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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2019) – 264 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Modulation of the human gut microbiota through probiotics, prebiotics and dietary fibre are [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Postprandial Effects of a Proprietary Milk Protein Hydrolysate Containing Bioactive Peptides in Prediabetic Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071700 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3331 | Correction
Abstract
Milk proteins have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by beneficially modulating glycemic response, predominantly in the postprandial status. This potential is, amongst others, attributed to the high content of whey proteins, which are commonly a product of cheese production. [...] Read more.
Milk proteins have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by beneficially modulating glycemic response, predominantly in the postprandial status. This potential is, amongst others, attributed to the high content of whey proteins, which are commonly a product of cheese production. However, native whey has received substantial attention due to its higher leucine content, and its postprandial glycemic effect has not been assessed thus far in prediabetes. In the present study, the impact of a milk protein hydrolysate of native whey origin with alpha-glucosidase inhibiting properties was determined in prediabetics in a randomized, cross-over trial. Subjects received a single dose of placebo or low- or high-dosed milk protein hydrolysate prior to a challenge meal high in carbohydrates. Concentration–time curves of glucose and insulin were assessed. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) of glucose as the primary outcome were significantly reduced by low-dosed milk peptides compared to placebo (p = 0.0472), and a minor insulinotropic effect was seen. A longer intervention period with the low-dosed product did not strengthen glucose response but significantly reduced HbA1c values (p = 0.0244). In conclusion, the current milk protein hydrolysate of native whey origin has the potential to modulate postprandial hyperglycemia and hence may contribute in reducing the future risk of developing T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Long-Term Diabetic Risk of Offspring of Gestational Diabetes Rats by Postponing Shortening of Hepatic Telomeres and Modulating Liver Metabolism
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071699 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
The long-term influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on offspring and the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on GDM offspring are poorly understood. We studied the long-term diabetic risk in GDM offspring and evaluated the effect of n [...] Read more.
The long-term influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on offspring and the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on GDM offspring are poorly understood. We studied the long-term diabetic risk in GDM offspring and evaluated the effect of n-3 PUFA intervention. Healthy offspring rats were fed standard diet (soybean oil) after weaning. GDM offspring were divided into three groups: GDM offspring (soybean oil), n-3 PUFA adequate offspring (fish oil), and n-3 PUFA deficient offspring (safflower oil), fed up to 11 months old. The diabetic risk of GDM offspring gradually increased from no change at weaning to obvious impaired glucose and insulin tolerance at 11 months old. n-3 PUFA decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver of older GDM offspring. There was a differential effect of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA on hepatic telomere length in GDM offspring. Non-targeted metabolomics showed that n-3 PUFA played a modulating role in the liver, in which numerous metabolites and metabolic pathways were altered when GDM offspring grew to old age. Many metabolites were related to diabetes risk, such as α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, ceramide, oxaloacetic acid, tocotrienol, tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol, andniacinamide. In summary, GDM offspring exhibited obvious diabetes risk at old age, whereas n-3 PUFA decreased this risk. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among European Preschool Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression by Food Group Consumption
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071698 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
The aim of this review was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children aged 2–7 years from 2006 to 2016 and to analyze these estimations by gender, country, and food group consumption. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web [...] Read more.
The aim of this review was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children aged 2–7 years from 2006 to 2016 and to analyze these estimations by gender, country, and food group consumption. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases from their inception until 27 February 2019 including cross-sectional studies and baseline measurements of cohort studies with overweight and obesity defined according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Both the inverse-variance fixed-effects method and the DerSimonian and Laird random effects method were used to determinate pooled prevalence estimates and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 32 studies (n = 197,755 children) with data from 27 European countries were included. Overall, the pooled prevalence estimates of overweight/obesity in European children (aged 2–7 years) during the period 2006–2016 was 17.9% (95% CI: 15.8–20.0), and the pooled prevalence estimate of obesity was 5.3% (95% CI: 4.5–6.1). Southern European countries showed the highest prevalence of excess weight. Additional measures to address the obesity epidemic in early life should be established, especially in European countries where the prevalence of excess weight is very high. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wheat Flour, Enriched with γ-Oryzanol, Phytosterol, and Ferulic Acid, Alleviates Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat-Fructose-Fed Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071697 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1588
Abstract
(1) Background: Modern dietary patterns with a high intake of fat and fructose, as well as refined carbohydrates, closely relate to lipid/glucose metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study is to provide new thoughts in designing functional food with some lipid/glucose metabolism [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Modern dietary patterns with a high intake of fat and fructose, as well as refined carbohydrates, closely relate to lipid/glucose metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study is to provide new thoughts in designing functional food with some lipid/glucose metabolism regulating effects for obese people. (2) Methods: The alleviating abilities of γ-oryzanol, phytosterol or ferulic acid-enriched wheat flour on lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction were evaluated in male SD rats induced by a high-fat-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms were clarified using western blot. (3) Results: In an in vitro cell model, γ-oryzanol, phytosterol and ferulic acid regulate lipid/glucose metabolism by increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, and PI3K expression, as well as decreasing expressions of DGAT1 and SCD. The in vivo study shows that ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol-enriched flours are beneficial for managing body weight, improving glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Phytosterol-enriched flour exerted remarkable effects in regulating hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperuricemia. Western blot analysis of proteins from liver samples reveals that these enriched flours alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance through their elevation in the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. (4) Conclusions: Our study indicates that these enriched flours can serve as a health-promoting functional food to regulate obesity-related lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction in rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feeding-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Grandparents in Singapore
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071696 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Childhood obesity is a growing concern worldwide. Though multifactorial, the family environment exerts significant influence on children’s eating habits. Grandparents are increasingly involved as caregivers and they can significantly influence their grandchildren’s eating habits. Yet, literature on this topic is lacking. This exploratory [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is a growing concern worldwide. Though multifactorial, the family environment exerts significant influence on children’s eating habits. Grandparents are increasingly involved as caregivers and they can significantly influence their grandchildren’s eating habits. Yet, literature on this topic is lacking. This exploratory sequential mixed methods study (qualitative interview and interviewer-administered questionnaire) aims to understand grandparents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices on the feeding of their grandchildren in Singapore. A total of 11 interview participants and 396 questionnaire respondents with at least one grandchild, aged 12 years and below were included. Qualitative interviews informed the questionnaire development. Responses to interview questions about knowledge, attitudes, and practices revealed sub-themes such as knowledge on the impact of feeding, attitude toward feeding role, and challenges to feeding. Of the 396 participants, 35% were primary caregivers (defined as the person who spends the most time with the grandchild and performs most of the caregiving tasks). Nutritional knowledge was fair (median score 5/8), with misconceptions centered around healthy feeding practices. Grandparents who were primary caregivers, female, Malay, and younger than 70 years old believed that they played an important role in feeding their grandchild (p < 0.05). Overall, 47.2% of the grandparents rarely or never set a maximum limit on the amount of unhealthy food eaten, of which 77.1% are non-primary caregivers. In comparison, primary caregivers tend to set a maximum limit to the amount of unhealthy food their grandchildren eat and choose a wide variety of food (p < 0.05). These findings support the need for further improvement of grandparents’ feeding knowledge and practices as part of tackling childhood obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake by Food Source and Eating Location in Low- and Middle-Income Chilean Preschool Children and Adolescents from Southeast Santiago
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071695 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Background: Food source and eating location are important factors associated with the quality of dietary intake. In Chile the main food sources and eating locations of preschool children and adolescents and how these relate to dietary quality are unknown. Methods: We analyzed 24 [...] Read more.
Background: Food source and eating location are important factors associated with the quality of dietary intake. In Chile the main food sources and eating locations of preschool children and adolescents and how these relate to dietary quality are unknown. Methods: We analyzed 24 h dietary recalls collected in 2016 from low- and middle-income Chilean preschool children (3–6 years, n = 839) and adolescents (12–14 years, n = 643) from southeastern Santiago. Surveys collected the food source and eating location for each food reported during the recall. We estimated the mean intake of calories and key nutrients of concern, such as saturated fats, total sugars, and sodium, by food source and eating location. Results: Foods obtained and eaten at home contributed the greatest proportion of total calories and the key nutrients of concern. Foods obtained at home tended to have lower caloric densities but higher sugar and sodium densities than foods obtained away from home in both age groups. With regard to location, for preschool children foods consumed at home had lower caloric and sugar densities than foods eaten at school, while for adolescents foods consumed at home had lower caloric, saturated fat, and sugar densities than foods eaten at school. For both children and adolescents, home was the primary source of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) calories. SSBs were important calorie contributors among foods across all settings, but the highest absolute amount of calories from these beverages was consumed at home. Conclusions: While most of Chilean youths’ calories and key nutrients of concern are obtained and consumed at home, these foods tended to have lower caloric densities than foods obtained and consumed away from home. Home was the main food source for SSBs, but the relative consumption of these beverages was high in all eating locations. More research will be needed to inform and evaluate policies and interventions to improve children’s dietary quality across settings. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Immediate and 15-Week Correlates of Individual Commitment to a “Green Monday” National Campaign Fostering Weekly Substitution of Meat and Fish by Other Nutrients
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071694 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 2668
Abstract
Promoting healthier and more sustainable diets by decreasing meat consumption represents a significant challenge in the Anthropocene epoch. However, data are scarce regarding the effects of nationwide meat reduction campaigns. We described and analyzed the correlates of a national campaign in France (called [...] Read more.
Promoting healthier and more sustainable diets by decreasing meat consumption represents a significant challenge in the Anthropocene epoch. However, data are scarce regarding the effects of nationwide meat reduction campaigns. We described and analyzed the correlates of a national campaign in France (called “Green Monday”, GM) promoting the weekly substitution of meat and fish by other nutrients. Two cross-sectional online surveys were compared: a National Comparison sample (NC) of the French general population and a self-selected sample of participants who registered for the Green Monday campaign. A follow-up study was carried out in the GM sample, in which participants were asked during 15 weeks whether or not they had substituted meat and fish. There were 2005 participants aged 18–95 (47.7% females) in the NC sample and 24,507 participants aged 18–95 (77.5% females) in the GM sample. One month after the beginning of the campaign, 51.2% of the respondents reported they had heard about Green Monday in the NC sample, and 10.5% indicated they had already started to apply Green Monday. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared to the NC sample, participants belonging to the GM sample displayed a higher rate of females, Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.26, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.86–4.71, were more educated, OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.28–1.36, had higher self-rated affluence, OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.42–1.58 and the size of their vegetarian network was greater, OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.41–1.58. They reported a slightly higher frequency of meat consumption, OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.10, while their frequency of fish consumption was lower, OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.76–0.87. Finally, the personality dimension Openness was more strongly endorsed by participants in the GM sample, OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.65–1.93. A multiple regression analysis indicated that Openness also predicted the number of participation weeks in the GM Sample (beta = 0.03, p < 0.009). In conclusion, specific demographic and personality profiles were more responsive to the national campaign, which could inform and help to shape future actions aiming at changing food habits. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Agrp-Specific Ablation of Scly Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Leptin Resistance
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071693 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
Selenium, an essential trace element known mainly for its antioxidant properties, is critical for proper brain function and regulation of energy metabolism. Whole-body knockout of the selenium recycling enzyme, selenocysteine lyase (Scly), increases susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and diet-induced obesity in mice. Scly [...] Read more.
Selenium, an essential trace element known mainly for its antioxidant properties, is critical for proper brain function and regulation of energy metabolism. Whole-body knockout of the selenium recycling enzyme, selenocysteine lyase (Scly), increases susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and diet-induced obesity in mice. Scly knockout mice also have decreased selenoprotein expression levels in the hypothalamus, a key regulator of energy homeostasis. This study investigated the role of selenium in whole-body metabolism regulation using a mouse model with hypothalamic knockout of Scly. Agouti-related peptide (Agrp) promoter-driven Scly knockout resulted in reduced weight gain and adiposity while on a high-fat diet (HFD). Scly-Agrp knockout mice had reduced Agrp expression in the hypothalamus, as measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC also revealed that while control mice developed HFD-induced leptin resistance in the arcuate nucleus, Scly-Agrp knockout mice maintained leptin sensitivity. Brown adipose tissue from Scly-Agrp knockout mice had reduced lipid deposition and increased expression of the thermogenic marker uncoupled protein-1. This study sheds light on the important role of selenium utilization in energy homeostasis, provides new information on the interplay between the central nervous system and whole-body metabolism, and may help identify key targets of interest for therapeutic treatment of metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Selenium in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Eight Weeks of a High Dose of Curcumin Supplementation May Attenuate Performance Decrements Following Muscle-Damaging Exercise
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071692 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3480
Abstract
Background: It is known that unaccustomed exercise—especially when it has an eccentric component—causes muscle damage and subsequent performance decrements. Attenuating muscle damage may improve performance and recovery, allowing for improved training quality and adaptations. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the effect [...] Read more.
Background: It is known that unaccustomed exercise—especially when it has an eccentric component—causes muscle damage and subsequent performance decrements. Attenuating muscle damage may improve performance and recovery, allowing for improved training quality and adaptations. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the effect of two doses of curcumin supplementation on performance decrements following downhill running. Methods: Sixty-three physically active men and women (21 ± 2 y; 70.0 ± 13.7 kg; 169.3 ± 15.2 cm; 25.6 ± 14.3 body mass index (BMI), 32 women, 31 men) were randomly assigned to ingest 250 mg of CurcuWIN® (50 mg of curcuminoids), 1000 mg of CurcuWIN® (200 mg of curcuminoids), or a corn starch placebo (PLA) for eight weeks in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design. At the end of the supplementation period, subjects completed a downhill running protocol intended to induce muscle damage. Muscle function using isokinetic dynamometry and perceived soreness was assessed prior to and at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-downhill run. Results: Isokinetic peak extension torque did not change in the 200-mg dose, while significant reductions occurred in the PLA and 50-mg groups through the first 24 h of recovery. Isokinetic peak flexion torque and power both decreased in the 50-mg group, while no change was observed in the PLA or 200-mg groups. All the groups experienced no changes in isokinetic extension power and isometric average peak torque. Soreness was significantly increased in all the groups compared to the baseline. Non-significant improvements in total soreness were observed for the 200-mg group, but these changes failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion: When compared to changes observed against PLA, a 200-mg dose of curcumin attenuated reductions in some but not all observed changes in performance and soreness after completion of a downhill running bout. Additionally, a 50-mg dose appears to offer no advantage to changes observed in the PLA and 200-mg groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Life Style Intervention Improves Retinopathy Status—The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071691 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
The aim of the study was to find out whether participation in earlier intervention had an effect on the occurrence of retinopathy in study participants. We also examined risk factors (age, sex, weight, fasting and 2 h glucose, fasting insulin, blood pressure, serum [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to find out whether participation in earlier intervention had an effect on the occurrence of retinopathy in study participants. We also examined risk factors (age, sex, weight, fasting and 2 h glucose, fasting insulin, blood pressure, serum lipids) for early retinal changes. The study included 522 individuals (mean 55 years old, range 40–64 years) with impaired glucose tolerance who were randomized into intervention (weight loss, healthy diet, and physical activity, N = 265) and control groups (N = 257). Intervention lasted for median of four years in 1993–2000, after which annual follow-up visits at study clinics were conducted. In the years 2002–2006 (at least five years after stopping intervention), fundus photography was offered for all study participants in four of five study clinics. Photographs were assessed by two experienced ophthalmologists (A.A. and K.K.), masked for the group assignment. After exclusion of poor quality photographs, the data of 211 individuals (N = 113 for intervention and N = 98 for control group) were included in the present study. The occurrence of microaneurysms was significantly higher in the control (37/98, 38%) than in the intervention group (27/113, 24%; p = 0.029). In the model, including age, sex, diabetes diagnosis before the retinal assessment, body mass index (BMI), and treatment group, the odds ratio for microaneurysms was markedly lower in intervention group (OR 0.52; 0.28–0.97, p = 0.039). The only risk factor that predicted the occurrence of microaneurysms was serum triglycerides at baseline (mean ± SD 1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7, mmol/L, with and without microaneurysms, respectively, p = 0.003). Triglycerides associated with decreased microaneurysms in regression analysis for age, sex, fasting glucose, and intervention group (OR 1.92, p = 0.018). Lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance showed decreased occurrence of retinal microaneurysms. Elevated serum triglycerides were associated to the development of early diabetic microangiopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus)
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Open AccessArticle
Infant Feeding, Vitamin D and IgE Sensitization to Food Allergens at 6 Years in a Longitudinal Icelandic Cohort
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071690 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) recommend exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months, partial breastfeeding until 1 year or longer and irrespective of breastfeeding, avoiding solid foods before 4 months. Strong evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding regarding growth and infections but limited/inconclusive evidence regarding [...] Read more.
Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) recommend exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months, partial breastfeeding until 1 year or longer and irrespective of breastfeeding, avoiding solid foods before 4 months. Strong evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding regarding growth and infections but limited/inconclusive evidence regarding atopic disease and asthma. Vitamin D is of special interest in the Nordic diet. The aim of this prospective study was to compare infant feeding and vitamin D between immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitized (n = 14) and non-sensitized (n = 130) children at 6 years. Information on diet and vitamin D supplement use were collected with dietary recall (<5 months), 1-d food records (5 and 6 months) and 3-d weighed food records (12 months and 6 years). Serum-specific IgE-antibodies against milk, egg, cod, wheat, soy and peanut (cut-off specific IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA/L) were measured at 6 years and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at 12 months and 6 years. At 4 months, 57% of IgE sensitized vs. 23% of non-sensitized children (p < 0.01) had received solid food. At 12 months, IgE sensitized children had a lower intake of vitamin D (median (25th, 75th percentiles): 3.9 μg/d (3.2, 7.2) vs. 8.1 μg/d (4.4, 12.3), p = 0.03) and at 6 years, fewer used vitamin D supplements regularly (23% vs. 56%, p = 0.03). Introduction of solid foods prior to 4 months increased the odds of IgE-sensitization, OR = 4.9 (95%, CI = 1.4–16.6) and vitamin D supplement at 6 years decreased the odds of IgE-sensitization, OR = 0.2 (95%, CI = 0.1–0.98), adjusting for maternal smoking. These observations support the NNR in their recommendation against introducing complementary solid foods before the age of 4 months. Furthermore, they support encouraging vitamin D intake for young children at northern latitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of the Nordic Diet)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Content of Squeeze Pouch Foods for Infants and Toddlers Sold in the United States in 2015
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071689 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Background: To describe the availability and nutrient composition of U.S. commercially available squeeze pouch infant and toddler foods in 2015. Materials and Methods: Data were from information presented on nutrition labels for 703 ready-to-serve, pureed food products from 24 major U.S. infant and [...] Read more.
Background: To describe the availability and nutrient composition of U.S. commercially available squeeze pouch infant and toddler foods in 2015. Materials and Methods: Data were from information presented on nutrition labels for 703 ready-to-serve, pureed food products from 24 major U.S. infant and toddler food brands. We described nutritional components (e.g., calories, fat) and compared them between packaging types (squeeze pouch versus other packaging types) within food categories. Results: 397 (56%) of the analyzed food products were packaged as squeeze pouches. Differences in 13 nutritional components between squeeze pouch versus other packaging types were generally small and varied by food category. Squeeze pouches in the fruits and vegetables, fruit-based, and vegetable-based categories were more likely to contain added sugars than other package types. Conclusion: In 2015, squeeze pouches were prevalent in the U.S. commercial infant and toddler food market. Nutrient composition differed between squeeze pouches and other packaging types for some macro- and micronutrients. Although it is recommended that infants and toddlers under two years old not consume any added sugars, a specific area of concern may be the inclusion of sources of added sugar in squeeze pouches. Linking this information with children’s dietary intake would facilitate understanding how these differences affect overall diet quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bovine κ-Casein Fragment Induces Hypo-Responsive M2-Like Macrophage Phenotype
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071688 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
Immunomodulatory nutraceuticals have garnered special attention due to their therapeutic potential for the amelioration of many chronic inflammatory conditions. Macrophages are key players in the induction, propagation and resolution of inflammation, actively contributing to the pathogenesis and resolution of inflammatory disorders. As such, [...] Read more.
Immunomodulatory nutraceuticals have garnered special attention due to their therapeutic potential for the amelioration of many chronic inflammatory conditions. Macrophages are key players in the induction, propagation and resolution of inflammation, actively contributing to the pathogenesis and resolution of inflammatory disorders. As such, this study aimed to investigate the possible therapeutic effects bovine casein derived nutraceuticals exert on macrophage immunological function. Initial studies demonstrated that sodium caseinate induced a M2-like macrophage phenotype that was attributed to the kappa-casein subunit. Kappa-casein primed macrophages acquired a M2-like phenotype that expressed CD206, CD54, OX40L, CD40 on the cell surface and gene expression of Arg-1, RELM-α and YM1, archetypical M2 markers. Macrophages stimulated with kappa-casein secreted significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-10 in response to TLR stimulation through a mechanism that targeted the nuclear factor-κB signal transduction pathway. Macrophage proteolytic processing of kappa-casein was required to elicit these suppressive effects, indicating that a fragment other than C-terminal fragment, glycomacropeptide, induced these modulatory effects. Kappa-casein treated macrophages also impaired T-cell responses. Given the powerful immuno-modulatory effects exhibited by kappa-casein and our understanding of immunopathology associated with inflammatory diseases, this fragment has the potential as an oral nutraceutical and therefore warrants further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on the Risk of Hypertension in a Large Cohort of French Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071687 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Background: Healthy lifestyle factors are widely recommended for hypertension prevention and control. Nevertheless, little is known about their combined impact on hypertension, in the general population. Our aim was to compute a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) comprising the main non-pharmacological measures usually recommended [...] Read more.
Background: Healthy lifestyle factors are widely recommended for hypertension prevention and control. Nevertheless, little is known about their combined impact on hypertension, in the general population. Our aim was to compute a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) comprising the main non-pharmacological measures usually recommended to improve hypertension prevention: normal weight, regular physical activity, limited alcohol consumption, adoption of a healthy diet; to evaluate their combined impact on hypertension incidence. Methods: We prospectively followed the incidence of hypertension among 80,426 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Self-reported dietary, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health data were assessed at baseline and yearly using a dedicated website; the association between HLI and hypertension risk was assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, family history of hypertension, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Hypothetical Population Attributable Risks associated to each factor were estimated. Results: During a median follow-up of 3.5 years (IQR: 1.5–5.3), 2413 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Compared with no or one healthy lifestyle factor, the hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.67–0.85) for two factors, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.42–0.53) for three factors and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.30–0.41) for all healthy lifestyle factors (p-trend <0.0001). Compared with adhering to 0, 1, 2 or 3 healthy lifestyles, adhering to all of them was found associated with a reduction of the hypertension risk of half (HR = 0.55 (95% CI, 0.46–0.65)). Conclusion: Active promotion of healthy lifestyle factors at population level is a key leverage to fight the hypertension epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
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Open AccessArticle
Interaction of Dietary Linoleic Acid and α-Linolenic Acids with rs174547 in FADS1 Gene on Metabolic Syndrome Components among Vegetarians
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071686 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene controls the fatty acid metabolism pathway in the human body. The lower intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) than linoleic acid (LA) among vegetarians may disrupt the fatty acid metabolism and limit the conversion of ALA [...] Read more.
Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene controls the fatty acid metabolism pathway in the human body. The lower intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) than linoleic acid (LA) among vegetarians may disrupt the fatty acid metabolism and limit the conversion of ALA to anti-inflammatory products such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the interaction of rs174547 in FADS1 gene with LA and ALA on metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. A total of 200 Chinese and Indian vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia participated in the present study. The data on socio-demographic characteristics, vegetarianism practices, dietary practices, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP), and overnight venous fasting blood samples were collected from the vegetarians. The rs174547 in FADS1 gene was significantly associated with MetS and its components such as waist circumference (WC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that vegetarians with TT genotype of rs174547 in FADS1 gene had higher odds for MetS, larger WC, higher BP, and a lower level of HDL-c. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that LA interacts with rs174547 in FADS1 gene to affect HDL-c (p < 0.05) among vegetarians. The present findings suggest the need to develop dietary guidelines for vegetarians in Malaysia. Prospective studies are also needed to affirm the interaction between LA and rs174547 in FADS1 gene on HDL-c among Malaysian vegetarians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Initial Dietary Protein Intake Influence Muscle Function Adaptations in Older Men and Women Following High-Intensity Interval Training Combined with Citrulline
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071685 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Background: This study evaluates whether the initial amount of dietary protein intake could influence the combined effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and citrulline (CIT), or HIIT alone, on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacities in obese older adults. Methods: Seventy-three sedentary [...] Read more.
Background: This study evaluates whether the initial amount of dietary protein intake could influence the combined effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and citrulline (CIT), or HIIT alone, on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacities in obese older adults. Methods: Seventy-three sedentary obese older men and women who completed a 12-week elliptical HIIT program with double-blinded randomized supplementation of CIT or placebo (PLA) were divided into four groups according to their initial protein intake (CIT–PROT+: n = 21; CIT–PROT−: n = 19; PLA–PROT+: n = 19; PLA–PROT−: n = 14). Body composition (fat and fat-free masses), handgrip (HSr) strength, knee extensor (KESr) strength, muscle power, and functional capacities were measured pre-intervention and post-intervention. Results: Following the intervention, the four groups improved significantly regarding all the parameters measured. For the same initial amount of protein intake, the CIT–PROT− group decreased more gynoid fat mass (p = 0.04) than the PLA–PROT− group. The CIT–PROT+ group increased more KESr (p = 0.04) than the PLA–PROT+ group. In addition, the CIT–PROT− group decreased more gynoid FM (p = 0.02) and improved more leg FFM (p = 0.02) and HSr (p = 0.02) than the CIT–PROT+ group. Conclusion: HIIT combined with CIT induced greater positive changes than in the PLA groups. The combination seems more beneficial in participants consuming less than 1 g/kg/d of protein, since greater improvements on body composition and muscle strength were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty: Role of Nutrition and Exercise)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Food Intolerances
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071684 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5374
Abstract
Food intolerances are estimated to affect up to 20% of the population but complete understanding of diagnosis and management is complicated, given presentation and non-immunological mechanisms associated vary greatly. This review aims to provide a scientific update on common food intolerances resulting in [...] Read more.
Food intolerances are estimated to affect up to 20% of the population but complete understanding of diagnosis and management is complicated, given presentation and non-immunological mechanisms associated vary greatly. This review aims to provide a scientific update on common food intolerances resulting in gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. FODMAP sensitivity has strong evidence supporting its mechanisms of increased osmotic activity and fermentation with the resulting distention leading to symptoms in those with visceral hypersensitivity. For many of the other food intolerances reviewed including non-coeliac gluten/wheat sensitivity, food additives and bioactive food chemicals, the findings show that there is a shortage of reproducible well-designed double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, making understanding of the mechanisms, diagnosis and management difficult. Enzyme deficiencies have been proposed to result in other food sensitivities including low amine oxidase activity resulting in histamine intolerance and sucrase-isomaltase deficiency resulting in reduced tolerance to sugars and starch. Lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers for all food intolerances result in an inability to target specific foods in the individual. As such, a trial-and-error approach is used, whereby suspected food constituents are reduced for a short-period and then re-challenged to assess response. Future studies should aim to identify biomarkers to predict response to dietary therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Supplementation with Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice Causes a Greater Increase in Plasma Nitrite and Reduction in Blood Pressure of Older Compared to Younger Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071683 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in younger and older adults via increased nitric oxide production. However, it is unclear whether the level of effects differs between the two groups. We hypothesized that acute supplementation with [...] Read more.
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in younger and older adults via increased nitric oxide production. However, it is unclear whether the level of effects differs between the two groups. We hypothesized that acute supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice would improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in older and younger adults, with the potential for greater improvements in older adults. Thirteen younger (18–30 years) and 11 older (50–70 years) adults consumed either 150 mL of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR; 10.5 mmol nitrate) or placebo (PL; 1 mmol nitrate) in a double-blind, crossover design, 2.25 h prior to a 30-min treadmill walk. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cognitive function, mood and perceptual tests were performed throughout the trial. BR consumption significantly increased plasma nitrate (p < 0.001) and nitrite (p = 0.003) concentrations and reduced systolic BP (p < 0.001) in both age groups and reduced diastolic BP (p = 0.013) in older adults. Older adults showed a greater elevation in plasma nitrite (p = 0.038) and a greater reduction in diastolic BP (p = 0.005) following BR consumption than younger adults. Reaction time was improved in the Stroop test following BR supplementation for both groups (p = 0.045). Acute BR supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentrations and reduced diastolic BP to a greater degree in older adults; whilst systolic BP was reduced in both older and younger adults, suggesting nitrate-rich BR may improve cardiovascular health, particularly in older adults due to the greater benefits from reductions in diastolic BP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Red Meat on Colorectal Cancer Occurrence Is Dependent on the Genetic Polymorphisms of S-Glutathione Transferase Genes
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071682 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Background: It is postulated that both individual genotype and environmental factors such as diet may modify the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The influences of GST gene polymorphism and red meat intake on CRC occurrence in the Polish population were analyzed in [...] Read more.
Background: It is postulated that both individual genotype and environmental factors such as diet may modify the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The influences of GST gene polymorphism and red meat intake on CRC occurrence in the Polish population were analyzed in this study. Methods: Genotyping was performed with the qPCR method. Results: A high frequency of meat consumption was associated with an over 2-fold increase in the risk of colorectal cancer odds ratio (OR) adjusted for sex and age = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.3–4.4). However, after analyzing the genetic profiles, in the absence of polymorphisms of all three analyzed genes, there was no association between a high frequency of meat consumption and the occurrence of CRC. In the case of GSTM1 gene polymorphism, the high frequency of meat consumption increased the risk of CRC by almost more than 4 times (OR adjusted for sex and age = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1). For GSTP1 gene polymorphism, a 3-fold increase in CRC risk was observed with a high frequency of meat consumption (OR adjusted for sex and age = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4–8.1). In the case of GSTT1 gene polymorphism, the increase in risk of CRC was not statistically significant (OR adjusted for sex and age = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.4–8.5). Conclusions: The frequency of red meat intake in non-smokers increases the risk of colon cancer in the case of GST gene polymorphisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Phenotyping Women Based on Dietary Macronutrients, Physical Activity, and Body Weight Using Machine Learning Tools
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071681 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Nutritional phenotyping can help achieve personalized nutrition, and machine learning tools may offer novel means to achieve phenotyping. The primary aim of this study was to use energy balance components, namely input (dietary energy intake and macronutrient composition) and output (physical activity) to [...] Read more.
Nutritional phenotyping can help achieve personalized nutrition, and machine learning tools may offer novel means to achieve phenotyping. The primary aim of this study was to use energy balance components, namely input (dietary energy intake and macronutrient composition) and output (physical activity) to predict energy stores (body weight) as a way to evaluate their ability to identify potential phenotypes based on these parameters. From the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI OS), carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fibers, sugars, and physical activity variables, namely energy expended from mild, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity, were used to predict current body weight (both as body weight in kilograms and as a body mass index (BMI) category). Several machine learning tools were used for this prediction. Finally, cluster analysis was used to identify putative phenotypes. For the numerical predictions, the support vector machine (SVM), neural network, and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithms performed modestly, with mean approximate errors (MAEs) of 6.70 kg, 6.98 kg, and 6.90 kg, respectively. For categorical prediction, SVM performed the best (54.5% accuracy), followed closely by the bagged tree ensemble and kNN algorithms. K-means cluster analysis improved prediction using numerical data, identified 10 clusters suggestive of phenotypes, with a minimum MAE of ~1.1 kg. A classifier was used to phenotype subjects into the identified clusters, with MAEs <5 kg for 15% of the test set (n = ~2000). This study highlights the challenges, limitations, and successes in using machine learning tools on self-reported data to identify determinants of energy balance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Food and Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy in Relation to Maternal Characteristics: Results from the NICE Birth Cohort in Northern Sweden
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071680 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Linkages between diet and other lifestyle factors may confound observational studies. We used cluster analysis to analyze how the intake of food and nutrients during pregnancy co-varies with lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors in 567 women who participated in the NICE (nutritional impact [...] Read more.
Linkages between diet and other lifestyle factors may confound observational studies. We used cluster analysis to analyze how the intake of food and nutrients during pregnancy co-varies with lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors in 567 women who participated in the NICE (nutritional impact on immunological maturation during childhood in relation to the environment) birth-cohort in northern Sweden. A food frequency questionnaire, Meal-Q, was administered in pregnancy Week 34, and the reported food and nutrient intakes were related to maternal characteristics such as age, education, rural/town residence, parity, pre-pregnancy smoking, first-trimester BMI, allergy and hyperemesis. Two lifestyle-diet clusters were identified: (1) High level of education and higher age were related to one another, and associated with a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish, and (2) smoking before pregnancy and higher BMI in early pregnancy were related to one another and associated with a diet that contained white bread, French fries, pizza, meat, soft drinks, candy and snacks. More than half of the women had lower-than-recommended daily intake levels of vitamin D, folate, selenium, and iodine. Complex lifestyle-diet interactions should be considered in observational studies that link diet and pregnancy outcome. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Effects of Oral l-Arginine and l-Citrulline Supplementation on Blood Pressure
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071679 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3165
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium via the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The inadequate production of NO has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) in both human and animal studies, and might be due [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium via the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The inadequate production of NO has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) in both human and animal studies, and might be due to substrate inaccessibility. This review aimed to investigate whether oral administration of the amino acids l-arginine (Arg) and l-citrulline (Cit), which are potential substrates for eNOS, could effectively reduce BP by increasing NO production. Both Arg and Cit are effective at increasing plasma Arg. Cit is approximately twice as potent, which is most likely due to a lower first-pass metabolism. The current data suggest that oral Arg supplementation can lower BP by 5.39/2.66 mmHg, which is an effect that is comparable with diet changes and exercise implementation. The antihypertensive properties of Cit are more questionable, but are likely in the range of 4.1/2.08 to 7.54/3.77 mmHg. The exact mechanism by which Cit and Arg exert their effect is not fully understood, as normal plasma Arg concentration greatly exceeds the Michaelis constant (Km) of eNOS. Thus, elevated plasma Arg concentrations would not be expected to increase endogenous NO production significantly, but have nonetheless been observed in other studies. This phenomenon is known as the “l-arginine paradox”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Lcs) Modulates Systemic and Upper Airways Immune/Inflammatory Responses in Marathon Runners
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071678 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in [...] Read more.
Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in the systemic and upper airway immune/inflammatory responses before and after a marathon. Methods. Forty-two male marathon runners ingested a fermented milk containing 40 billion of LcS/day (LcS group, n = 20) or placebo (unfermented milk, n = 22) during 30 days pre-marathon. Immune/inflammatory parameters in nasal mucosa and serum, as well as concentrations of secretory IgA (SIgA) and antimicrobial peptides in saliva, were evaluated before and after fermented milk ingestion, immediately, 72 h, and 14 d post-marathon. Results. Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal mucosa, and also lower salivary levels of SIgA and antimicrobial peptides, were found immediately post-marathon in the placebo group compared to other time points and to LcS group. In opposite, higher anti-inflammatory levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration on nasal mucosa were found in the LcS group compared to other time points and to the placebo group. Conclusion. For the first time, it is shown that LcS is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Linseed Components Are More Effective Than Whole Linseed in Reversing Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071677 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Linseed is a dietary source of plant-based ω–3 fatty acids along with fiber as well as lignans including secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). We investigated the reversal of signs of metabolic syndrome following addition of whole linseed (5%), defatted linseed (3%), or SDG (0.03%) to [...] Read more.
Linseed is a dietary source of plant-based ω–3 fatty acids along with fiber as well as lignans including secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). We investigated the reversal of signs of metabolic syndrome following addition of whole linseed (5%), defatted linseed (3%), or SDG (0.03%) to either a high-carbohydrate, high-fat or corn starch diet for rats for the final eight weeks of a 16–week protocol. All interventions reduced plasma insulin, systolic blood pressure, inflammatory cell infiltration in heart, ventricular collagen deposition, and diastolic stiffness but had no effect on plasma total cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids, or triglycerides. Whole linseed did not change the body weight or abdominal fat in obese rats while SDG and defatted linseed decreased abdominal fat and defatted linseed increased lean mass. Defatted linseed and SDG, but not whole linseed, improved heart and liver structure, decreased fat vacuoles in liver, and decreased plasma leptin concentrations. These results show that the individual components of linseed produce greater potential therapeutic responses in rats with metabolic syndrome than whole linseed. We suggest that the reduced responses indicate reduced oral bioavailability of the whole seeds compared to the components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diet and Neurodevelopmental Score in a Sample of One-Year-Old Children—A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071676 - 21 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Environmental factors in the first years of life are crucial for a child’s neurodevelopment. Research on the association between breastfeeding and neurodevelopment is inconclusive, while research on the possible association between other dietary factors and neurodevelopment is inadequate in children as young as [...] Read more.
Environmental factors in the first years of life are crucial for a child’s neurodevelopment. Research on the association between breastfeeding and neurodevelopment is inconclusive, while research on the possible association between other dietary factors and neurodevelopment is inadequate in children as young as one year of age. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between both breastfeeding and other dietary factors and the neurodevelopment of one-year-old children in Norway. Methods: Participants were recruited from kindergartens in four Norwegian counties in 2017. A questionnaire including questions about dietary factors and breastfeeding, and a standardised age-related questionnaire on neurodevelopment (the Ages and Stages Questionnaire), were completed by parents of one-year-olds. Linear regressions adjusting for relevant covariates were conducted to explore the associations. Results: In our sample of 212 one-year-old children, a longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher neurodevelopmental scores. Dietary intake of fish, fruits and vegetables was also strongly associated with higher neurodevelopmental scores, even after adjustment for breastfeeding and maternal education. Conclusion: Our results indicate that healthy dietary factors are important for neurodevelopment in young children, with measurable effects already at the age of one year. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and Phenylbutyrate Supplementation Does Not Modulate Gut Derived Immune Activation in HIV-1
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071675 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals ( [...] Read more.
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 167) were included from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial of daily 5000 IU vitamin D and 500 mg phenylbutyrate for 16 weeks (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974). Baseline and per-protocol plasma samples at week 16 were analysed for soluble CD14, the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, choline, and betaine. Assessment of the gut microbiota involved 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colonic biopsies. Vitamin D + phenylbutyrate treatment significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p < 0.001) but had no effects on sCD14, the kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, or choline levels. Subgroup-analyses of vitamin D insufficient subjects demonstrated a significant increase of LL-37 in the treatment group (p = 0.02), whereas treatment failed to significantly impact LL-37-levels in multiple regression analysis. Further, no effects on the microbiota was found in number of operational taxonomic units (p = 0.71), Shannon microbial diversity index (p = 0.82), or in principal component analyses (p = 0.83). Nutritional supplementation with vitamin D + phenylbutyrate did not modulate gut-derived inflammatory markers or microbial composition in treatment-naïve HIV-1 individuals with active viral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Paramylon Extracted from Euglena gracilis EOD-1 on Parameters Related to Metabolic Syndrome in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071674 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Paramylon (PM), a type of β-glucan, functions like dietary fiber, which has been suggested to exert a protective effect against obesity. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of PM powder on obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented [...] Read more.
Paramylon (PM), a type of β-glucan, functions like dietary fiber, which has been suggested to exert a protective effect against obesity. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of PM powder on obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with either 2.5 or 5% PM powder, extracted from Euglena gracilis, for 74 days. Growth parameters, abdominal fat content, serum biochemical markers, hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic mRNA expression were measured. Dietary supplementation with PM resulted in decreased food efficiency ratios and abdominal fat accumulation. Dose-dependent decreases were observed in postprandial glucose levels, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and serum secretary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations. PM supplementation increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression in the liver which is suggested to induce β-oxidation through activation of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) mRNA expression. Changes in fatty acid metabolism may improve lipid and glucose metabolism. In conclusion, a preventive effect against obesity was observed in mice given a PM-enriched diet. The mechanism is suggested to involve a reduction in both serum LDL-cholesterol levels and the accumulation of abdominal fat, in addition to an improvement in postprandial glucose concentration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Paper-Based Sensor Compatible with a Mobile Phone for the Detection of Common Iron Formulas Used in Fortified Foods within Resource-Limited Settings
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071673 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
A lack of quality control tools limits the enforcement of fortification policies. In alignment with the World Health Organization’s ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable), a paper-based assay that interfaces with a smartphone application for the quantification [...] Read more.
A lack of quality control tools limits the enforcement of fortification policies. In alignment with the World Health Organization’s ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable), a paper-based assay that interfaces with a smartphone application for the quantification of iron fortificants is presented. The assay is based on the Ferrozine colorimetric method. The reaction started after deposition of the 5 µL aqueous sample and drying. After developing color, pixel intensity values were obtained using a smartphone camera and image processing software or a mobile application, Nu3px. From these values, the actual iron concentration from ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate was calculated. The limits of detection, quantification, linearity, range, and errors (systematic and random) were ascertained. The paper-based values from real samples (wheat flour, nixtamalized corn flour, and infant formula) were compared against atomic emission spectroscopy. The comparison of several concentrations of atomic iron between the spectrophotometric and paper-based assays showed a strong positive linear correlation (y = 47.01x + 126.18; R2 = 0.9932). The dynamic range (5.0–100 µg/mL) and limit of detection (3.691 µg/mL) of the paper-based assay are relevant for fortified food matrices. Random and systematic errors were 15.9% and + 8.65 µg/g food, respectively. The concept can be applied to limited-resource settings to measure iron in fortified foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: A Matched Case-Control Study within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071672 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Background and Aims: The association of fatty acids with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been examined, mainly through dietary measurements, and has generated inconsistent results due to measurement error. Large observational studies and randomized controlled trials have shown that plasma phospholipid fatty acids [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: The association of fatty acids with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been examined, mainly through dietary measurements, and has generated inconsistent results due to measurement error. Large observational studies and randomized controlled trials have shown that plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PL-FA), especially those less likely to be endogenously synthesized, are good biomarkers of dietary fatty acids. Thus, PL-FA profiles may better predict CHD risk with less measurement error. Methods: We performed a matched case-control study of 2428 postmenopausal women nested in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Plasma PL-FA were measured using gas chromatography and expressed as molar percentage (moL %). Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (95% CIs) for CHD associated with 1 moL % change in PL-FA. Results: Higher plasma PL long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) were associated with increased CHD risk, while higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were associated with decreased risk. No significant associations were observed for very-long-chain SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), PUFA n-6 or trans fatty acids (TFA). Substituting 1 moL % PUFA n-6 or TFA with an equivalent proportion of PUFA n-3 were associated with lower CHD risk. Conclusions: Higher plasma PL long-chain SFA and lower PUFA n-3 were associated with increased CHD risk. A change in diet by limiting foods that are associated with plasma PL long-chain SFA and TFA while enhancing foods high in PUFA n-3 may be beneficial in CHD among postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Neuroprotective Effect of Schisandra Chinensis on Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinsonian Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071671 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (S. chinensis) is a well-known botanical medicine and nutritional supplement that has been shown to have potential effects on neurodegeneration. To investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of S. chinensis fruit extract, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to induce [...] Read more.
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (S. chinensis) is a well-known botanical medicine and nutritional supplement that has been shown to have potential effects on neurodegeneration. To investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of S. chinensis fruit extract, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to induce behavioral disorders and dopaminergic neuronal damage in mice, and biochemical indicators were examined. Male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the MPTP-induced parkinsonian syndrome model. Open field and rotarod tests were performed to evaluate the overall manifestation of motor deficits and rodent motor coordination. The mice were divided into 8 groups as follows: normal control; MPTP alone (25 mg/kg, i.p.); S. chinensis extract pretreatment (0.5, 1.5, 5 g/kg, p.o.); and S. chinensis extract treatment (0.5, 1.5, 5 g/kg, p.o.). Liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection was used to monitor neurochemicals in the striatum. Tyrosine hydroxylase content was measured by immunohistochemistry, and biochemical antioxidative indicators were used to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of S. chinensis fruit extract. The results demonstrated that treatment with S. chinensis fruit extract ameliorated MPTP-induced deficits in behavior, exercise balance, dopamine level, dopaminergic neurons, and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the striatum of mice. Among the pretreated and treatment groups, a high dose of S. chinensis fruit extract was the most effective treatment. In conclusion, S. chinensis fruit extract is a potential herbal drug candidate for the amelioration and prevention of Parkinson’s disease. Full article
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