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Special Issue "Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Juan Del Coso

Director of the Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Camilo José Cela University, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: exercise, sport, exercise physiology, physical activity, physical performance, anti-doping, substrate oxidation, ergogenic aids, supplements

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Caffeine is naturally present in the leaves and seeds of different plants, and it has been traditionally used to improve mental alertness and wakefulness by using brews of these plants. However, caffeine has become a very common ingredient in manufactured products such as sodas, energy drinks, thermogenic supplements, pre-workouts, and over-the-counter medications. Alongside the appearance of new forms of caffeine intake in our modern society, positive applications of both acute and long-term ingestion of caffeine have increased, while the effects of caffeine on cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory, and metabolic systems are well-understood at present. However, interindividual variability in physiological responses to caffeine, the time course of tolerance to the benefits of caffeine, and the effects of caffeine withdrawal require further investigation.

As the guest editor of the Special Issue “Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health”, I kindly invite you to submit a manuscript to Nutrients, one of the most read and cited research journals in “Nutrition and Dietetics”. The goal of this Special Issue is to provide new evidence of the effects of caffeine intake (especially, but not limited to, coffee consumption) on different aspects of human health. We welcome manuscripts related to original research articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and opinions related to the effects of caffeine on health outcomes.

Dr. Juan Del Coso Garrigós
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coffee
  • caffeine
  • health
  • genetics
  • exercise
  • epidemiology
  • tolerance
  • performance
  • side-effects

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effects of an “Energy Drink” on Short-Term Maximal Performance, Reaction Times, Psychological and Physiological Parameters: Insights from a Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Counterbalanced Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050992
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
The current study examined the relationships between the effects of consuming a caffeine-containing “energy drink” upon (i) short-term maximal performance, (ii) reaction times, and (iii) psychological factors (i.e., mood state, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective load) and on physiological parameters (i.e., [...] Read more.
The current study examined the relationships between the effects of consuming a caffeine-containing “energy drink” upon (i) short-term maximal performance, (ii) reaction times, and (iii) psychological factors (i.e., mood state, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective load) and on physiological parameters (i.e., blood pressure and blood glucose). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover design was implemented in this study. Nineteen male physical-education students (age: 21.2 ± 1.2 years; height: 1.76 ± 0.08 m; body-mass: 76.6 ± 12.6 kg) performed two test sessions: after drinking the “Red Bull’ beverage (RB) and after drinking a placebo (PL). One hour after ingestion of each drink, resting blood glucose and blood pressure were measured and the participants completed the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Then, after a 5-min warm-up, simple visual reaction time and handgrip force were measured, and the 30-s Wingate test was performed. Immediately after these tests, the RPE, blood glucose, and blood pressure were measured, and the affective load was calculated. Differences between treatments were assessed using two-way repeated measures analyses of variance and paired t-tests, as appropriate. Relationships between the test variables were assessed using Bland–Altman correlations. Significant (i) improvements in peak and mean power output, handgrip force, pre- and post-exercise blood glucose, blood pressure, and vigor and (ii) reductions in reaction times, depression, confusion, fatigue, anger, anxiety, RPE, and affective load scores were observed after RB compared to PL. There were significant correlations of (i) physical performances and reaction times with (ii) RPE, affective load, and pre- and post-exercise blood glucose levels. Gains in peak and mean power were significantly correlated with reductions in fatigue, anxiety (peak power only), and anger (mean power only). The reduction of reaction times was significantly correlated with decreases in confusion and anger and with increases in vigor. Handgrip force and reaction times were significantly correlated with pre- and post-exercise blood pressures. We conclude that RB ingestion has a positive effect on physical performance and reaction times. This effect is related to ergogenic responses in both psychological (i.e., RPE, affective load, and mood state) and physiological (i.e., blood glucose and blood pressure) domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of High Peripubertal Caffeine Exposure on the Adrenal Gland in Immature Male and Female Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050951
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract
The consumption of high levels of dietary caffeine has increased in children and adolescents. Human and animal studies have shown that chronic intake of high doses of caffeine affects serum glucocorticoid levels. Given that glucocorticoids play a role in peripubertal organ growth and [...] Read more.
The consumption of high levels of dietary caffeine has increased in children and adolescents. Human and animal studies have shown that chronic intake of high doses of caffeine affects serum glucocorticoid levels. Given that glucocorticoids play a role in peripubertal organ growth and development, chronic high doses of caffeine during puberty might impair maturation of the adrenal glands. To evaluate any effects of caffeine exposure on growing adrenal glands, 22-day-old male (n = 30) and female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 30) were divided into three groups (n = 10/group); group 1 received tap water (control) and groups 2 and 3 received water containing 120 and 180 mg/kg/day caffeine, respectively, via gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, adrenal glands were weighed and processed for histological analysis. Relative adrenal weights increased in both groups of caffeine-fed males and females, whereas absolute weights were decreased in the females. In the female caffeine-fed groups the adrenal cortical areas resembled irregularly arranged cords and the medullary area was significantly increased, whereas no such effects were seen in the male rats. Our results indicate that the harmful effects of caffeine on the adrenal glands of immature rats differ between females and males. Although female rats seemed to be more susceptible to damage based on the changes in the microarchitecture of the adrenal glands, caffeine affected corticosterone production in both female and male rats. In addition, increased basal adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in caffeine-fed groups may reflect decreased cortical function. Therefore, caffeine may induce an endocrine imbalance that disturbs the establishment of the hypothalamo–pituitary adrenal axis during puberty, thereby leading to abnormal stress responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Caffeinated Gel Ingestion Enhances Jump Performance, Muscle Strength, and Power in Trained Men
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040937
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
We aimed to explore the effects of caffeinated gel ingestion on neuromuscular performance in resistance-trained men. The participants (n = 17; mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 23 ± 2 years, height 183 ± 5 cm, body mass 83 ± 11 kg) [...] Read more.
We aimed to explore the effects of caffeinated gel ingestion on neuromuscular performance in resistance-trained men. The participants (n = 17; mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 23 ± 2 years, height 183 ± 5 cm, body mass 83 ± 11 kg) completed two testing conditions that involved ingesting a caffeinated gel (300 mg of caffeine) or placebo. The testing outcomes included: (1) vertical jump height in the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); (2) knee extension and flexion peak torque and average power at angular velocities of 60°·s−1 and 180°·s−1; (3) barbell velocity in the bench press with loads corresponding to 50%, 75%, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM); and (4) peak power output in a test on a rowing ergometer. Compared to the placebo, caffeine improved: (1) SJ (p = 0.039; Cohen’s d effect size (d) = 0.18; +2.9%) and CMJ height (p = 0.011; d = 0.18; +3.3%); (2) peak torque and average power in the knee extensors at both angular velocities (d ranged from 0.21 to 0.37; percent change from +3.5% to +6.9%), peak torque (p = 0.034; d = 0.24; +4.6%), and average power (p = 0.015; d = 0.32; +6.7%) at 60°·s−1 in the knee flexors; (3) barbell velocity at 50% 1RM (p = 0.021; d = 0.33; +3.5%), 75% 1RM (p < 0.001; d = 0.42; +5.4%), and 90% 1RM (p < 0.001; d = 0.59, +12.0%). We conclude that the ingestion of caffeinated gels may acutely improve vertical jump performance, strength, and power in resistance-trained men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Neonatal Anthropometric Parameters
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040806
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that may affect the normal course of pregnancy, therefore its intake during that time should not exceed 200 mg/day. The aim of this study was to evaluate caffeine intake among pregnant women from the Warsaw region. The study [...] Read more.
Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that may affect the normal course of pregnancy, therefore its intake during that time should not exceed 200 mg/day. The aim of this study was to evaluate caffeine intake among pregnant women from the Warsaw region. The study was conducted among 100 pregnant women who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw. Caffeine intake from coffee, tea, and energy drinks was measured using a questionnaire. Direct interviewing was used, with all interviews conducted by the same dietitian. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between caffeine intake and anthropometric measurements of the newborns. Mean caffeine intake among pregnant women was 68 ± 51 mg/day. Only 2% of the respondents exceeded the safe dose of 200 mg. Tea (mostly black) was the source of 63% of all caffeine. No relationships were found between caffeine intake and neonatal weight, length, or head and chest circumference (p > 0.05). Caffeine intake in our study population was relatively low and did not negatively affect fetal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessCommunication
Challenging the Myth of Non-Response to the Ergogenic Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Exercise Performance
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040732
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
The ergogenicity of caffeine on several exercise and sport situations is well-established. However, the extent of the ergogenic response to acute caffeine ingestion might greatly vary among individuals despite using the same dosage and timing. The existence of one or several individuals that [...] Read more.
The ergogenicity of caffeine on several exercise and sport situations is well-established. However, the extent of the ergogenic response to acute caffeine ingestion might greatly vary among individuals despite using the same dosage and timing. The existence of one or several individuals that obtained minimal ergogenic effects or even slightly ergolytic effects after caffeine intake (i.e., non-responders) has been reported in several previous investigations. Nevertheless, the concept non-responding to caffeine, in terms of physical performance, relies on investigations based on the measurement of one performance variable obtained once. Recently it has been suggested that correct identification of the individual ergogenic effect induced by caffeine intake requires the repeated measurement of physical performance in identical caffeine–placebo comparisons. In this communication, we present data from an investigation where the ergogenic effect of acute caffeine intake (3 mg/kg) was measured eight times over a placebo in the same individuals and under the same conditions by an incremental cycling test to volitional fatigue and an adapted version of the Wingate cycling test. The ergogenic response to caffeine varied from 9% to 1% among individuals, but all participants increased both cycling power in the incremental test and Wingate mean power at least three to eight times out of eight the caffeine–placebo comparisons. These data expand the suggestion of a minimal occurrence of caffeine non-responders because it shows that all individuals responded to caffeine when caffeine is compared to a placebo on multiple and repeated testing sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumers’ Perceptions of Coffee Health Benefits and Motives for Coffee Consumption and Purchasing
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030653
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
Coffee is popular worldwide and consumption is increasing, particularly in non-traditional markets. There is evidence that coffee consumption may have beneficial health effects. Consumers’ beliefs in the health benefits of coffee are unclear. The study aimed at analyzing consumers’ perceptions of coffee health [...] Read more.
Coffee is popular worldwide and consumption is increasing, particularly in non-traditional markets. There is evidence that coffee consumption may have beneficial health effects. Consumers’ beliefs in the health benefits of coffee are unclear. The study aimed at analyzing consumers’ perceptions of coffee health benefits, consumption and purchasing motives of coffee consumers with positive perceptions of coffee health benefits, and willingness to pay for coffee with associated health claims. Data were collected through a face-to-face survey with consumers, resulting in a convenience sample of 250 questionnaires valid for data elaboration. Results were elaborated with factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Findings revealed that a relevant minority of consumers believed that coffee could have positive health effects. The consumer with a positive perception of coffee health benefits is mostly male, young, works, is familiar with non-espresso-based coffee, consumes a limited amount of coffee (generally not for breakfast and often in social settings), and buys coffee at retail outlets. Consumers drink coffee for its energetic and therapeutic effects. Coffee consumption is still price-driven, but consumers are interested in purchasing coffee with associated health claims. There is the opportunity to improve the perception of coffee health benefits in consumers’ minds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Urine Caffeine Concentration in Doping Control Samples from 2004 to 2015
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020286
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
The ergogenic effect of caffeine is well-established, but the extent of its consumption in sport is unknown at the present. The use of caffeine was considered “prohibited” until 2004, but this stimulant was moved from the List of Prohibited Substances to the Monitoring [...] Read more.
The ergogenic effect of caffeine is well-established, but the extent of its consumption in sport is unknown at the present. The use of caffeine was considered “prohibited” until 2004, but this stimulant was moved from the List of Prohibited Substances to the Monitoring Program of the World Anti-Doping Agency to control its use by monitoring urinary caffeine concentration after competition. However, there is no updated information about the change in the use of caffeine as the result of its inclusion in the Monitoring Program. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in urine caffeine concentration from 2004 to 2015. A total of 7488 urine samples obtained in official competitions held in Spain and corresponding to athletes competing in Olympic sports (2788 in 2004, 2543 in 2008, and 2157 in 2015) were analyzed for urine caffeine concentration. The percentage of samples with detectable caffeine (i.e., >0.1 μg/mL) increased from ~70.1%, in 2004–2008 to 75.7% in 2015. The median urine caffeine concentration in 2015 (0.85 μg/mL) was higher when compared to the median value obtained in 2004 (0.70 μg/mL; p < 0.05) and in 2008 (0.70 μg/mL; p < 0.05). The urine caffeine concentration significantly increased from 2004 to 2015 in aquatics, athletics, boxing, judo, football, weightlifting, and rowing (p < 0.05). However, the sports with the highest urine caffeine concentration in 2015 were cycling, athletics, and rowing. In summary, the concentration of caffeine in the urine samples obtained after competition in Olympic sports in Spain increased from 2004 to 2015, particularly in some disciplines. These data indicate that the use of caffeine has slightly increased since its removal from the list of banned substances, but urine caffeine concentrations suggest that the use of caffeine is moderate in most sport specialties. Athletes of individual sports or athletes of sports with an aerobic-like nature are more prone to using caffeine in competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Caffeine Supplementation and Physical Performance, Muscle Damage and Perception of Fatigue in Soccer Players: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020440
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soccer is a complex team sport and success in this discipline depends on different factors such as physical fitness, player technique and team tactics, among others. In the last few years, several studies have described the impact of caffeine intake on soccer physical [...] Read more.
Soccer is a complex team sport and success in this discipline depends on different factors such as physical fitness, player technique and team tactics, among others. In the last few years, several studies have described the impact of caffeine intake on soccer physical performance, but the results of these investigations have not been properly reviewed and summarized. The main objective of this review was to evaluate critically the effectiveness of a moderate dose of caffeine on soccer physical performance. A structured search was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the Medline/PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 2007 to November 2018. The search included studies with a cross-over and randomized experimental design in which the intake of caffeine (either from caffeinated drinks or pills) was compared to an identical placebo situation. There were no filters applied to the soccer players’ level, gender or age. This review included 17 articles that investigated the effects of caffeine on soccer-specific abilities (n = 12) or on muscle damage (n = 5). The review concluded that 5 investigations (100% of the number of investigations on this topic) had found ergogenic effects of caffeine on jump performance, 4 (100%) on repeated sprint ability and 2 (100%) on running distance during a simulated soccer game. However, only 1 investigation (25%) found as an effect of caffeine to increase serum markers of muscle damage, while no investigation reported an effect of caffeine to reduce perceived fatigue after soccer practice. In conclusion, a single and moderate dose of caffeine, ingested 5–60 min before a soccer practice, might produce valuable improvements in certain abilities related to enhanced soccer physical performance. However, caffeine does not seem to cause increased markers of muscle damage or changes in perceived exertion during soccer practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Other

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Open AccessDiscussion
Coffee Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030694
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Coffee is a blend of compounds related to gastrointestinal physiology. Given its popularity and the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the impact of this beverage on public health could be considerable. Our aim was to provide an updated synthesis of the relationship between coffee [...] Read more.
Coffee is a blend of compounds related to gastrointestinal physiology. Given its popularity and the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the impact of this beverage on public health could be considerable. Our aim was to provide an updated synthesis of the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 26 prospective studies. Regarding colorectal cancer, no significant relationship was detected. Stratifying for ethnicity, a protective effect emerged in US subjects. Concerning colon cancer, coffee proved to exert a protective effect in men and women combined and in men alone. Stratifying for ethnicity, a significant protective effect was noted in European men only and in Asian women only. Concerning rectal cancer, no association was found. Decaffeinated coffee exhibited a protective effect against colorectal cancer in men and women combined. Studies were appraised for their quality by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Cohort studies. Only one study proved to be of low quality. Ethnicity could explain the heterogeneity of the studies. However, little is known about the relationship between the genetic make-up and the risk of colorectal cancer associated with coffee. Further research is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Juan Mielgo-Ayudo

Email: [email protected]
Affiliation: Universidad de Valladolid | UVA · Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Physiology, Spain
Topic: Effect of caffeine on sport performance, muscle damage and perception of fatigue in soccer: a systematic review


Author: Juan del Coso Garrigós

Email: [email protected]
Affiliation: Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Camilo Jose Cela University, Spain
Topic: The long-term effects of caffeine on blood pressure regulation

 

Author: Visith Thongboonkerd

Email: [email protected]

Affiliation: Mahidol Univ, Med Prote Unit, Off Res & Dev, Fac Med,Siriraj Hosp, Bangkok, Thailand

Topic: Roles of caffeine in chronic kidney disease.

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