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Open AccessArticle

Youth with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder: Examining Differences by Age, Weight Status, and Symptom Duration

1
Center for the Treatment of Eating Disorders, Children′s Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55404, USA
2
Children’s Minnesota Research Institute, Children′s Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55404, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA
4
Rogers Behavioral Health, Eden Prairie, MN 55344, USA
5
Department of Psychiatry and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
6
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081955
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Eating and Feeding Disturbances)
The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences among youth with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) by age, weight status, and symptom duration. A secondary goal was to report the frequencies of ARFID using DSM-5 clinical presentations (i.e., fear of aversive consequences, lack of interest in food, sensory sensitivities). Participants (N = 102), ages 8–18 years, were recruited through an eating disorder service within a pediatric hospital. They were evaluated using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Patients were assigned to groups according to age, weight status, and symptom duration. Frequencies of clinical presentations, including combinations of DSM-5 categories, were also examined. Our findings suggest that adolescents presented with higher rates of Depression (p = 0.04). Youth with chronic ARFID symptoms presented with significantly lower weight (p = 0.03), and those with acute symptoms rated significantly higher suicidal ideation and/or self- harm (p = 0.02). Half of patients met criteria for more than one ARFID symptom presentation. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth with ARFID differ in clinical presentation depending on age, weight status, and symptom duration, and highlights safety concerns for those with acute symptoms of ARFID. High rates of overlapping symptom presentations might suggest a dimensional approach in the conceptualization of ARFID. View Full-Text
Keywords: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder; age; weight status; symptom duration; lack of interest; fear of aversive consequences; sensory sensitivity avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder; age; weight status; symptom duration; lack of interest; fear of aversive consequences; sensory sensitivity
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Duncombe Lowe, K.; Barnes, T.L.; Martell, C.; Keery, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Peterson, C.B.; Lesser, J.; Le Grange, D. Youth with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder: Examining Differences by Age, Weight Status, and Symptom Duration. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1955.

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