Special Issue "Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Igor Sergeev
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Interests: vitamin D; calcium; bioactive food components; nutrient regulation of apoptosis; vitamin D, calcium, and bioactives in the prevention of obesity and cancer; vitamin D and cell calcium
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue on the role of vitamin D in health and disease. Vitamin D is essential for regulating a number of cellular and organismal functions. Mechanistic molecular, biochemical, cellular, and animal studies, epidemiological analyses, and clinical trials have linked vitamin D to various diseases and presented a possibility that vitamin D is required for maintaining good health throughout life. The definition of vitamin D status as deficient, sufficient, and optimal is actively debated. Physicians, dieticians, and other health professionals receive contradictory messages regarding optimal vitamin D status, vitamin D deficiency and toxicity, and the necessity of evaluating blood levels of vitamin D and promoting vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D dietary requirements, food fortification, and regulatory issues are reevaluated by government agencies, which are under pressure to increase the recommended dietary vitamin D intake. Vitamin D analogues for treatment of various diseases have been clinically approved or are under development. These considerations warrant a Special Issue on vitamin D to include emerging basic and applied research and make an attempt to resolve controversial issues. Manuscripts presenting basic, applied, and clinical research, observational, and meta-analysis studies, and analytical reviews in the vitamin D area are encouraged for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Igor Sergeev
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Vitamin D status
  • Vitamin D and health
  • Vitamin D and disease
  • Vitamin D functions
  • Vitamin D requirements
  • Vitamin D mechanism of action
  • Vitamin D analogues

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency in the Rat Impairs Recognition Memory, but Has No Effect on Social Approach or Hedonia
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112713 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia. In rodents we show that DVD-deficiency alters brain development and produces behavioral phenotypes in the offspring of relevance to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aims of this study are to examine [...] Read more.
Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia. In rodents we show that DVD-deficiency alters brain development and produces behavioral phenotypes in the offspring of relevance to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aims of this study are to examine behavioral phenotypes specific to the cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in this model, and to vary the duration of vitamin D deficiency during gestation and beyond birth. We hypothesize that a longer duration of DVD-deficiency would result in greater behavioral impairments. Female vitamin D-deficient Sprague Dawley dams were mated at 10 weeks of age. Dietary vitamin D was reintroduced to dams and/or pups at different developmental time-points: Conception, Birth, Post-natal day (PND) 6 and PND21. Adult male and female offspring were assessed on a battery of behavioral tests, including sucrose preference, open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social approach and social novelty. We find that all windows of DVD-deficiency impaired NOR a cognitive measure that requires intact recognition memory. Sucrose consumption, social approach and social memory negative symptom-like phenotypes were unaffected by any maternal dietary manipulation. In addition, contrary to our hypothesis, we find that rats in the Conception group, that is the shortest duration of vitamin D deficiency, demonstrate increased locomotor activity, and decreased interaction time with novel objects. These findings have implications for the increasing number of studies examining the preclinical consequences of maternal vitamin D deficiency, and continue to suggest that adequate levels of maternal vitamin D are required for normal brain development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Early Rehabilitation Program and Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Sensitivity of Balance and the Postural Control in Patients after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092202 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
Background: The introduction of early rehabilitation exercise is the foundation of treatment post-Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery, and the search for additional sources of reinforcement physiotherapy seems to be very important. Methods: The patients were randomly divided into the vitamin D3 ( [...] Read more.
Background: The introduction of early rehabilitation exercise is the foundation of treatment post-Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery, and the search for additional sources of reinforcement physiotherapy seems to be very important. Methods: The patients were randomly divided into the vitamin D3 (n = 15; D3) supplemented group and received 3200 IU per day for five weeks before surgery and the placebo group (n = 18; Pl) received vegetable oil during the same time. The patients began the supervisor rehabilitation program four weeks after surgery. Results: The limits of stability (LOS) were significantly improved in the D3 group after 5 and 14 weeks (p < 0.05), while in the Pl group, progress was only observed after 14 weeks (p < 0.05). The LOS were also higher in the D3 group than in the Pl group after five weeks of supervised rehabilitation (p < 0.05). In the postural stability (PST) test, significant progress was observed in the D3 group after 14 weeks (p < 0.02). In addition, neither rehabilitation nor supplementation had significant effects on the risk of falls (RFT). Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation seems to ameliorate the effects of an early postoperative rehabilitation program implemented four weeks after posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Early physiotherapy treatment after PLIF surgery combined with vitamin D supplementation appears to be a very important combination with regard to the patients’ recovery process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Modulates the Response of Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Extract
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092138 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the bronchial epithelium is the first immune barrier that is triggered by cigarette smoke. Although vitamin D (vitD) has proven anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects in alveolar macrophages, little is known about the direct role of vitD on [...] Read more.
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the bronchial epithelium is the first immune barrier that is triggered by cigarette smoke. Although vitamin D (vitD) has proven anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects in alveolar macrophages, little is known about the direct role of vitD on cigarette smoke-exposed bronchial epithelial cells. We examined the effects of vitD on a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) and on air–liquid culture of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) of COPD patients and controls exposed for 24 h to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). VitD decreased CSE-induced IL-8 secretion by 16HBE cells, but not by PBEC. VitD significantly increased the expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in 16HBE and PBEC of both COPD subjects and controls. VitD did not affect epithelial to mesenchymal transition or epithelial MMP-9 expression and was not able to restore impaired wound healing by CSE in 16HBE cells. VitD increased the expression of its own catabolic enzyme CYP24A1 thereby maintaining its negative feedback. In conclusion, vitD supplementation may potentially reduce infectious exacerbations in COPD by the upregulation of cathelicidin in the bronchial epithelium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and 25-Hydroxivitamin D and Related Analytes among Hispanic/Latino Adults: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081959 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
Although the association of vitamin D levels with cardiovascular risk profiles among Hispanics/Latinos has been studied, little is known about this association among Hispanics/Latinos with chronic conditions. This pilot study determined serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in a sample of [...] Read more.
Although the association of vitamin D levels with cardiovascular risk profiles among Hispanics/Latinos has been studied, little is known about this association among Hispanics/Latinos with chronic conditions. This pilot study determined serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in a sample of participants from the University of Illinois at the Chicago Cohort of Patients, Family and Friends (UIC Cohort) and examined their association with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. From July 2012 to June 2016, the UIC Cohort study enrolled and conducted clinical examinations on men and women ages 18 years and older, who had one or more diagnosed chronic diseases/conditions (excluding cancer). This pilot study sample included 40 participants from the six main Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States, namely Dominican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Central American, and South American, and were grouped by Caribbean or mainland origin. No substantial differences were noted in the vitamin D-related measures by Hispanic/Latino background, but the PTH levels were somewhat higher in the Caribbean vs. mainland group (43.0 ± 4.6 vs. 38.6 ± 2.7 pg/mL). The associations between selected CVD risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), total cholesterol, glucose) and PTH and vitamin D-related analytes were investigated using interval-censored multivariate regression models adjusted for age, sex, percent body fat, serum albumin/calcium, and Hispanic/Latino background. A negative association between total 25[OH]D and blood pressure was corroborated (SBP: β = −1.2, 95%CI = −2.0, −0.3; DBP: β = −0.7, 95% CI = −1.2, −0.1), whereas a positive association with total cholesterol was observed (β = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.02, 3.7). Levels of 1, 25[OH]2D were not associated with CVD risk factors, whereas 24, 25[OH]2D3 was associated with blood pressure (SBP: β = −13.0, 95% CI = −20.7, −5.2; DBP: β = −6.3, 95% CI = −11.6, −1.0). Estimated free 25[OH]D was inversely associated with both SBP (β = −3.5, 95% CI = −6.1, −0.9) and DBP (β = −2.1, 95% CI = −3.8, −0.3). Similarly, calculated bioavailable 25[OH]D was inversely associated with both SBP (β = −9.2, 95% CI = −15.9, −2.4) and DBP(β = −5.3, 95% CI = −9.8, −0.8). In conclusion, a negative association between 25[OH]D with BP was observed and a positive association with lipids is suggested. Due to the small sample size, most associations did not reach statistical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D-Related Genes, Blood Vitamin D Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Western European Populations
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081954 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well [...] Read more.
Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the VDR, GC, and CYP27B1 genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (LRP2, CUBN, NCOA7, and HDAC9). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini–Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling was associated with CRC risk (P ≤ 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being SMAD7 (PBH = 0.008) and SMAD3 (PBH = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites (P = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction P = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors in Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081894 - 14 Aug 2019
Abstract
Vitamin D might play a role in metabolic processes and obesity. We therefore examined vitamin D effects on metabolic markers and obesity in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT, a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled [...] Read more.
Vitamin D might play a role in metabolic processes and obesity. We therefore examined vitamin D effects on metabolic markers and obesity in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT, a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. We included 200 healthy men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels <75 nmol/L. Subjects received 20,000 IU of vitamin D3/week (n = 100) or placebo (n = 100) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures were metabolic markers, anthropometric measures, and body composition assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. One-hundred and ninety-two men completed the study. We found a significant treatment effect on fasting glucose/fasting insulin ratio (−5.3 (−10.4 to −0.2), p = 0.040), whereas we observed no significant effect on the remaining outcome parameters. In subgroup analyses of men with baseline 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L (n = 80), we found a significant effect on waist circumference (1.6 (0.3 to 2.9) cm, p = 0.012), waist-to-hip ratio (0.019 (0.002 to 0.036), p = 0.031), total body fat (0.029 (0.004 to 0.055) %, p = 0.026), and android fat (1.18 (0.11 to 2.26) %, p = 0.010). In middle-aged healthy men, vitamin D treatment had a negative effect on insulin sensitivity. In vitamin D deficient men, vitamin D has an unfavorable effect on central obesity and body composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Supplementation and Post-Stroke Rehabilitation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061295 - 07 Jun 2019
Abstract
Low vitamin D levels are associated with poorer outcomes after stroke. However, it is not clear whether post-stroke vitamin D supplementation can improve these outcomes. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on outcomes in hospitalized patients undergoing rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Low vitamin D levels are associated with poorer outcomes after stroke. However, it is not clear whether post-stroke vitamin D supplementation can improve these outcomes. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on outcomes in hospitalized patients undergoing rehabilitation after acute stroke. A multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial was conducted from January 2012 through July 2017. One hundred patients admitted to a convalescent rehabilitation ward after having an acute stroke were randomized, and each one received either vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) or a placebo. The primary outcome was a gain in the Barthel Index scores at week 8. Secondary outcomes were seen in Barthel Index efficiency, hand grip strength, and calf circumference at week 8. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics between the groups. The mean (±standard deviation) gain in the Barthel Index score was 19.0 ± 14.8 in the supplementation group and 19.5 ± 13.1 in the placebo group (p = 0.88). The Barthel Index efficiency was 0.32 ± 0.31 in the supplementation group and 0.28 ± 0.21 in the placebo group (p = 0.38). There were no between-group differences in the other secondary outcomes. Our findings suggest that oral vitamin D3 supplementation does not improve rehabilitation outcomes after acute stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency Produces Behavioral Phenotypes of Relevance to Autism in an Animal Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051187 - 27 May 2019
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests that gestational or developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, lack of verbal and non-verbal communications, stereotyped repetitive behaviors and [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests that gestational or developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, lack of verbal and non-verbal communications, stereotyped repetitive behaviors and hyper-activities. There are several other clinical features that are commonly comorbid with ASD, including olfactory impairments, anxiety and delays in motor development. Here we investigate these features in an animal model related to ASD—the DVD-deficient rat. Compared to controls, both DVD-deficient male and female pups show altered ultrasonic vocalizations and stereotyped repetitive behavior. Further, the DVD-deficient animals had delayed motor development and impaired motor control. Adolescent DVD-deficient animals had impaired reciprocal social interaction, while as adults, these animals were hyperactive. The DVD-deficient model is associated with a range of behavioral features of interest to ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Name: Michael Danilenko
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Biochemistry & Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Topic: Comparison of plasma vitamin D levels and VDR gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of leukemia patients and healthy subjects in Central Kazakhstan: a single-center experience  

Name: Jette Jakobsen
Affiliation: National Food Institute, Technical university of Denmark, Denmark
Topic: Vitamin D in our food – in the future

Name: Enikö Kallay
Affiliation: Dept. Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology & Immunology, Medical Univ. Vienna. Austria
Topic: Impact of CYP24A1 expression on vitamin D signaling in ovarian cancer cells

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