Special Issue "Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Juan Del Coso
Website
Guest Editor
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, Spain
Interests: exercise; sport; exercise physiology; physical activity; physical performance; anti-doping; substrate oxidation; ergogenic aids; supplements
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Caffeine is naturally present in the leaves and seeds of different plants, and it has been traditionally used to improve mental alertness and wakefulness by using brews of these plants. However, caffeine has become a very common ingredient in manufactured products such as sodas, energy drinks, thermogenic supplements, pre-workouts, and over-the-counter medications. Alongside the appearance of new forms of caffeine intake in our modern society, positive applications of both acute and long-term ingestion of caffeine have increased, while the effects of caffeine on cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory, and metabolic systems are well-understood at present. However, interindividual variability in physiological responses to caffeine, the time course of tolerance to the benefits of caffeine, and the effects of caffeine withdrawal require further investigation.

As the guest editor of the Special Issue “Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health”, I kindly invite you to submit a manuscript to Nutrients, one of the most read and cited research journals in “Nutrition and Dietetics”. The goal of this Special Issue is to provide new evidence of the effects of caffeine intake (especially, but not limited to, coffee consumption) on different aspects of human health. We welcome manuscripts related to original research articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and opinions related to the effects of caffeine on health outcomes.

Dr. Juan Del Coso Garrigós
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • coffee
  • caffeine
  • health
  • genetics
  • exercise
  • epidemiology
  • tolerance
  • performance
  • side-effects

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Effects of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Functioning
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010125 - 02 Jan 2020
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Open AccessEditorial
More Research Is Necessary to Establish the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine in Female Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071600 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Dear Editor-in-Chief, [...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Caffeine on the Velocity of Half-Squat Exercise during the Menstrual Cycle: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112662 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recent literature confirms the ergogenic effect of acute caffeine intake to increase muscle strength and power in men. However, the information about the effect of caffeine on muscle performance in women is uncertain and it is unknown whether its ergogenicity is similar during [...] Read more.
Recent literature confirms the ergogenic effect of acute caffeine intake to increase muscle strength and power in men. However, the information about the effect of caffeine on muscle performance in women is uncertain and it is unknown whether its ergogenicity is similar during the menstrual cycle. The goal of this investigation was to assess the effect of acute caffeine intake on mean and peak velocity of half-squat exercise during three different phases of the menstrual cycle. Thirteen trained eumenorrheic athletes (age = 31 ± 6 years; body mass = 58.6 ± 7.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, crossover and randomized experimental trial. In the early follicular (EFP), late follicular (LFP) and mid luteal phases (MLP), participants either ingested a placebo (cellulose) or 3 mg/kg/bm of caffeine in an opaque and unidentifiable capsule. In each trial, participants performed a half-squat exercise at maximal velocity with loads equivalent to 20%, 40% 60% and 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM). In each load, mean and peak velocity were measured during the concentric phase of the exercise using a rotatory encoder. In comparison to the placebo, a two-way ANOVA showed that the ingestion of 3 mg/kg/bm of caffeine increased mean velocity at 60% 1RM in EFP (Δ = 1.4 ± 2.7%, p = 0.04; ES: 0.2 ± 0.2) and LFP (Δ = 5.0 ± 10.4%, p = 0.04; ES: 0.3 ± 0.4). No other statistical differences were found for the caffeine-placebo comparison for mean velocity, but caffeine induced an ergogenic effect of small magnitude in all of the menstrual cycle phases. These results suggest that the acute intake of 3 mg/kg/bm of caffeine induces a small effect to increase movement velocity during resistance exercise in eumenorrheic female athletes. The positive effect of caffeine was of similar magnitude in all the three phases of the menstrual cycle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Caffeine Increased Muscle Endurance Performance Despite Reduced Cortical Activation and Unchanged Neuromuscular Efficiency and Corticomuscular Coherence
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102471 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The central and peripheral effects of caffeine remain debatable. We verified whether increases in endurance performance after caffeine ingestion occurred together with changes in primary motor cortex (MC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, neuromuscular efficiency (NME), and electroencephalography–electromyography coherence (EEG–EMG coherence). Twelve participants [...] Read more.
The central and peripheral effects of caffeine remain debatable. We verified whether increases in endurance performance after caffeine ingestion occurred together with changes in primary motor cortex (MC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, neuromuscular efficiency (NME), and electroencephalography–electromyography coherence (EEG–EMG coherence). Twelve participants performed a time-to-task failure isometric contraction at 70% of the maximal voluntary contraction after ingesting 5 mg/kg of caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA), in a crossover and counterbalanced design. MC (Cz) and PFC (Fp1) EEG alpha wave and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle EMG were recorded throughout the exercise. EEG–EMG coherence was calculated through the magnitude squared coherence analysis in MC EEG gamma-wave (CI > 0.0058). Moreover, NME was obtained as the force–VL EMG ratio. When compared to PLA, CAF improved the time to task failure (p = 0.003, d = 0.75), but reduced activation in MC and PFC throughout the exercise (p = 0.027, d = 1.01 and p = 0.045, d = 0.95, respectively). Neither NME (p = 0.802, d = 0.34) nor EEG–EMG coherence (p = 0.628, d = 0.21) was different between CAF and PLA. The results suggest that CAF improved muscular performance through a modified central nervous system (CNS) response rather than through alterations in peripheral muscle or central–peripheral coupling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Caffeine Expectancies on Simulated Soccer Performance in Recreational Individuals
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102289 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Caffeine (CAF) has been reported to improve various facets associated with successful soccer play, including gross motor skill performance, endurance capacity and cognition. These benefits are primarily attributed to pharmacological mechanisms. However, evidence assessing CAF’s overall effects on soccer performance are sparse with [...] Read more.
Caffeine (CAF) has been reported to improve various facets associated with successful soccer play, including gross motor skill performance, endurance capacity and cognition. These benefits are primarily attributed to pharmacological mechanisms. However, evidence assessing CAF’s overall effects on soccer performance are sparse with no studies accounting for CAF’s potential psychological impact. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess CAF’s psychological vs. pharmacological influence on various facets of simulated soccer performance. Utilising a double-dissociation design, eight male recreational soccer players (age: 22 ± 5 years, body mass: 78 ± 16 kg, height: 178 ± 6 cm) consumed CAF (3 mg/kg/body mass) or placebo (PLA) capsules, 60 min prior to performing the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) interspersed with a collection of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood glucose and lactate, heart rate and performing the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Whole-body dynamic reaction time (DRT) was assessed pre- and post- LIST, and endurance capacity (TLIM) post, time-matched LIST. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS (v24) whilst subjective perceptions were explored using template analysis. Mean TLIM was greatest (p < 0.001) for synergism (given CAF/told CAF) (672 ± 132 s) vs. placebo (given PLA/told PLA) (533 ± 79 s). However, when isolated, TLIM was greater (p = 0.012) for CAF psychology (given PLA/told CAF) (623 ± 117 s) vs. pharmacology (given CAF/told PLA) (578 ± 99 s), potentially, via reduced RPE. Although DRT performance was greater (p = 0.024) post-ingestion (+5 hits) and post-exercise (+7 hits) for pharmacology vs. placebo, psychology and synergism appeared to improve LSPT performance vs. pharmacology. Interestingly, positive perceptions during psychology inhibited LSPT and DRT performance via potential CAF over-reliance, with the opposite occurring following negative perceptions. The benefits associated with CAF expectancies may better suit tasks that entail lesser cognitive-/skill-specific attributes but greater gross motor function and this is likely due to reduced RPE. In isolation, these effects appear greater vs. CAF pharmacology. However, an additive benefit may be observed after combining expectancy with CAF pharmacology (i.e., synergism). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Caffeine Supplementation Improves Anaerobic Performance and Neuromuscular Efficiency and Fatigue in Olympic-Level Boxers
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092120 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: this study examined the effects of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance, neuromuscular efficiency and upper and lower extremities fatigue in Olympic-level boxers. Methods: Eight male athletes, members of the Spanish National Olympic Team, were enrolled in the study. In a randomized double-blind, [...] Read more.
Background: this study examined the effects of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance, neuromuscular efficiency and upper and lower extremities fatigue in Olympic-level boxers. Methods: Eight male athletes, members of the Spanish National Olympic Team, were enrolled in the study. In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover design, the athletes completed 2 test sessions after the intake of caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. Sessions involved initial measures of lactate, handgrip and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, followed by a 30-seconds Wingate test, and then final measures of the previous variables. During the sessions, electromiography (EMG) data were recorded on the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius lateral head and tibialis anterior. Results: caffeine enhanced peak power (6.27%, p < 0.01; Effect Size (ES) = 1.26), mean power (5.21%; p < 0.01; ES = 1.29) and reduced the time needed to reach peak power (−9.91%, p < 0.01; ES = 0.58) in the Wingate test, improved jump height in the CMJ (+2.4 cm, p < 0.01), and improved neuromuscular efficiency at peak power in the vastus lateralis (ES = 1.01) and gluteus maximus (ES = 0.89), and mean power in the vastus lateralis (ES = 0.95) and tibialis anterior (ES = 0.83). Conclusions: in these Olympic-level boxers, caffeine supplementation improved anaerobic performance without affecting EMG activity and fatigue levels in the lower limbs. Further benefits observed were enhanced neuromuscular efficiency in some muscles and improved reaction speed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Caffeine Intake on 800-m Running Performance and Sleep Quality in Trained Runners
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092040 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Caffeine ingestion improves athletic performance, but impairs sleep quality. We aimed to analyze the effect of caffeine intake on 800-m running performance, sleep quality (SQ), and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity (CAA) in trained runners. Methods: Fifteen male middle-distance runners participated in the [...] Read more.
Background: Caffeine ingestion improves athletic performance, but impairs sleep quality. We aimed to analyze the effect of caffeine intake on 800-m running performance, sleep quality (SQ), and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity (CAA) in trained runners. Methods: Fifteen male middle-distance runners participated in the study (aged 23.7 ± 8.2 years). In a randomized and comparative crossover study design, the athletes ingested a placebo (PL) or caffeine supplement (CAF; 6 mg∙kg−1) one hour before an 800-m running time-trial test in the evening. During the night, CAA and SQ were assessed using actigraphy and a sleep questionnaire. A second 800-m running test was performed 24 h after the first. Time, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were analyzed for each running test. Results: No significant differences in CAA and performance variables were found between the two conditions. However, CAF impaired sleep efficiency (p = 0.003), actual wake time (p = 0.001), and the number of awakenings (p = 0.005), as measured by actigraphy. Also, CAF impaired the questionnaire variables of SQ (p = 0.005), calm sleep (p = 0.005), ease of falling asleep (p = 0.003), and feeling refreshed after waking (p = 0.006). Conclusion: The supplementation with caffeine (6 mg∙kg−1) did not improve the 800-m running performance, but did impair the SQ of trained runners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Urinary Caffeine Metabolites as Biomarkers for Drug Metabolic Enzyme Activities
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081947 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Caffeine is commonly taken via the daily dietary consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The absorbed caffeine is metabolized to yield various metabolites by drug-metabolizing enzymes, and measuring the levels of each caffeine metabolite can provide useful information for evaluating the phenotypes of those enzymes. [...] Read more.
Caffeine is commonly taken via the daily dietary consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The absorbed caffeine is metabolized to yield various metabolites by drug-metabolizing enzymes, and measuring the levels of each caffeine metabolite can provide useful information for evaluating the phenotypes of those enzymes. In this study, the urinary concentrations of caffeine and its 13 metabolites were determined, and the phenotypes of drug metabolic enzymes were investigated based on the caffeine metabolite ratios. Human urine samples were pretreated using solid phase extraction, and caffeine and its metabolites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the urinary caffeine metabolite concentrations, the caffeine metabolite ratios were calculated for six human subjects at specified time points after caffeine intake. Variations in urinary metabolite levels among individuals and time points were reported. In addition, the resultant enzyme activities showed different patterns, depending on the metabolite ratio equations applied. However, some data presented a constant metabolite ratio range, irrespective of time points, even at pre-dose. This suggests the possibility of urinary caffeine metabolite analysis for routine clinical examination. These findings show that urinary caffeine and the metabolite analysis would be useful in evaluating metabolic phenotypes for personalized medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of High Doses of Caffeine on Maximal Strength and Muscular Endurance in Athletes Habituated to Caffeine
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081912 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 3Correction
Abstract
Background: The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effects of the intake of 9 and 11 mg/kg/ body mass (b.m.) of caffeine (CAF) on maximal strength and muscle endurance in athletes habituated to caffeine. Methods: The study included 16 [...] Read more.
Background: The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effects of the intake of 9 and 11 mg/kg/ body mass (b.m.) of caffeine (CAF) on maximal strength and muscle endurance in athletes habituated to caffeine. Methods: The study included 16 healthy strength-trained male athletes (age = 24.2 ± 4.2 years, body mass = 79.5 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 24.5 ± 1.9, bench press 1RM = 118.3 ± 14.5 kg). All participants were habitual caffeine consumers (4.9 ± 1.1 mg/kg/b.m., 411 ± 136 mg of caffeine per day). This study had a randomized, crossover, double-blind design, where each participant performed three experimental sessions after ingesting either a placebo (PLAC) or 9 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-9) and 11 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-11) of caffeine. In each experimental session, participants underwent a 1RM strength test and a muscle endurance test in the bench press exercise at 50% 1RM while power output and bar velocity were measured in each test. Results: A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference between PLAC, CAF-9, and CAF-11 groups in peak velocity (PV) (p = 0.04). Post-hoc tests showed a significant decrease for PV (p = 0.04) in the CAF-11 compared to the PLAC group. No other changes were found in the 1RM or muscle endurance tests with the ingestion of caffeine. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that high acute doses of CAF (9 and 11 mg/kg/b.m.) did not improve muscle strength nor muscle endurance in athletes habituated to this substance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Caffeine on Metabolomic Responses to Muscle Contraction in Rat Skeletal Muscle
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081819 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Exercise has beneficial effects on our health by stimulating metabolic activation of skeletal muscle contraction. Caffeine is a powerful metabolic stimulant in the skeletal muscle that has ergogenic effects, including enhanced muscle power output and endurance capacity. In the present study, we aim [...] Read more.
Exercise has beneficial effects on our health by stimulating metabolic activation of skeletal muscle contraction. Caffeine is a powerful metabolic stimulant in the skeletal muscle that has ergogenic effects, including enhanced muscle power output and endurance capacity. In the present study, we aim to characterize the metabolic signatures of contracting muscles with or without caffeine stimulation using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle was incubated in the presence or absence or of 3 mM caffeine for 30 min. Electrical stimulation (ES) was used to induce tetanic contractions during the final 10 min of incubation. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis detected 184 distinct metabolites across three experimental groups—basal, ES, and ES with caffeine (ES + C). Significance Analysis of Microarray identified a total of 50 metabolites with significant changes in expression, and 23 metabolites significantly changed between the ES and ES + C groups. Changes were observed in metabolite levels of various metabolic pathways, including the pentose phosphate, nucleotide synthesis, β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism. In particular, D-ribose 5-phosphate, IMP, O-acetylcarnitine, butyrylcarnitine, L-leucine, L-valine, and L-aspartate levels were higher in the ES + C group than in the ES group. These metabolic alterations induced by caffeine suggest that caffeine accelerates contraction-induced metabolic activations, thereby contributing to muscle endurance performance and exercise benefits to our health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Acute Effect of Various Doses of Caffeine on Power Output and Velocity during the Bench Press Exercise among Athletes Habitually Using Caffeine
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071465 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Background: Previously studies confirm ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF); however there is no available scientific data regarding the influence of acute CAF intake on power output in athletes habitually consuming CAF. The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effect [...] Read more.
Background: Previously studies confirm ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF); however there is no available scientific data regarding the influence of acute CAF intake on power output in athletes habitually consuming CAF. The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of 3, 6, 9 mg/kg/b.m. doses of CAF intake on power output and bench press bar velocity in athletes habitually consuming CAF. Methods: The study included 15 healthy strength-trained male athletes (age = 26.8 ± 6.2 years, body mass = 82.6 ± 9.7 kg; BMI = 24.8 ± 2.7; bench press 1RM = 122.3 ± 24.5 kg). All participants were habitual caffeine consumers (5.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg/b.m.; 426 ± 102 mg of caffeine per day). This study had a randomized, crossover, double-blind study design where each participant performed four different experimental sessions, with one week interval between each trial. In every experimental session participants performed bench press, three sets of five repetitions at 50% 1RM. The power output and bar velocity assessments under four different conditions: a placebo (PLAC), and three doses of caffeine ingestion: 3 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-3), 6 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-6) and 9 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-9). Results: The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The repeated measures ANOVA between PLAC and CAF-3; CAF-6; CAF-9 revealed no statistically significant differences in power output and velocity of the bar during the bench press exercise. A large effect size (ES) in mean power-output was found between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1 and 2. A large ES in peak power-output was found between PLAC and CAF-6 in Set 2, and between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1 and 2. A large ES in peak velocity was found between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1–3. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that acute doses of CAF before exercise does not have a significant effect on power output and bar velocity in a group of habitual caffeine users. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Acute Effects of an “Energy Drink” on Short-Term Maximal Performance, Reaction Times, Psychological and Physiological Parameters: Insights from a Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Counterbalanced Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050992 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The current study examined the relationships between the effects of consuming a caffeine-containing “energy drink” upon (i) short-term maximal performance, (ii) reaction times, and (iii) psychological factors (i.e., mood state, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective load) and on physiological parameters (i.e., [...] Read more.
The current study examined the relationships between the effects of consuming a caffeine-containing “energy drink” upon (i) short-term maximal performance, (ii) reaction times, and (iii) psychological factors (i.e., mood state, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective load) and on physiological parameters (i.e., blood pressure and blood glucose). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover design was implemented in this study. Nineteen male physical-education students (age: 21.2 ± 1.2 years; height: 1.76 ± 0.08 m; body-mass: 76.6 ± 12.6 kg) performed two test sessions: after drinking the “Red Bull’ beverage (RB) and after drinking a placebo (PL). One hour after ingestion of each drink, resting blood glucose and blood pressure were measured and the participants completed the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Then, after a 5-min warm-up, simple visual reaction time and handgrip force were measured, and the 30-s Wingate test was performed. Immediately after these tests, the RPE, blood glucose, and blood pressure were measured, and the affective load was calculated. Differences between treatments were assessed using two-way repeated measures analyses of variance and paired t-tests, as appropriate. Relationships between the test variables were assessed using Bland–Altman correlations. Significant (i) improvements in peak and mean power output, handgrip force, pre- and post-exercise blood glucose, blood pressure, and vigor and (ii) reductions in reaction times, depression, confusion, fatigue, anger, anxiety, RPE, and affective load scores were observed after RB compared to PL. There were significant correlations of (i) physical performances and reaction times with (ii) RPE, affective load, and pre- and post-exercise blood glucose levels. Gains in peak and mean power were significantly correlated with reductions in fatigue, anxiety (peak power only), and anger (mean power only). The reduction of reaction times was significantly correlated with decreases in confusion and anger and with increases in vigor. Handgrip force and reaction times were significantly correlated with pre- and post-exercise blood pressures. We conclude that RB ingestion has a positive effect on physical performance and reaction times. This effect is related to ergogenic responses in both psychological (i.e., RPE, affective load, and mood state) and physiological (i.e., blood glucose and blood pressure) domains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of High Peripubertal Caffeine Exposure on the Adrenal Gland in Immature Male and Female Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050951 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The consumption of high levels of dietary caffeine has increased in children and adolescents. Human and animal studies have shown that chronic intake of high doses of caffeine affects serum glucocorticoid levels. Given that glucocorticoids play a role in peripubertal organ growth and [...] Read more.
The consumption of high levels of dietary caffeine has increased in children and adolescents. Human and animal studies have shown that chronic intake of high doses of caffeine affects serum glucocorticoid levels. Given that glucocorticoids play a role in peripubertal organ growth and development, chronic high doses of caffeine during puberty might impair maturation of the adrenal glands. To evaluate any effects of caffeine exposure on growing adrenal glands, 22-day-old male (n = 30) and female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 30) were divided into three groups (n = 10/group); group 1 received tap water (control) and groups 2 and 3 received water containing 120 and 180 mg/kg/day caffeine, respectively, via gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, adrenal glands were weighed and processed for histological analysis. Relative adrenal weights increased in both groups of caffeine-fed males and females, whereas absolute weights were decreased in the females. In the female caffeine-fed groups the adrenal cortical areas resembled irregularly arranged cords and the medullary area was significantly increased, whereas no such effects were seen in the male rats. Our results indicate that the harmful effects of caffeine on the adrenal glands of immature rats differ between females and males. Although female rats seemed to be more susceptible to damage based on the changes in the microarchitecture of the adrenal glands, caffeine affected corticosterone production in both female and male rats. In addition, increased basal adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in caffeine-fed groups may reflect decreased cortical function. Therefore, caffeine may induce an endocrine imbalance that disturbs the establishment of the hypothalamo–pituitary adrenal axis during puberty, thereby leading to abnormal stress responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Caffeinated Gel Ingestion Enhances Jump Performance, Muscle Strength, and Power in Trained Men
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040937 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
We aimed to explore the effects of caffeinated gel ingestion on neuromuscular performance in resistance-trained men. The participants (n = 17; mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 23 ± 2 years, height 183 ± 5 cm, body mass 83 ± 11 kg) [...] Read more.
We aimed to explore the effects of caffeinated gel ingestion on neuromuscular performance in resistance-trained men. The participants (n = 17; mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 23 ± 2 years, height 183 ± 5 cm, body mass 83 ± 11 kg) completed two testing conditions that involved ingesting a caffeinated gel (300 mg of caffeine) or placebo. The testing outcomes included: (1) vertical jump height in the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); (2) knee extension and flexion peak torque and average power at angular velocities of 60°·s−1 and 180°·s−1; (3) barbell velocity in the bench press with loads corresponding to 50%, 75%, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM); and (4) peak power output in a test on a rowing ergometer. Compared to the placebo, caffeine improved: (1) SJ (p = 0.039; Cohen’s d effect size (d) = 0.18; +2.9%) and CMJ height (p = 0.011; d = 0.18; +3.3%); (2) peak torque and average power in the knee extensors at both angular velocities (d ranged from 0.21 to 0.37; percent change from +3.5% to +6.9%), peak torque (p = 0.034; d = 0.24; +4.6%), and average power (p = 0.015; d = 0.32; +6.7%) at 60°·s−1 in the knee flexors; (3) barbell velocity at 50% 1RM (p = 0.021; d = 0.33; +3.5%), 75% 1RM (p < 0.001; d = 0.42; +5.4%), and 90% 1RM (p < 0.001; d = 0.59, +12.0%). We conclude that the ingestion of caffeinated gels may acutely improve vertical jump performance, strength, and power in resistance-trained men. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Neonatal Anthropometric Parameters
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040806 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that may affect the normal course of pregnancy, therefore its intake during that time should not exceed 200 mg/day. The aim of this study was to evaluate caffeine intake among pregnant women from the Warsaw region. The study [...] Read more.
Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that may affect the normal course of pregnancy, therefore its intake during that time should not exceed 200 mg/day. The aim of this study was to evaluate caffeine intake among pregnant women from the Warsaw region. The study was conducted among 100 pregnant women who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw. Caffeine intake from coffee, tea, and energy drinks was measured using a questionnaire. Direct interviewing was used, with all interviews conducted by the same dietitian. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between caffeine intake and anthropometric measurements of the newborns. Mean caffeine intake among pregnant women was 68 ± 51 mg/day. Only 2% of the respondents exceeded the safe dose of 200 mg. Tea (mostly black) was the source of 63% of all caffeine. No relationships were found between caffeine intake and neonatal weight, length, or head and chest circumference (p > 0.05). Caffeine intake in our study population was relatively low and did not negatively affect fetal growth. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Challenging the Myth of Non-Response to the Ergogenic Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Exercise Performance
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040732 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The ergogenicity of caffeine on several exercise and sport situations is well-established. However, the extent of the ergogenic response to acute caffeine ingestion might greatly vary among individuals despite using the same dosage and timing. The existence of one or several individuals that [...] Read more.
The ergogenicity of caffeine on several exercise and sport situations is well-established. However, the extent of the ergogenic response to acute caffeine ingestion might greatly vary among individuals despite using the same dosage and timing. The existence of one or several individuals that obtained minimal ergogenic effects or even slightly ergolytic effects after caffeine intake (i.e., non-responders) has been reported in several previous investigations. Nevertheless, the concept non-responding to caffeine, in terms of physical performance, relies on investigations based on the measurement of one performance variable obtained once. Recently it has been suggested that correct identification of the individual ergogenic effect induced by caffeine intake requires the repeated measurement of physical performance in identical caffeine–placebo comparisons. In this communication, we present data from an investigation where the ergogenic effect of acute caffeine intake (3 mg/kg) was measured eight times over a placebo in the same individuals and under the same conditions by an incremental cycling test to volitional fatigue and an adapted version of the Wingate cycling test. The ergogenic response to caffeine varied from 9% to 1% among individuals, but all participants increased both cycling power in the incremental test and Wingate mean power at least three to eight times out of eight the caffeine–placebo comparisons. These data expand the suggestion of a minimal occurrence of caffeine non-responders because it shows that all individuals responded to caffeine when caffeine is compared to a placebo on multiple and repeated testing sessions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consumers’ Perceptions of Coffee Health Benefits and Motives for Coffee Consumption and Purchasing
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030653 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Coffee is popular worldwide and consumption is increasing, particularly in non-traditional markets. There is evidence that coffee consumption may have beneficial health effects. Consumers’ beliefs in the health benefits of coffee are unclear. The study aimed at analyzing consumers’ perceptions of coffee health [...] Read more.
Coffee is popular worldwide and consumption is increasing, particularly in non-traditional markets. There is evidence that coffee consumption may have beneficial health effects. Consumers’ beliefs in the health benefits of coffee are unclear. The study aimed at analyzing consumers’ perceptions of coffee health benefits, consumption and purchasing motives of coffee consumers with positive perceptions of coffee health benefits, and willingness to pay for coffee with associated health claims. Data were collected through a face-to-face survey with consumers, resulting in a convenience sample of 250 questionnaires valid for data elaboration. Results were elaborated with factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Findings revealed that a relevant minority of consumers believed that coffee could have positive health effects. The consumer with a positive perception of coffee health benefits is mostly male, young, works, is familiar with non-espresso-based coffee, consumes a limited amount of coffee (generally not for breakfast and often in social settings), and buys coffee at retail outlets. Consumers drink coffee for its energetic and therapeutic effects. Coffee consumption is still price-driven, but consumers are interested in purchasing coffee with associated health claims. There is the opportunity to improve the perception of coffee health benefits in consumers’ minds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urine Caffeine Concentration in Doping Control Samples from 2004 to 2015
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020286 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
The ergogenic effect of caffeine is well-established, but the extent of its consumption in sport is unknown at the present. The use of caffeine was considered “prohibited” until 2004, but this stimulant was moved from the List of Prohibited Substances to the Monitoring [...] Read more.
The ergogenic effect of caffeine is well-established, but the extent of its consumption in sport is unknown at the present. The use of caffeine was considered “prohibited” until 2004, but this stimulant was moved from the List of Prohibited Substances to the Monitoring Program of the World Anti-Doping Agency to control its use by monitoring urinary caffeine concentration after competition. However, there is no updated information about the change in the use of caffeine as the result of its inclusion in the Monitoring Program. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in urine caffeine concentration from 2004 to 2015. A total of 7488 urine samples obtained in official competitions held in Spain and corresponding to athletes competing in Olympic sports (2788 in 2004, 2543 in 2008, and 2157 in 2015) were analyzed for urine caffeine concentration. The percentage of samples with detectable caffeine (i.e., >0.1 μg/mL) increased from ~70.1%, in 2004–2008 to 75.7% in 2015. The median urine caffeine concentration in 2015 (0.85 μg/mL) was higher when compared to the median value obtained in 2004 (0.70 μg/mL; p < 0.05) and in 2008 (0.70 μg/mL; p < 0.05). The urine caffeine concentration significantly increased from 2004 to 2015 in aquatics, athletics, boxing, judo, football, weightlifting, and rowing (p < 0.05). However, the sports with the highest urine caffeine concentration in 2015 were cycling, athletics, and rowing. In summary, the concentration of caffeine in the urine samples obtained after competition in Olympic sports in Spain increased from 2004 to 2015, particularly in some disciplines. These data indicate that the use of caffeine has slightly increased since its removal from the list of banned substances, but urine caffeine concentrations suggest that the use of caffeine is moderate in most sport specialties. Athletes of individual sports or athletes of sports with an aerobic-like nature are more prone to using caffeine in competition. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effect of Caffeine Supplementation on Sports Performance Based on Differences Between Sexes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102313 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Most studies that have shown the positive effects of caffeine supplementation on sports performance have been carried out on men. However, the differences between sexes are evident in terms of body size, body composition, and hormonal functioning, which might cause different outcomes on [...] Read more.
Most studies that have shown the positive effects of caffeine supplementation on sports performance have been carried out on men. However, the differences between sexes are evident in terms of body size, body composition, and hormonal functioning, which might cause different outcomes on performance for the same dosage of caffeine intake in men vs. women. The main aim of this systematic review was to analyze and compare the effects of caffeine intake between men and women on sports performance to provide a source of knowledge to sports practitioners and coaches, especially for those working with women athletes, on the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid. A structured search was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases until 28 July 2019. The search included studies in which the effects of caffeine supplementation on athletic performance were compared between sexes and to an identical placebo situation (dose, duration and timing). No filters were applied for participants’ physical fitness level or age. A total of 254 articles were obtained in the initial search. When applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final sample was 10 articles. The systematic review concluded that four investigations (100% of the number of investigations on this topic) had not found differences between sexes in terms of caffeine supplementation on aerobic performance and 3/3 (100%) on the fatigue index. However, four out of seven articles (57.1%) showed that the ergogenicity of caffeine for anaerobic performance was higher in men than women. In particular, it seems that men are able to produce more power, greater total weight lifted and more speed with the same dose of caffeine than women. In summary, caffeine supplementation produced a similar ergogenic benefit for aerobic performance and the fatigue index in men and women athletes. Nevertheless, the effects of caffeine to produce more power, total weight lifted and to improve sprint performance with respect to a placebo was higher in men than women athletes despite the same dose of caffeine being administered. Thus, the ergogenic effect of acute caffeine intake on anaerobic performance might be higher in men than in women. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Caffeine Supplementation and Physical Performance, Muscle Damage and Perception of Fatigue in Soccer Players: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020440 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Soccer is a complex team sport and success in this discipline depends on different factors such as physical fitness, player technique and team tactics, among others. In the last few years, several studies have described the impact of caffeine intake on soccer physical [...] Read more.
Soccer is a complex team sport and success in this discipline depends on different factors such as physical fitness, player technique and team tactics, among others. In the last few years, several studies have described the impact of caffeine intake on soccer physical performance, but the results of these investigations have not been properly reviewed and summarized. The main objective of this review was to evaluate critically the effectiveness of a moderate dose of caffeine on soccer physical performance. A structured search was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the Medline/PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 2007 to November 2018. The search included studies with a cross-over and randomized experimental design in which the intake of caffeine (either from caffeinated drinks or pills) was compared to an identical placebo situation. There were no filters applied to the soccer players’ level, gender or age. This review included 17 articles that investigated the effects of caffeine on soccer-specific abilities (n = 12) or on muscle damage (n = 5). The review concluded that 5 investigations (100% of the number of investigations on this topic) had found ergogenic effects of caffeine on jump performance, 4 (100%) on repeated sprint ability and 2 (100%) on running distance during a simulated soccer game. However, only 1 investigation (25%) found as an effect of caffeine to increase serum markers of muscle damage, while no investigation reported an effect of caffeine to reduce perceived fatigue after soccer practice. In conclusion, a single and moderate dose of caffeine, ingested 5–60 min before a soccer practice, might produce valuable improvements in certain abilities related to enhanced soccer physical performance. However, caffeine does not seem to cause increased markers of muscle damage or changes in perceived exertion during soccer practice. Full article
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Other

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Wilk et al. “The Effects of High Doses of Caffeine on Maximal Strength and Muscular Endurance in Athletes Habituated to Caffeine” Nutrients, 2019, 11(8), 1912
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112660 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The authors wish to make a correction to the published version of their paper [...] Full article
Open AccessDiscussion
Coffee Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030694 - 24 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Coffee is a blend of compounds related to gastrointestinal physiology. Given its popularity and the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the impact of this beverage on public health could be considerable. Our aim was to provide an updated synthesis of the relationship between coffee [...] Read more.
Coffee is a blend of compounds related to gastrointestinal physiology. Given its popularity and the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the impact of this beverage on public health could be considerable. Our aim was to provide an updated synthesis of the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 26 prospective studies. Regarding colorectal cancer, no significant relationship was detected. Stratifying for ethnicity, a protective effect emerged in US subjects. Concerning colon cancer, coffee proved to exert a protective effect in men and women combined and in men alone. Stratifying for ethnicity, a significant protective effect was noted in European men only and in Asian women only. Concerning rectal cancer, no association was found. Decaffeinated coffee exhibited a protective effect against colorectal cancer in men and women combined. Studies were appraised for their quality by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Cohort studies. Only one study proved to be of low quality. Ethnicity could explain the heterogeneity of the studies. However, little is known about the relationship between the genetic make-up and the risk of colorectal cancer associated with coffee. Further research is warranted. Full article
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