Special Issue "Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Catherine Phillips
Website
Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: Developmental Origins of Health and Disease; Diet; Lifestyle; Biomarkers; Inflammation; Obesity; Metabolic Health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation is a pathological feature of several chronic conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation is a potential mechanism linking diet with the risk of these non-communicable diseases. In recent years, dietary inflammatory indices (e.g. literature-derived dietary indices and empirically-derived dietary pattern scores linking foods and nutrients with inflammatory biomarkers) have been developed to characterise the inflammatory potential of an individual’s diet. Subsequently, a growing body of literature regarding the association between dietary inflammation and disease risk has emerged. Some data support the hypothesis that a more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased disease risk, but not all findings have been consistent and their examination from a life course or intergenerational perspective or as part of a healthy lifestyle has received little attention.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing the scientific literature. Manuscripts must have a clear focus on investigating the association between the inflammatory potential of habitual diet or dietary patterns (determined using the dietary inflammatory index or alternative measure of dietary inflammation) and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and bone, gastrointestinal, respiratory and mental health. Intervention, intergenerational and longitudinal observational studies are particularly welcome. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Developmental programming, intergenerational transmission and/or epigenetics
  • Ageing and age-related diseases
  • Dietary inflammation as part of a healthy lifestyle
  • Cardiometabolic health and disease (obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and CVD)
  • Mental health
  • Cancer
  • Respiratory health
  • Bone health and osteoporosis
  • Gastrointestinal health and/or gut microbiome
  • Dietary interventions

Dr. Catherine M. Phillips
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary inflammation
  • Dietary inflammatory index
  • Life course
  • Ageing
  • Intergenerational
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer
  • Mental health
  • Microbiome

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Prospective Analysis of Food Consumption and Nutritional Status and the Impact on the Dietary Inflammatory Index in Women with Breast Cancer during Chemotherapy
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112610 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Considering the implications of adverse effects of chemotherapy (CT) and the potential impact of diet on patients’ recovery, this study aimed to prospectively evaluate the association between the consumption of food groups, patients’ Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) scores, and their nutritional [...] Read more.
Considering the implications of adverse effects of chemotherapy (CT) and the potential impact of diet on patients’ recovery, this study aimed to prospectively evaluate the association between the consumption of food groups, patients’ Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) scores, and their nutritional status. Anthropometric and dietary assessments of 55 women with breast cancer (BC) were performed at three time points. T0 is the time point after the first CT cycle, T1 is the time point after the intermediate CT cycle, and T2 is the time point after the last CT cycle. We identified a significant increase in weight, body mass index, and waist circumference during CT. Consumption of poultry and eggs was higher in T1 when compared to T2, while consumption of total fruit and total vegetables was higher at T0 compared to T1 and T2. The diet became more pro-inflammatory over the course of treatment (X2(2) = 61.127), and was related to higher abdominal adiposity. Total fruit (T0: R2 = 0.208, T1: R2 = 0.095, T2: R2 = 0.120) and total vegetable consumption (T0: R2 = 0.284, T1: R2 = 0.365, T2: R2 = 0.580) predicted DII® change at the three-time points. Meanwhile, consumption of total grains was significantly associated only with T1 (R2 = 0.084) and T2 (R2 = 0.118), and consumption of simple sugars was significantly associated only with T0 (R2 = 0.137) and T1 (R2 = 0.126). Changes in food consumption led to an increase in the inflammatory profile of the diet, suggesting the necessity to improve the guidelines during and after CT. These results reinforce the need to promote healthier eating practices in concert with maintaining a healthy nutritional status in women with BC treated with CT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Risk of Breast Cancer Based on Hormone Receptor Status: A Case-Control Study in Korea
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081949 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and the risk of developing breast cancer is associated with inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and breast cancer in Korean women [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and the risk of developing breast cancer is associated with inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and breast cancer in Korean women and investigate whether the tumor’s hormone receptor status affects this association. In this case-control study, we enrolled 364 breast cancer patients and 364 age-matched controls. DII scores were calculated from dietary intake evaluated by a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. The DII score was significantly higher in cases than in controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was higher in the highest DII tertile (OR = 3.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.34–5.80, p for trend < 0.0001) than in the lowest tertile. We found that higher DII scores were related to an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ tumors regardless of menopausal status (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.37–4.88 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.01 for premenopausal women; OR = 11.00, 95% CI: 2.93–41.30 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.0004 for postmenopausal women), but not for ER−/PR− status. Our results suggested that the DII scores are positively associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women and that this relationship is more robust in ER+/PR+ tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Increased Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Schizophrenia: Results of a Case–Control Study from Bahrain
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081867 - 11 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Several studies have indicated that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the development of schizophrenia. Given the role of diet in modulating inflammatory markers, excessive caloric intake and increased consumption of pro-inflammatory components such as calorie-dense, nutrient-sparse foods may contribute toward increased [...] Read more.
Background: Several studies have indicated that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the development of schizophrenia. Given the role of diet in modulating inflammatory markers, excessive caloric intake and increased consumption of pro-inflammatory components such as calorie-dense, nutrient-sparse foods may contribute toward increased rates of schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary inflammation, as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 120 cases attending the out-patient department in the Psychiatric Hospital/Bahrain were recruited, along with 120 healthy controls matched on age and sex. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, body mass index, education, employment, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease with E-DII expressed both as a continuous variable and categorized as quartiles. Results: The mean E-DII score for the entire sample was 1.79 ± 1.52, indicating a generally pro-inflammatory diet. The cases with schizophrenia appeared to have a higher E-DII score compared to controls: 1.99 ± 1.39 vs. 1.60 ± 1.38, respectively (p = 0.009). For every one unit increase in the E-DII score, the odds of having schizophrenia increased by 62% (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.17–2.26). Similarly, increased risk was observed when the E-DII was used as quartiles, with participants in most pro-inflammatory quartile 4 being nearly 6 times more likely to be schizophrenic than participants in the most anti-inflammatory group quartile 1 (OR 5.96; 1.74–20.38; p-trend = 0.01). Conclusions: The data suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by increasing E-DII score, is associated with schizophrenia. This is the first study to examine the association between the DII and schizophrenia in a Middle Eastern population. Although these results are consistent with findings from research conducted in depression, additional studies are required before generalizing the findings to other populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Sleep Quality in Southern Italian Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061324 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Background: Current evidence supports the central role of a subclinical, low-grade inflammation in a number of chronic illnesses and mental disorders; however, studies on sleep quality are scarce. The aim of this study was to test the association between the inflammatory potential of [...] Read more.
Background: Current evidence supports the central role of a subclinical, low-grade inflammation in a number of chronic illnesses and mental disorders; however, studies on sleep quality are scarce. The aim of this study was to test the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and sleep quality in a cohort of Italian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study was conducted on 1936 individuals recruited in the urban area of Catania during 2014–2015 through random sampling. A food frequency questionnaire and other validated instruments were used to calculate the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and assess sleep quality (Pittsburg sleep quality index). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between exposure and outcome. Results: Individuals in the highest quartile of the DII were less likely to have adequate sleep quality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.78). Among individual domains of sleep quality, an association with the highest exposure category was found only for sleep latency (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.93). Conclusions: The inflammatory potential of the diet appears to be associated with sleep quality in adults. Interventions to improve diet quality might consider including a dietary component that aims to lower chronic systemic inflammation to prevent cognitive decline and improve sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Adiposity Mediates the Association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and Markers of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged Black South African Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061246 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a validated tool used to measure the inflammatory potential of the diet, has been associated with metabolic disorders in various settings, but not in African populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the [...] Read more.
The dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a validated tool used to measure the inflammatory potential of the diet, has been associated with metabolic disorders in various settings, but not in African populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the DII is associated with markers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, and if this association is mediated by adiposity and/or low-grade inflammation, in black South Africa women. Energy-adjusted-DII (E-DII) scores were calculated in 190 women (median age, 53 years) from the Birth-to-Twenty plus cohort using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and inflammatory cytokines were measured, and an oral glucose tolerance test performed. Basic anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body fat, including estimate of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, were measured. E-DII scores were associated with all markers of T2D risk, namely, fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c, HOMA2-IR, two-hour glucose and Matsuda index (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, measures of adiposity, but not inflammatory cytokines, mediated the association between E-DII and markers of T2D risk (p < 0.05). Measures of central obesity had proportionally higher (range: 23.5–100%) mediation effects than total obesity (range: 10–60%). The E-DII is associated with T2D risk through obesity, in particular central obesity, among black middle-aged South African women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Association between Inflammatory Potential of Diet and Bone-Mineral Density in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Data from Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040885 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Post menopause is considered a critical period for bone-mass loss. Impaired bone metabolism during this phase can increase the risk of fractures in old age. Inflammation is a risk factor for bone health, and diet is a potential source of inflammation. However, few [...] Read more.
Post menopause is considered a critical period for bone-mass loss. Impaired bone metabolism during this phase can increase the risk of fractures in old age. Inflammation is a risk factor for bone health, and diet is a potential source of inflammation. However, few studies have examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and bone-mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine, by means of a Korean cross-sectional investigation, whether higher DII scores are associated with decreased BMD in postmenopausal women. To that end, the raw data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES, 2009–2011) for 2778 postmenopausal women aged over 50 years were analyzed. The subjects’ BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and their DII® scores were calculated from a single 24-h dietary recall. Further, the participants were classified into three groups according to DII® score. Women with more pro-inflammatory diets (i.e., those in the highest tertile of DII®) had significantly lower BMD in the femoral neck as compared with women in the lowest tertile (p for trend <0.05) after adjustment for age, body-mass index (BMI), household income, education status, smoking habits, physical activity, total calcium intake, female-hormone use, age at menopause, and blood vitamin D levels. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of total femur osteopenia/osteoporosis was higher in women in the highest tertile of DII® than in those in the lowest (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.62, p for trend < 0.05). This study established that more pro-inflammatory diets might be associated with lower BMD in postmenopausal Korean women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Non-Communicable Disease Risk: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081873 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
There are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based [...] Read more.
There are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based on this voluminous literature, it is now recognized that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is associated with most non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancers, respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as impaired neurodevelopment and adverse mental health outcomes. Dietary components modulate inflammatory status. In recent years, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), a literature-derived dietary index, was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of habitual diet. Subsequently, a large and rapidly growing body of research investigating associations between dietary inflammatory potential, determined by the DII, and risk of a wide range of NCDs has emerged. In this narrative review, we examine the current state of the science regarding relationships between the DII and cancer, cardiometabolic, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases, neurodevelopment, and adverse mental health outcomes. We synthesize the findings from recent studies, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and look to the future regarding novel applications of the adult and children’s DII (C-DII) scores and new avenues of investigation in this field of nutritional research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop