frequency of meat consumption and the occurrence of CRC. In the case of GSTM1 gene polymorphism, the high frequency of meat consumption increased the risk of CRC by almost more than 4 times (OR adjusted for sex and age = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1). For GSTP1 gene polymorphism, a 3-fold increase in CRC risk was observed with a high frequency of meat consumption (OR adjusted for sex and age = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4–8.1). In the case of GSTT1 gene polymorphism, the increase in risk of CRC was not statistically significant (OR adjusted for sex and age = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.4–8.5). Conclusions: The frequency of red meat intake in non-smokers increases the risk of colon cancer in the case of GST gene polymorphisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Phenotyping Women Based on Dietary Macronutrients, Physical Activity, and Body Weight Using Machine Learning Tools
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071681
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Nutritional phenotyping can help achieve personalized nutrition, and machine learning tools may offer novel means to achieve phenotyping. The primary aim of this study was to use energy balance components, namely input (dietary energy intake and macronutrient composition) and output (physical activity) to [...] Read more.
Nutritional phenotyping can help achieve personalized nutrition, and machine learning tools may offer novel means to achieve phenotyping. The primary aim of this study was to use energy balance components, namely input (dietary energy intake and macronutrient composition) and output (physical activity) to predict energy stores (body weight) as a way to evaluate their ability to identify potential phenotypes based on these parameters. From the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI OS), carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fibers, sugars, and physical activity variables, namely energy expended from mild, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity, were used to predict current body weight (both as body weight in kilograms and as a body mass index (BMI) category). Several machine learning tools were used for this prediction. Finally, cluster analysis was used to identify putative phenotypes. For the numerical predictions, the support vector machine (SVM), neural network, and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithms performed modestly, with mean approximate errors (MAEs) of 6.70 kg, 6.98 kg, and 6.90 kg, respectively. For categorical prediction, SVM performed the best (54.5% accuracy), followed closely by the bagged tree ensemble and kNN algorithms. K-means cluster analysis improved prediction using numerical data, identified 10 clusters suggestive of phenotypes, with a minimum MAE of ~1.1 kg. A classifier was used to phenotype subjects into the identified clusters, with MAEs <5 kg for 15% of the test set (n = ~2000). This study highlights the challenges, limitations, and successes in using machine learning tools on self-reported data to identify determinants of energy balance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Food and Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy in Relation to Maternal Characteristics: Results from the NICE Birth Cohort in Northern Sweden
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071680
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Linkages between diet and other lifestyle factors may confound observational studies. We used cluster analysis to analyze how the intake of food and nutrients during pregnancy co-varies with lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors in 567 women who participated in the NICE (nutritional impact [...] Read more.
Linkages between diet and other lifestyle factors may confound observational studies. We used cluster analysis to analyze how the intake of food and nutrients during pregnancy co-varies with lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors in 567 women who participated in the NICE (nutritional impact on immunological maturation during childhood in relation to the environment) birth-cohort in northern Sweden. A food frequency questionnaire, Meal-Q, was administered in pregnancy Week 34, and the reported food and nutrient intakes were related to maternal characteristics such as age, education, rural/town residence, parity, pre-pregnancy smoking, first-trimester BMI, allergy and hyperemesis. Two lifestyle-diet clusters were identified: (1) High level of education and higher age were related to one another, and associated with a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish, and (2) smoking before pregnancy and higher BMI in early pregnancy were related to one another and associated with a diet that contained white bread, French fries, pizza, meat, soft drinks, candy and snacks. More than half of the women had lower-than-recommended daily intake levels of vitamin D, folate, selenium, and iodine. Complex lifestyle-diet interactions should be considered in observational studies that link diet and pregnancy outcome. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Effects of Oral l-Arginine and l-Citrulline Supplementation on Blood Pressure
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071679
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium via the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The inadequate production of NO has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) in both human and animal studies, and might be due [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium via the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The inadequate production of NO has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) in both human and animal studies, and might be due to substrate inaccessibility. This review aimed to investigate whether oral administration of the amino acids l-arginine (Arg) and l-citrulline (Cit), which are potential substrates for eNOS, could effectively reduce BP by increasing NO production. Both Arg and Cit are effective at increasing plasma Arg. Cit is approximately twice as potent, which is most likely due to a lower first-pass metabolism. The current data suggest that oral Arg supplementation can lower BP by 5.39/2.66 mmHg, which is an effect that is comparable with diet changes and exercise implementation. The antihypertensive properties of Cit are more questionable, but are likely in the range of 4.1/2.08 to 7.54/3.77 mmHg. The exact mechanism by which Cit and Arg exert their effect is not fully understood, as normal plasma Arg concentration greatly exceeds the Michaelis constant (Km) of eNOS. Thus, elevated plasma Arg concentrations would not be expected to increase endogenous NO production significantly, but have nonetheless been observed in other studies. This phenomenon is known as the “l-arginine paradox”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Lcs) Modulates Systemic and Upper Airways Immune/Inflammatory Responses in Marathon Runners
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071678
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in [...] Read more.
Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in the systemic and upper airway immune/inflammatory responses before and after a marathon. Methods. Forty-two male marathon runners ingested a fermented milk containing 40 billion of LcS/day (LcS group, n = 20) or placebo (unfermented milk, n = 22) during 30 days pre-marathon. Immune/inflammatory parameters in nasal mucosa and serum, as well as concentrations of secretory IgA (SIgA) and antimicrobial peptides in saliva, were evaluated before and after fermented milk ingestion, immediately, 72 h, and 14 d post-marathon. Results. Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal mucosa, and also lower salivary levels of SIgA and antimicrobial peptides, were found immediately post-marathon in the placebo group compared to other time points and to LcS group. In opposite, higher anti-inflammatory levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration on nasal mucosa were found in the LcS group compared to other time points and to the placebo group. Conclusion. For the first time, it is shown that LcS is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Linseed Components Are More Effective Than Whole Linseed in Reversing Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071677
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Linseed is a dietary source of plant-based ω–3 fatty acids along with fiber as well as lignans including secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). We investigated the reversal of signs of metabolic syndrome following addition of whole linseed (5%), defatted linseed (3%), or SDG (0.03%) to [...] Read more.
Linseed is a dietary source of plant-based ω–3 fatty acids along with fiber as well as lignans including secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). We investigated the reversal of signs of metabolic syndrome following addition of whole linseed (5%), defatted linseed (3%), or SDG (0.03%) to either a high-carbohydrate, high-fat or corn starch diet for rats for the final eight weeks of a 16–week protocol. All interventions reduced plasma insulin, systolic blood pressure, inflammatory cell infiltration in heart, ventricular collagen deposition, and diastolic stiffness but had no effect on plasma total cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids, or triglycerides. Whole linseed did not change the body weight or abdominal fat in obese rats while SDG and defatted linseed decreased abdominal fat and defatted linseed increased lean mass. Defatted linseed and SDG, but not whole linseed, improved heart and liver structure, decreased fat vacuoles in liver, and decreased plasma leptin concentrations. These results show that the individual components of linseed produce greater potential therapeutic responses in rats with metabolic syndrome than whole linseed. We suggest that the reduced responses indicate reduced oral bioavailability of the whole seeds compared to the components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diet and Neurodevelopmental Score in a Sample of One-Year-Old Children—A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071676
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Environmental factors in the first years of life are crucial for a child’s neurodevelopment. Research on the association between breastfeeding and neurodevelopment is inconclusive, while research on the possible association between other dietary factors and neurodevelopment is inadequate in children as young as [...] Read more.
Environmental factors in the first years of life are crucial for a child’s neurodevelopment. Research on the association between breastfeeding and neurodevelopment is inconclusive, while research on the possible association between other dietary factors and neurodevelopment is inadequate in children as young as one year of age. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between both breastfeeding and other dietary factors and the neurodevelopment of one-year-old children in Norway. Methods: Participants were recruited from kindergartens in four Norwegian counties in 2017. A questionnaire including questions about dietary factors and breastfeeding, and a standardised age-related questionnaire on neurodevelopment (the Ages and Stages Questionnaire), were completed by parents of one-year-olds. Linear regressions adjusting for relevant covariates were conducted to explore the associations. Results: In our sample of 212 one-year-old children, a longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher neurodevelopmental scores. Dietary intake of fish, fruits and vegetables was also strongly associated with higher neurodevelopmental scores, even after adjustment for breastfeeding and maternal education. Conclusion: Our results indicate that healthy dietary factors are important for neurodevelopment in young children, with measurable effects already at the age of one year. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and Phenylbutyrate Supplementation Does Not Modulate Gut Derived Immune Activation in HIV-1
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071675
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals ( [...] Read more.
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 167) were included from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial of daily 5000 IU vitamin D and 500 mg phenylbutyrate for 16 weeks (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974). Baseline and per-protocol plasma samples at week 16 were analysed for soluble CD14, the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, choline, and betaine. Assessment of the gut microbiota involved 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colonic biopsies. Vitamin D + phenylbutyrate treatment significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p < 0.001) but had no effects on sCD14, the kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, or choline levels. Subgroup-analyses of vitamin D insufficient subjects demonstrated a significant increase of LL-37 in the treatment group (p = 0.02), whereas treatment failed to significantly impact LL-37-levels in multiple regression analysis. Further, no effects on the microbiota was found in number of operational taxonomic units (p = 0.71), Shannon microbial diversity index (p = 0.82), or in principal component analyses (p = 0.83). Nutritional supplementation with vitamin D + phenylbutyrate did not modulate gut-derived inflammatory markers or microbial composition in treatment-naïve HIV-1 individuals with active viral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Paramylon Extracted from Euglena gracilis EOD-1 on Parameters Related to Metabolic Syndrome in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071674
Received: 23 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Paramylon (PM), a type of β-glucan, functions like dietary fiber, which has been suggested to exert a protective effect against obesity. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of PM powder on obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented [...] Read more.
Paramylon (PM), a type of β-glucan, functions like dietary fiber, which has been suggested to exert a protective effect against obesity. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of PM powder on obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with either 2.5 or 5% PM powder, extracted from Euglena gracilis, for 74 days. Growth parameters, abdominal fat content, serum biochemical markers, hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic mRNA expression were measured. Dietary supplementation with PM resulted in decreased food efficiency ratios and abdominal fat accumulation. Dose-dependent decreases were observed in postprandial glucose levels, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and serum secretary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations. PM supplementation increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression in the liver which is suggested to induce β-oxidation through activation of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) mRNA expression. Changes in fatty acid metabolism may improve lipid and glucose metabolism. In conclusion, a preventive effect against obesity was observed in mice given a PM-enriched diet. The mechanism is suggested to involve a reduction in both serum LDL-cholesterol levels and the accumulation of abdominal fat, in addition to an improvement in postprandial glucose concentration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Paper-Based Sensor Compatible with a Mobile Phone for the Detection of Common Iron Formulas Used in Fortified Foods within Resource-Limited Settings
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071673
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
A lack of quality control tools limits the enforcement of fortification policies. In alignment with the World Health Organization’s ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable), a paper-based assay that interfaces with a smartphone application for the quantification [...] Read more.
A lack of quality control tools limits the enforcement of fortification policies. In alignment with the World Health Organization’s ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable), a paper-based assay that interfaces with a smartphone application for the quantification of iron fortificants is presented. The assay is based on the Ferrozine colorimetric method. The reaction started after deposition of the 5 µL aqueous sample and drying. After developing color, pixel intensity values were obtained using a smartphone camera and image processing software or a mobile application, Nu3px. From these values, the actual iron concentration from ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate was calculated. The limits of detection, quantification, linearity, range, and errors (systematic and random) were ascertained. The paper-based values from real samples (wheat flour, nixtamalized corn flour, and infant formula) were compared against atomic emission spectroscopy. The comparison of several concentrations of atomic iron between the spectrophotometric and paper-based assays showed a strong positive linear correlation (y = 47.01x + 126.18; R2 = 0.9932). The dynamic range (5.0–100 µg/mL) and limit of detection (3.691 µg/mL) of the paper-based assay are relevant for fortified food matrices. Random and systematic errors were 15.9% and + 8.65 µg/g food, respectively. The concept can be applied to limited-resource settings to measure iron in fortified foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: A Matched Case-Control Study within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071672
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Background and Aims: The association of fatty acids with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been examined, mainly through dietary measurements, and has generated inconsistent results due to measurement error. Large observational studies and randomized controlled trials have shown that plasma phospholipid fatty acids [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: The association of fatty acids with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been examined, mainly through dietary measurements, and has generated inconsistent results due to measurement error. Large observational studies and randomized controlled trials have shown that plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PL-FA), especially those less likely to be endogenously synthesized, are good biomarkers of dietary fatty acids. Thus, PL-FA profiles may better predict CHD risk with less measurement error. Methods: We performed a matched case-control study of 2428 postmenopausal women nested in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Plasma PL-FA were measured using gas chromatography and expressed as molar percentage (moL %). Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (95% CIs) for CHD associated with 1 moL % change in PL-FA. Results: Higher plasma PL long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) were associated with increased CHD risk, while higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were associated with decreased risk. No significant associations were observed for very-long-chain SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), PUFA n-6 or trans fatty acids (TFA). Substituting 1 moL % PUFA n-6 or TFA with an equivalent proportion of PUFA n-3 were associated with lower CHD risk. Conclusions: Higher plasma PL long-chain SFA and lower PUFA n-3 were associated with increased CHD risk. A change in diet by limiting foods that are associated with plasma PL long-chain SFA and TFA while enhancing foods high in PUFA n-3 may be beneficial in CHD among postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Neuroprotective Effect of Schisandra Chinensis on Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinsonian Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071671
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (S. chinensis) is a well-known botanical medicine and nutritional supplement that has been shown to have potential effects on neurodegeneration. To investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of S. chinensis fruit extract, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to induce [...] Read more.
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (S. chinensis) is a well-known botanical medicine and nutritional supplement that has been shown to have potential effects on neurodegeneration. To investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of S. chinensis fruit extract, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to induce behavioral disorders and dopaminergic neuronal damage in mice, and biochemical indicators were examined. Male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the MPTP-induced parkinsonian syndrome model. Open field and rotarod tests were performed to evaluate the overall manifestation of motor deficits and rodent motor coordination. The mice were divided into 8 groups as follows: normal control; MPTP alone (25 mg/kg, i.p.); S. chinensis extract pretreatment (0.5, 1.5, 5 g/kg, p.o.); and S. chinensis extract treatment (0.5, 1.5, 5 g/kg, p.o.). Liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection was used to monitor neurochemicals in the striatum. Tyrosine hydroxylase content was measured by immunohistochemistry, and biochemical antioxidative indicators were used to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of S. chinensis fruit extract. The results demonstrated that treatment with S. chinensis fruit extract ameliorated MPTP-induced deficits in behavior, exercise balance, dopamine level, dopaminergic neurons, and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the striatum of mice. Among the pretreated and treatment groups, a high dose of S. chinensis fruit extract was the most effective treatment. In conclusion, S. chinensis fruit extract is a potential herbal drug candidate for the amelioration and prevention of Parkinson’s disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Faster Gastric Emptying Is Unrelated to Feeding Success in Preterm Infants: Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071670
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between gastric emptying (GE) time and days to achievement of full enteral feeding (≥140 mL/kg/day) in preterm infants randomly assigned to receive one of two marketed study formulas for the first 14 feeding days: intact protein premature formula [...] Read more.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between gastric emptying (GE) time and days to achievement of full enteral feeding (≥140 mL/kg/day) in preterm infants randomly assigned to receive one of two marketed study formulas for the first 14 feeding days: intact protein premature formula (IPF) or extensively hydrolyzed protein (EHF) formula. Methods: In this triple-blind, controlled, prospective, clinical trial, we report GE time (time to half-emptying, t1/2) by real-time ultrasonography on Study Day 14, in preterm infants receiving IPF or EHF formula. The association between GE time and achievement of full enteral feeding was evaluated by Pearson correlation. Per-protocol populations for analysis included participants who (1) completed the study (overall) and (2) who received ≥ 75% study formula intake (mL/kg/day). Results: Median GE time at Day 14 was significantly faster for the EHF vs. IPF group overall and in participants who received ≥ 75% study formula intake (p ≤ 0.018). However, we demonstrated GE time had no correlation with the achievement of full enteral feeding (r = 0.08; p = 0.547). Conclusion: Feeding IP premature formula vs. EH formula was associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. However, faster GE time did not predict feeding success and may not be a clinically relevant surrogate for assessing feeding tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Preterm Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
A Mitochondrial Specific Antioxidant Reverses Metabolic Dysfunction and Fatty Liver Induced by Maternal Cigarette Smoke in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071669
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Maternal smoking leads to glucose and lipid metabolic disorders and hepatic damage in the offspring, potentially due to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Mitoquinone mesylate (MitoQ) is a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant with high bioavailability. This study aimed to examine the impact of maternal cigarette smoke [...] Read more.
Maternal smoking leads to glucose and lipid metabolic disorders and hepatic damage in the offspring, potentially due to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Mitoquinone mesylate (MitoQ) is a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant with high bioavailability. This study aimed to examine the impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) on offspring’s metabolic profile and hepatic damage, and whether maternal MitoQ supplementation during gestation can affect these changes. Female Balb/c mice (eight weeks) were either exposed to air or SE for six weeks prior to mating and throughout gestation and lactation. A subset of the SE dams were supplied with MitoQ in the drinking water (500 µmol/L) during gestation and lactation. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in the male offspring at 12 weeks and the livers and plasma were collected at 13 weeks. Maternal SE induced glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, mitochondrial oxidative stress and related damage in the adult offspring. Maternal MitoQ supplementation reduced hepatic mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved markers of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. This may restore hepatic mitochondrial health and was associated with an amelioration of glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis and pathological changes induced by maternal SE. MitoQ supplementation may potentially prevent metabolic dysfunction and hepatic pathology induced by intrauterine SE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver, Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndromes)
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Open AccessCommunication
Can Nutritional Intervention for Obesity and Comorbidities Slow Down Age-Related Hearing Impairment?
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071668
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), the most common sensory deficit in the elderly, is associated with enormous social and public health burdens. Emerging evidence has suggested that obesity and comorbidities might increase the risk of ARHI. However, no reviews have been published that [...] Read more.
Background: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), the most common sensory deficit in the elderly, is associated with enormous social and public health burdens. Emerging evidence has suggested that obesity and comorbidities might increase the risk of ARHI. However, no reviews have been published that address the role of nutritional interventions for obesity and comorbidities in the prevention of ARHI. Methods: A PubMed database search was conducted to identify the relationship between obesity and ARHI. “Obesity”, “metabolic syndrome”, “adipose-derived hormone”, “fatty acid”, and “age-related hearing impairment” were included as keywords. Results: A total of 89 articles was analyzed with 39 articles of relevance to ARHI. A high-fat diet may induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis in the inner ear. Statins have been shown to delay the progression of ARHI by improving the lipid profile, reducing oxidative stress, and inhibiting endothelial inflammation. Aldosterone could exert protective effects against ARHI by upregulating the Na-K-2Cl co-transporter 1 in the cochlea. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could preserve the cochlear microcirculation by reducing dyslipidemia and inhibiting inflammation. Alpha-lipoic acid and lecithin might delay the progression of ARHI by protecting cochlear mitochondrial DNA from damage due to oxidative stress. Tea and ginseng might protect against ARHI through their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions for obesity and comorbidities, including a low-fat diet, supplementation with statins, aldosterone, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-lipoic acids, lecithin, tea, and ginseng, may protect against the development of ARHI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Hearing)
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Open AccessReview
Weight Loss and Hypertension in Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071667
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Arterial hypertension is strongly related to overweight and obesity. In obese subjects, several mechanisms may lead to hypertension such as insulin and leptin resistance, perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction, renal impairment, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system activation and sympathetic nervous system activity. Weight loss (WL) seems to have [...] Read more.
Arterial hypertension is strongly related to overweight and obesity. In obese subjects, several mechanisms may lead to hypertension such as insulin and leptin resistance, perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction, renal impairment, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system activation and sympathetic nervous system activity. Weight loss (WL) seems to have positive effects on blood pressure (BP). The aim of this review was to explain the mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension and to evaluate the main studies assessing the effect of WL on BP. We analysed studies published in the last 10 years (13 studies either interventional or observational) showing the effect of WL on BP. Different WL strategies were taken into account—diet and lifestyle modification, pharmacological intervention and bariatric surgery. Although a positive effect of WL could be identified in each study, the main difference seems to be the magnitude and the durability of BP reduction over time. Nevertheless, further follow-up data are needed: there is still a lack of evidence about long term effects of WL on hypertension. Hence, given the significant results obtained in several recent studies, weight management should always be pursued in obese patients with hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Diet Quality and Vegetable Variety with the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Chinese Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071666
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Diet quality plays an important role in dementia prevention. It remains unclear how the joint effect of vegetable variety and diet quality affects cognition. This study aimed to explore the association of diet quality and vegetable variety with cognitive decline in older adults. [...] Read more.
Diet quality plays an important role in dementia prevention. It remains unclear how the joint effect of vegetable variety and diet quality affects cognition. This study aimed to explore the association of diet quality and vegetable variety with cognitive decline in older adults. This prospective cohort study (2011–2015) included 436 community-dwelling elders in Taipei. Diet quality, assessed by the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI), was computed from a food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2011–2013). Vegetable variety indicated the number of different vegetable groups, adjusted for vegetable quantity. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to explore the association of diet quality and vegetable variety with the decline of global and domain-specific cognition over two years. Our findings suggest that high diet quality (the highest tertile of mAHEI) was associated with a lower risk of both global cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.54, confidence interval (CI) = 0.31–0.95) and decline of attention domain (AOR = 0.56, CI = 0.32–0.99) compared with low diet quality. In elders with high vegetable variety, high diet quality was associated with a lower risk of global cognitive decline (AOR = 0.49, CI = 0.26–0.95). We therefore concluded that high diet quality along with diverse vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Lupin Peptide T9 (GQEQSHQDEGVIVR) Modulates the Mutant PCSK9D374Y Pathway: in vitro Characterization of its Dual Hypocholesterolemic Behavior
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071665
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
GQEQSHQDEGVIVR (T9) is a peptide originated by the tryptic digestion of lupin β-conglutin that is absorbed in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A previous study has shown that T9 impairs the protein–protein interaction between mutant D374Y Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9D374Y) and [...] Read more.
GQEQSHQDEGVIVR (T9) is a peptide originated by the tryptic digestion of lupin β-conglutin that is absorbed in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A previous study has shown that T9 impairs the protein–protein interaction between mutant D374Y Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9D374Y) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), thus exerting a hypocholesterolemic effect. Moreover, a bioinformatic study predicting that T9 may potentially act as an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), has suggested a complementary cholesterol-lowering activity. The present study demonstrates that T9 inhibits in vitro the HMGCoAR functionality with an IC50 value of 99.5 ± 0.56 µM. Through the inhibition of either HMGCoAR or PCSK9D374Y activities, T9 enhances the LDLR protein levels leading to an improved ability of HepG2 cells transfected with the mutant PCSK9D374Y-FLAG plasmid to uptake extracellular LDL with a final cholesterol-lowering effect. In addition, T9 modulates the PCSK9D374Y signaling pathway in transfected HepG2 cells leading to a decrease of PCSK9D374Y and HNF-1α protein levels. All these results indicate that the hypocholesterolemic effects of T9 are due to a dual mechanism of action involving either the modulation of the PCSK9D374Y or LDLR pathways. This may represent an added value from a therapeutic point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Lipotoxicity in Kidney, Heart, and Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071664
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Dyslipidemia is a common nutritional and metabolic disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that prolonged metabolic imbalance of lipids leads to ectopic fat distribution in the peripheral organs (lipotoxicity), including the kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle, which [...] Read more.
Dyslipidemia is a common nutritional and metabolic disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that prolonged metabolic imbalance of lipids leads to ectopic fat distribution in the peripheral organs (lipotoxicity), including the kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle, which accelerates peripheral inflammation and afflictions. Thus, lipotoxicity may partly explain progression of renal dysfunction and even extrarenal complications, including renal anemia, heart failure, and sarcopenia. Additionally, endoplasmic reticulum stress activated by the unfolded protein response pathway plays a pivotal role in lipotoxicity by modulating the expression of key enzymes in lipid synthesis and oxidation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying lipid deposition and resultant tissue damage in the kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle, with the goal of illuminating the nutritional aspects of these pathologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting and Testing Bioavailability of Magnesium Supplements
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071663
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Despite the presumption of the beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation, little is known about the pharmacokinetics of different magnesium formulations. We aimed to investigate the value of two in vitro approaches to predict bioavailability of magnesium and to validate this in subsequent in [...] Read more.
Despite the presumption of the beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation, little is known about the pharmacokinetics of different magnesium formulations. We aimed to investigate the value of two in vitro approaches to predict bioavailability of magnesium and to validate this in subsequent in vivo testing. In vitro assessment of 15 commercially available magnesium formulations was performed by means of a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®) and by dissolution tests. Two magnesium formulations with contrasting bioavailability prediction from both in vitro tests (best vs. worst) were selected for in vivo testing in 30 subjects. In vivo bioavailability was compared following one acute ingestion by monitoring blood magnesium concentrations up to 6 h following intake. The in vitro tests showed a very wide variation in absorption and dissolution of the 15 magnesium products. In the in vivo testing, a significant different serum magnesium absorption profile was found up to 4 h following supplement ingestion for the two supplements with opposing in vitro test results. Moreover, maximal serum magnesium increase and total area under the curve were significantly different for both supplements (+6.2% vs. +4.6% and 6.87 vs. 0.31 mM.min, respectively). Collectively, poor bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the SHIME model clearly translated into poor dissolution and poor bioavailability in vivo. This provides a valid methodology for the prediction of in vivo bioavailability and effectiveness of micronutrients by specific in vitro approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Magnesium for Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dietary Intervention with Reduction of Starch and Sucrose Leads to Reduced Gastrointestinal and Extra-Intestinal Symptoms in IBS Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071662
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) exhibit low-grade inflammation and increased gut permeability. Dietary sugar has been shown to contribute to low-grade inflammation and increased gut permeability, and to correlate with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine [...] Read more.
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) exhibit low-grade inflammation and increased gut permeability. Dietary sugar has been shown to contribute to low-grade inflammation and increased gut permeability, and to correlate with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet (SSRD) on gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-intestinal symptoms in IBS. One hundred and five IBS patients (82 women, 46.06 ± 13.11 years), with irritable bowel syndrome-symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) > 175, were randomized to SSRD for 4 weeks or continued ordinary eating habits. The visual analog scale for irritable bowel syndrome (VAS-IBS), IBS-SSS, and 4-day food diaries were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks. After the intervention, one-third of the patients did not fulfill the criteria for IBS/functional gastrointestinal disorder. Half of the participants changed from moderate/severe disease to no/mild disease according to IBS-SSS. Comparisons between the groups showed decreased weight and sweet cravings, and parallel decreases in total IBS-SSS and extra-intestinal IBS-SSS scores, in the intervention group compared to controls (p < 0.001 for all). When calculating separate extra-intestinal symptoms, belching (p = 0.001), muscle/joint pain (p = 0.029), urinary urgency (p = 0.017), and tiredness (p = 0.011) were decreased after introduction of SSRD compared to controls. In conclusion, SSRD improves both GI and extra-intestinal symptoms in IBS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Caffeine and Coconut Oil Intake, Isolated or Combined, Does Not Improve Running Times of Recreational Runners: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled and Crossover Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071661
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim was to evaluate the effect of caffeine (CAF) and extra virgin coconut oil (CO), isolated or combined, on running performance in runners. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover study was conducted with thirteen recreational runners aged 18–40. All volunteers performed a [...] Read more.
The aim was to evaluate the effect of caffeine (CAF) and extra virgin coconut oil (CO), isolated or combined, on running performance in runners. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover study was conducted with thirteen recreational runners aged 18–40. All volunteers performed a 1600 m time trial at a 400 m track, each ingesting four different substances: (1) placebo (water), (2) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF (DECAF + CAF), (3) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF plus soy oil (DECAF + CAF + SO), and (4) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF plus extra virgin coconut oil (DECAF + CAF + CO). The substances were ingested 60 min before the trials, the order of the situations was randomized, and there were one-week intervals between them. At the end of the trials, the Borg scale was applied to evaluate the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the time was measured. Results: Our data did not show differences in running time among the trials (placebo: 7.64 ± 0.80, DECAF + CAF: 7.61 ± 1.02, DECAF + CAF + SO: 7.66 ± 0.89, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 7.58 ± 0.74 min; p = 0.93), nor RPE (placebo: 6.15 ± 2.03, DECAF + CAF: 6.00 ± 2.27, DECAF + CAF + SO: 6.54 ± 2.73, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 6.00 ± 2.45 score; p = 0.99). Lactate concentrations (placebo: 6.23 ± 2.72, DECAF + CAF: 4.43 ± 3.77, DECAF + CAF + SO: 5.29 ± 3.77, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 6.17 ± 4.18 mmol/L; p = 0.55) also was not modified. Conclusion: Our study shows that ingestion of decaffeinated coffee with the addition of isolated CAF and extra virgin CO, either isolated or combined, does not improve 1600 m running times, nor influence RPE and lactate concentrations in recreational runners. Thus, combination of coffee with CO as a pre-workout supplement seems to be unsubstantiated for a short-distance race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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