Special Issue "Diet and Chronic Inflammation: Implication for Disease Prevention, Treatment and Healthy Lifespan"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Camillo Ricordi Website E-Mail
Diabetes Research Institute and Cell Transplant Program, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1450 NW 10th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
Interests: Mediterranean diet, anti-inflammatory nutrition, autoimmunity, diabetes, Omega 3, Vitamin D3, prevention of age-related chronic degenerative diseases, healthspan medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet-induced chronic inflammation is emerging as a significant factor that can affect the incidence and progression of many degenerative conditions, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular, osteoarticular, neurodegenerative, autoimmune disease conditions, and cancer, to name a few. The lifespan of humans has been increasing in recent decades, but not necessarily a healthy lifespan (healthspan). We are facing an increased incidence of chronic diseases, with projections that today, for the first time, new generations of children may be the first ones to have a shorter lifespan compared to their parents’ generations. Over 95% of Americans over 65 are affected by at least one chronic degenerative condition, with substantial implications not only on their healthspan, but also on health economics, with an increased cost of healthcare which has now reached $3 trillion, or approximately 18% of the US GDP.

A diet-induced inflammatory component is now recognized in an increasing number of chronic diseases. Nutritional and lifestyle intervention could have the most profound impact on disease prevention and on halting disease progression, modifying pro-inflammatory factors that can alter hormonal signaling and modulate the innate immune system. There is a critically important and timely need to improve our knowledge on how nutrients could impact disease susceptibility and progression, including but not limited to dietary fatty acids, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamin D, highly refined and high glycemic index food products, and animal-derived food products from different animal feed practices.

A better understanding of the relationships between diet, nutrients, inflammation, and chronic disease risk/progression will allow us to develop improved diets to modulate inflammation, offering a cost-effective, nonpharmacological approach to prevent and treat chronic disease conditions. Bioactive dietary components and supplements could represent an effective complement to healthy diets and may be of assistance in affecting inflammatory pathways that can result in epigenetic changes, such as those associated with the activation of Nuclear Factor-kB, and the resulting activation of master switches and their associated inflammatory pathways.

Prof. Camillo Ricordi
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Therapeutic Efficacy of Palmitoylethanolamide and Its New Formulations in Synergy with Different Antioxidant Molecules Present in Diets
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092175 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
The use of a complete nutritional approach seems increasingly promising to combat chronic inflammation. The choice of healthy sources of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, associated with regular physical activity and avoidance of smoking is essential to fight the war against chronic diseases. At [...] Read more.
The use of a complete nutritional approach seems increasingly promising to combat chronic inflammation. The choice of healthy sources of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, associated with regular physical activity and avoidance of smoking is essential to fight the war against chronic diseases. At the base of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant action of the diets, there are numerous molecules, among which some of a lipidic nature very active in the inflammatory pathway. One class of molecules found in diets with anti-inflammatory actions are ALIAmides. Among all, one is particularly known for its ability to counteract the inflammatory cascade, the Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). PEA is a molecular that is present in nature, in numerous foods, and is endogenously produced by our body, which acts as a balancer of inflammatory processes, also known as endocannabionoid-like. PEA is often used in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies, either alone or in association with other molecules with properties, such as antioxidants or analgesics. This review aims to illustrate an overview of the different diets that are involved in the process of opposition to the inflammatory cascade, focusing on capacity of PEA and new formulations in synergy with other molecules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and ω-3 Supplementations in Mediterranean Diet During the 1st Year of Overt Type 1 Diabetes: A Cohort Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092158 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
Vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acid (ω-3) co-supplementation potentially improves type 1 diabetes (T1D) by attenuating autoimmunity and counteracting inflammation. This cohort study, preliminary to a randomized control trial (RCT), is aimed at evaluating, in a series of T1D children assuming Mediterranean [...] Read more.
Vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acid (ω-3) co-supplementation potentially improves type 1 diabetes (T1D) by attenuating autoimmunity and counteracting inflammation. This cohort study, preliminary to a randomized control trial (RCT), is aimed at evaluating, in a series of T1D children assuming Mediterranean diet and an intake of cholecalciferol of 1000U/day from T1D onset, if ω-3 co-supplementation preserves the residual endogen insulin secretion (REIS). Therefore, the cohort of 22 “new onsets” of 2017 received ω-3 (eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 60 mg/kg/day), and were compared retrospectively vs. the 37 “previous onsets” without ω-3 supplementation. Glicosilated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), the daily insulin demand (IU/Kg/day) and IDAA1c, a composite index (calculated as IU/Kg/day × 4 + HbA1c%), as surrogates of REIS, were evaluated at recruitment (T0) and 12 months later (T12). In the ω-3 supplemented group, dietary intakes were evaluated at T0 and T12. As an outcome, a decreased insulin demand (p < 0.01), particularly as pre-meal boluses (p < 0.01), and IDAA1c (p < 0.05), were found in the ω-3 supplemented group, while HbA1c% was not significantly different. Diet analysis in the ω-3 supplemented group, at T12 vs. T0, highlighted that the intake of arachidonic acid (AA) decreased (p < 0.01). At T0, the AA intake was inversely correlated with HbA1c% (p < 0.05; r;. 0.411). In conclusion, the results suggest that vitamin D plus ω-3 co-supplementation as well as AA reduction in the Mediterranean diet display benefits for T1D children at onset and deserve further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inflammatory Dietary Pattern Predicts Dyslipidemia and Anemia in Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese Adults with Declined Kidney Function: A Cross-Sectional Population Study from 2008 to 2010
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092052 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
Dyslipidemia, anemia, and inflammation are associated with declined kidney function. This study investigated the association of inflammatory dietary pattern with dyslipidemia, anemia, and kidney function biomarkers among middle-aged and older Taiwanese adults with declined kidney function. Biochemical data and food frequency questionnaire were [...] Read more.
Dyslipidemia, anemia, and inflammation are associated with declined kidney function. This study investigated the association of inflammatory dietary pattern with dyslipidemia, anemia, and kidney function biomarkers among middle-aged and older Taiwanese adults with declined kidney function. Biochemical data and food frequency questionnaire were obtained from 41,128 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and positive urinary protein. Inflammatory dietary pattern was identified by reduced rank regression with C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L) as response variables. Males had higher prevalence of dyslipidemia and higher inflammatory markers, but lower prevalence of anemia and lower eGFR levels compared to females. Inflammatory dietary pattern characterized with low intakes of seafood, grains, vegetables, and fruits but high intakes of meat, eggs, preserved/processed foods, and sugary drinks was associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia by 21% in males and an increased risk of anemia by 28–47% in both genders. Furthermore, high consumption of inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with reduced eGFR (males β = −0.85, 95% CI −1.26 to −0.43, females β = −0.53, 95% CI −0.98 to −0.08) and increased N/L and/or CRP in both genders. In conclusion, inflammatory dietary pattern is positively associated with dyslipidemia, anemia, and decreased kidney function in middle-aged and older adults with declined kidney function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Dietary Isoflavone Intake and Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms in Polish Caucasian Individuals
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081936 - 17 Aug 2019
Abstract
Currently there are contradictory observations regarding the associations between the isoflavone intake and inflammatory bowel disease in terms of its prevention and treatment, and this may be attributed to the diversity of applied doses and influence of various isoflavones. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Currently there are contradictory observations regarding the associations between the isoflavone intake and inflammatory bowel disease in terms of its prevention and treatment, and this may be attributed to the diversity of applied doses and influence of various isoflavones. The aim of the presented cross-sectional study is to analyze the association between intake of various isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, glicytein and total isoflavones) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (fecal blood, mucus and pus) in Polish Caucasian individuals in confirmed remission. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data obtained from patients’ three-day dietary records and their individual assessments of symptoms. A total of 56 Caucasian patients with ulcerative colitis in confirmed remission were recruited for the study (37 females and 19 males, aged 18–80). For individuals with no fecal mucus observed, higher daidzein (p = 0.035, 122 vs. 19 µg) and total isoflavone intakes (p = 0.034, 302.2 vs. 123.7 µg) were observed in comparison with individuals not declaring this symptom, while for daidzein it was confirmed for the component density of their diets. The opposite association was stated for fecal pus, as for individuals with a lack of this symptom, lower daidzein intake was stated in comparison with individuals declaring this symptom (p = 0.049, 103.3 vs. 206.7 µg), but it was not confirmed for the component density of the diets. It was stated that the high intake of isoflavones by Caucasian individuals, as in a western diet, may influence the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, with the strongest influence by daidzein. Taking this into account, isoflavones may be included into the diets of ulcerative colitis patients in remission if well-tolerated, but there is a need for further study. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Remission Effects of Dietary Soybean Isoflavones on DSS-Induced Murine Colitis and an LPS-Activated Macrophage Cell Line
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081746 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, although the exact causes of IBD remain unknown. Present treatments for IBDs have poor tolerability and insufficient therapeutic efficacy, thus, alternative therapeutic approaches are required. Soybean-derived [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, although the exact causes of IBD remain unknown. Present treatments for IBDs have poor tolerability and insufficient therapeutic efficacy, thus, alternative therapeutic approaches are required. Soybean-derived isoflavones have multiple bioactivities such as anti-inflammation. However, the low water solubility of soybean isoflavones limits their bioavailability and practical use. Therefore, in order to study the preventive effects of water-soluble soybean isoflavones on colonic inflammatory status, we examined soybean-derived isoflavone glycosides (SIFs) in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine colitis model and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Oral administration of SIF (0.5 w/v%) attenuated DSS-induced colitis in terms of body weight decrease, colon shortening, epithelial apoptosis, histological score, mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, and immune cell infiltration in colon tissues. In the in vitro assessment, we observed the inhibitory effects of SIF on the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, via suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages in response to LPS. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were decreased by pre-treatment with SIF in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we demonstrated that SIF suppressed inflammatory mediators involved in nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway via inhibitory κB kinase phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory κB. Our results suggested that SIF may be beneficial for the remission of colonic inflammatory status including IBDs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Doenjang, A Korean Traditional Fermented Soybean Paste, Ameliorates Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081702 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
Obesity is considered a risk factor for neurodegeneration. Because fermentation of soybean increases contents of various bioactive compounds with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities, we investigated the protective effect of doenjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the [...] Read more.
Obesity is considered a risk factor for neurodegeneration. Because fermentation of soybean increases contents of various bioactive compounds with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities, we investigated the protective effect of doenjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus of mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, an HF diet, an HF-containing steamed soybean diet, or an HF-containing doenjang (DJ) diet for 11 weeks. Doenjang consumption alleviated hippocampal neuronal loss, which was increased by the HF diet. Accordingly, we observed higher cell proliferation and neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in the DJ group. Contents of oxidative metabolites and mRNA levels of oxidative stress- and neuroinflammation-related genes were lower in the DJ group compared to the HF group. Dietary doenjang reduced β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) levels by regulating gene expressions involved in Aβ production and degradation. Furthermore, doenjang consumption reduced tau hyperphosphorylation induced by HF feeding. Overall, doenjang was more effective than steamed soybean in suppressing neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in mice fed an HF diet. These results suggest that bioactive compounds produced during the fermentation and aging of soybean may be involved in the enhanced neuroprotective effects of doenjang. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Erythrocyte Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Inflammation and Quality of Life in Post-Menopausal Women with Obesity Completing a Pilot Dietary Intervention
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071589 - 13 Jul 2019
Abstract
Study objectives were to determine if erythrocyte omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) increased in women participating in a dietary intervention that reduced inflammation and body weight and examine PUFA associations with markers of inflammation and quality of life (QOL). An experimental pre-post [...] Read more.
Study objectives were to determine if erythrocyte omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) increased in women participating in a dietary intervention that reduced inflammation and body weight and examine PUFA associations with markers of inflammation and quality of life (QOL). An experimental pre-post test, single group design was used. Fifteen post-menopausal women with obesity were enrolled in a 12-week pilot intervention focusing on lowering added sugars and increasing fiber and fish rich in n-3 PUFAs. Measurements included fasting blood samples, anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary data collected at baseline, end of intervention (Week 12) and follow-up (Week 24). Primary outcomes were change in erythrocyte PUFAs and associations between erythrocyte PUFAs, QOL (Short Form 12), and inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α-receptor 2, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP)). Fourteen women completed all intervention visits. Mean erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid (AA) increased at Week 12 and Week 24 (p < 0.001 for both), while eicosapentaenoic acid increased at Week 24 (p < 0.01). After adjustment for percent weight change, week 12 QOL related to physical function was significantly associated with erythrocyte linoleic acid (p < 0.05) and trended toward significant association with EPA (p = 0.051); week 24 CRP was directly associated with erythrocyte AA (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs were not associated with inflammation. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview
Animal Models of Undernutrition and Enteropathy as Tools for Assessment of Nutritional Intervention.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092233 (registering DOI) - 16 Sep 2019
Abstract
: Undernutrition is a major public health problem leading to 1 in 5 of all deaths in children under 5 years. Undernutrition leads to growth stunting and/or wasting and is often associated with environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). EED mechanisms leading to growth failure [...] Read more.
: Undernutrition is a major public health problem leading to 1 in 5 of all deaths in children under 5 years. Undernutrition leads to growth stunting and/or wasting and is often associated with environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). EED mechanisms leading to growth failure include intestinal hyperpermeability, villus blunting, malabsorption and gut inflammation. As non-invasive methods for investigating gut function in undernourished children are limited, pre-clinical models are relevant to elucidating the pathophysiological processes involved in undernutrition and EED, and to identifying novel therapeutic strategies. In many published models, undernutrition was induced using protein or micronutrient deficient diets, but these experimental models were not associated with EED. Enteropathy models mainly used gastrointestinal injury triggers. These models are presented in this review. We found only a few studies investigating the combination of undernutrition and enteropathy. This highlights the need for further developments to establish an experimental model reproducing the impact of undernutrition and enteropathy on growth, intestinal hyperpermeability and inflammation, that could be suitable for preclinical evaluation of innovative therapeutic intervention. Full article
Open AccessReview
Influence of Vitamin D on Islet Autoimmunity and Beta-Cell Function in Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2185; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092185 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease leading to immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells, resulting in the need for insulin therapy. The incidence of T1D is increasing worldwide, thus prompting researchers to investigate novel immunomodulatory strategies to halt autoimmunity and [...] Read more.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease leading to immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells, resulting in the need for insulin therapy. The incidence of T1D is increasing worldwide, thus prompting researchers to investigate novel immunomodulatory strategies to halt autoimmunity and modify disease progression. T1D is considered as a multifactorial disease, in which genetic predisposition and environmental factors interact to promote the triggering of autoimmune responses against beta cells. Over the last decades, it has become clear that vitamin D exerts anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, apart from its well-established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Importantly, the global incidence of vitamin D deficiency is also dramatically increasing and epidemiologic evidence suggests an involvement of vitamin D deficiency in T1D pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes critical for vitamin D metabolism have also been shown to modulate the risk of T1D. Moreover, several studies have investigated the role of vitamin D (in different doses and formulations) as a potential adjuvant immunomodulatory therapy in patients with new-onset and established T1D. This review aims to present the current knowledge on the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and summarize the clinical interventional studies investigating its use for prevention or treatment of T1D. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Lesson from Nutrigenomics
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092085 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has a beneficial effect on human health, especially for prevention of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Here we underscore the peculiar importance of specific cultivars used for EVOO production since biodiversity among cultivars in terms of fatty [...] Read more.
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has a beneficial effect on human health, especially for prevention of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Here we underscore the peculiar importance of specific cultivars used for EVOO production since biodiversity among cultivars in terms of fatty acids and polyphenols content could differently impact on the metabolic homeostasis. In this respect, the nutrigenomic approach could be very useful to fully dissect the pathways modulated by different EVOO cultivars in terms of mRNA and microRNA transcriptome. The identification of genes and miRNAs modulated by specific EVOO cultivars could also help to discover novel nutritional biomarkers for prevention and/or prognosis of human disease. Thus, the nutrigenomic approach depicts a novel scenario to investigate if a specific EVOO cultivar could have a positive effect on human health by preventing the onset of cardiovascular disease and/or chronic inflammatory disorders also leading to cancer. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine N-Oxide Links Vascular Dysfunctions and the Autoimmune Disease Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081821 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Diet and microbiota each have a direct impact on many chronic, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. As the field develops, a new perspective is emerging. The effects of diet may depend on the microbiota composition of the intestine. A diet that is rich in [...] Read more.
Diet and microbiota each have a direct impact on many chronic, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. As the field develops, a new perspective is emerging. The effects of diet may depend on the microbiota composition of the intestine. A diet that is rich in choline, red meat, dairy, or egg may promote the growth, or change the composition, of microbial species. The microbiota, in turn, may produce metabolites that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This article reviews our current understanding of the effects of the molecule trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) obtained from food or produced by the microbiota. We review the mechanisms of actions of TMAO, and studies that associate it with cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases. We introduce a novel concept: TMAO is one among a group of selective uremic toxins that may rise to high levels in the circulation or accumulate in various organs. Based on this information, we evaluate how TMAO may harm, by exacerbating inflammation, or may protect, by attenuating amyloid formation, in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
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