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Open AccessArticle

Association between Grain Intake, Nutrient Intake, and Diet Quality of Canadians: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015

1
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
2
Professor Emerita of Foods Nutrition, St. Catherine University, St. Paul, MN 55105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081937
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
The new Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommends whole grains foods as the primary choice of grain products in the daily diet. This study examined whether higher shares of whole-grain consumption, beyond the recommended levels (i.e., above half) of the daily grain intake, are linked with optimal diet quality and intakes of some key nutrients, for both children and adolescents and adults in Canada. To meet the objective of this study, we used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)–Nutrition 2015, which is a nationally representative data. We employed the propensity score matching (PSM) method in this study. PSM estimates the exposure effect when a set of individuals are exposed to a specific treatment (food group intake in this study) in a non-experimental setting. The results of our analyses implied that a high consumption of whole grains is associated with a good diet quality. However, after a certain level of whole-grain consumption, no significant differences can be observed in diet quality scores of children and adolescents and adults. Moreover, it was observed that the proportion of obese and overweight individuals was significantly lower among adults that had balanced intakes of whole and non-whole grains. The results of logistic regression analyses also showed the probability of being obese and overweight is significantly lower in the case of adults with balanced intakes of grains. However, no significant differences were observed in the prevalence of obesity and overweight across whole grains consumption patterns for children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: whole grains; balanced intakes of grain; propensity score matching; obesity whole grains; balanced intakes of grain; propensity score matching; obesity
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Hosseini, S.H.; Jones, J.M.; Vatanparast, H. Association between Grain Intake, Nutrient Intake, and Diet Quality of Canadians: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1937.

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