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Special Issue "Dietary Fiber and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Anne Nilsson

Lund University, Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: diet interventions in healthy subjects; dietary prevention; dietary fiber; whole grain; cardiometabolic risk-related markers; incretins; colonic fermentation; relation between the diet, cardiometabolic risk markers, and cognitive functions
Guest Editor
Dr. Juscelino Tovar

Dep. of Food Technology, engineering and Nutrition, Lund University
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Guest Editor
Prof. Margareta Nyman

Dep. of Food Technology, engineering and Nutrition, Lund University
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue on “Dietary Fiber and Human Health” deals with the potential health effects of dietary fiber with respect to cardiometabolic risk. The effects of dietary fiber (DF) may be investigated on isolated supplements to the diet, or as endogenous DF included in the normal food matrix, for example, whole grain. The issue addresses both physiological effects linked to upper gastrointestinal mechanisms and mechanisms related to colonic fermentation of DF, involving gut microbiota composition and effects of colonic fermentation derived metabolites.  

This Special Issue welcomes original research articles based on acute, short term or long term interventions in healthy adults, addressing effects of DF on cardiometabolic risk-related markers, as well as studies performed in murine models. It also welcomes systematic reviews or meta analyses of health-related effects of dietary fiber in humans.

Assoc. Prof. Anne Nilsson
Dr. Juscelino Tovar
Prof. Margareta Nyman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary fiber
  • Diet interventions
  • Cardiometabolic risk-related markers
  • Colonic fermentation
  • Murine models

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation of High Dietary Fiber and Antioxidant-Rich Mango (Mangifera indica L.) “Ataulfo”-Based Fruit Bars
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071564
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit which is considered to be a source of dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic compounds (PCs). In this study, high DF mango-based fruit bars were developed from whole mango (peel and pulp). The bars were [...] Read more.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit which is considered to be a source of dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic compounds (PCs). In this study, high DF mango-based fruit bars were developed from whole mango (peel and pulp). The bars were evaluated for their nutritional composition, the bioaccesibility of PCs during gastrointestinal digestion, and the PCs metabolites profile after in vitro colonic fermentation. The amount of DF in a 30 g portion of mango bars was 9.5 g, i.e., 35% of the recommended daily intake. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid; cinnamic acids, such as ferulic, coumaric, and caffeic acids; flavonoids such as quercertin; and xanthones such as mangiferin and mangiferin gallate, were identified as the main PCs in the bars. The antioxidant capacity associated with the PCs profile, together with the high DF content are indicative of the potential functional features of these natural fruit bars. The bioaccesibility of PCs in the mango bar was 53.78%. During fermentation, the PCs were bioconverted mainly to hydroxyphenolic acids and the main short-chain fatty acid produced was acetic acid. The xanthone norathyriol was identified after 12 h of fermentation. This study on the digestion and colonic fermentation of mango-based bars using in vitro models provides hints of the potential physiological behavior of PCs associated with DF, which constitutes relevant information for further development of natural and health-promoting fruit-based bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Pectin Supplementation on Intestinal Barrier Function in Healthy Young Adults and Healthy Elderly
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071554
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Intestinal barrier function is suggested to decrease with aging and may be improved by pectin intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four weeks pectin supplementation on gastrointestinal barrier function in vivo and ex vivo in different age [...] Read more.
Intestinal barrier function is suggested to decrease with aging and may be improved by pectin intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four weeks pectin supplementation on gastrointestinal barrier function in vivo and ex vivo in different age groups. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study, 52 healthy young adults (18–40 years) and 48 healthy elderly (65–75 years) received 15 g/day pectin or placebo for four weeks. Pre- and post-intervention, in vivo gastrointestinal permeability by a multisugar test, and defense capacity in mucosal samples were assessed. Sigmoid biopsies were collected post-intervention from subgroups for Ussing chamber experiments and gene transcription of barrier-related genes. Pectin intervention did not affect in vivo gastroduodenal, small intestinal, colonic, and whole gut permeability in young adults nor in elderly (p ≥ 0.130). Salivary and fecal sIgA and serum IgA were not significantly different between pectin versus placebo in both age groups (p ≥ 0.128). In both young adults and elderly, no differences in transepithelial electrical resistance and fluorescein flux (p ≥ 0.164) and relative expression of genes analyzed (p ≥ 0.222) were found between pectin versus placebo. In conclusion, intestinal barrier function was not affected by four weeks pectin supplementation neither in healthy young adults nor in healthy elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
In Vitro Interactions of Dietary Fibre Enriched Food Ingredients with Primary and Secondary Bile Acids
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061424
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Dietary fibres are reported to interact with bile acids, preventing their reabsorption and promoting their excretion into the colon. We used a method based on in vitro digestion, dialysis, and kinetic analysis to investigate how dietary fibre enriched food ingredients affect the release [...] Read more.
Dietary fibres are reported to interact with bile acids, preventing their reabsorption and promoting their excretion into the colon. We used a method based on in vitro digestion, dialysis, and kinetic analysis to investigate how dietary fibre enriched food ingredients affect the release of primary and secondary bile acids as related to viscosity and adsorption. As the main bile acids abundant in humans interactions with glyco- and tauroconjugated cholic acid, chenodesoxycholic acid and desoxycholic acid were analysed. Viscous interactions were detected for apple, barley, citrus, lupin, pea, and potato derived ingredients, which slowed the bile acid release rate by up to 80%. Adsorptive interactions of up to 4.7 μmol/100 mg DM were significant in barley, oat, lupin, and maize preparations. As adsorption directly correlated to the hydrophobicity of the bile acids the hypothesis of a hydrophobic linkage between bile acids and dietary fibre is supported. Delayed diffusion in viscous fibre matrices was further associated with the micellar properties of the bile acids. As our results indicate changes in the bile acid pool size and composition due to interactions with dietary fibre rich ingredients, the presented method and results could add to recent fields of bile acid research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Fiber in Bilberry Ameliorates Pre-Obesity Events in Rats by Regulating Lipid Depot, Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid Formation and Microbiota Composition
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061350
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors associated to metabolic syndrome. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) that contains easily fermentable fiber may strengthen the intestinal barrier function, attenuate inflammation and modulate gut microbiota composition, thereby prevent obesity development. In [...] Read more.
Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors associated to metabolic syndrome. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) that contains easily fermentable fiber may strengthen the intestinal barrier function, attenuate inflammation and modulate gut microbiota composition, thereby prevent obesity development. In the current study, liver lipid metabolism, fat depot, cecal and serum short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiome were evaluated in rats fed bilberries in a high-fat (HFD + BB) or low-fat (LFD + BB) setting for 8 weeks and compared with diets containing equal amount of fiber resistant to fermentation (cellulose, HFD and LFD). HFD fed rats did not obtain an obese phenotype but underwent pre-obesity events including increased liver index, lipid accumulation and increased serum cholesterol levels. This was linked to shifts of cecal bacterial community and reduction of major SCFAs. Bilberry inclusion improved liver metabolism and serum lipid levels. Bilberry inclusion under either LFD or HFD, maintained microbiota homeostasis, stimulated interscapular-brown adipose tissue depot associated with increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1; enhanced SCFAs in the cecum and circulation; and promoted butyric acid and butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings suggest that bilberry may serve as a preventative dietary measure to optimize microbiome and associated lipid metabolism during or prior to HFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Degree of Polymerization of Fructans on Ex Vivo Fermented Human Gut Microbiome
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061293
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
Prebiotic supplements are used to promote gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria. The aim of this study was to compare the potential prebiotic effects of fructans with increasing degrees of polymerization, namely fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulins with a low and high polymerization degree [...] Read more.
Prebiotic supplements are used to promote gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria. The aim of this study was to compare the potential prebiotic effects of fructans with increasing degrees of polymerization, namely fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulins with a low and high polymerization degree (LPDI and HPDI, respectively), using an ex vivo fermentation system to simulate the colonic environment. The system was inoculated with pooled feces from three healthy donors with the same baseline enterotype. Changes in microbiota composition were measured by 16S metagenomic sequencing after 2, 7, and 14 days of fermentation, and acid production was measured throughout the experiment. Alpha-diversity decreased upon inoculation of the ex vivo fermentation under all treatments. Composition changed significantly across both treatments and time (ANOSIM p < 0.005 for both factors). HPDI and LPDI seemed to be similar to each other regarding composition and acidification activity, but different from the control and FOS. FOS differed from the control in terms of composition but not acidification. HDPI restored alpha-diversity on day 14 as compared to the control (Bonferroni p < 0.05). In conclusion, the prebiotic activity of fructans appears to depend on the degree of polymerization, with LPDI and especially HPDI having a greater effect than FOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Whole Grain Intake and Body Weight: Results of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061245
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Results from some observational studies suggest that higher whole grain (WG) intake is associated with lower risk of weight gain. Ovid Medline was used to conduct a literature search for observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing WG food intake and weight [...] Read more.
Results from some observational studies suggest that higher whole grain (WG) intake is associated with lower risk of weight gain. Ovid Medline was used to conduct a literature search for observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing WG food intake and weight status in adults. A meta-regression analysis of cross-sectional data from 12 observational studies (136,834 subjects) and a meta-analysis of nine RCTs (973 subjects) was conducted; six prospective cohort publications were qualitatively reviewed. Cross-sectional data meta-regression results indicate a significant, inverse correlation between WG intake and body mass index (BMI): weighted slope, −0.0141 kg/m2 per g/day of WG intake (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.0207, −0.0077; r = −0.526, p = 0.0001). Prospective cohort results generally showed inverse associations between WG intake and weight change with typical follow-up periods of five to 20 years. RCT meta-analysis results show a nonsignificant pooled standardized effect size of −0.049 kg (95% CI −0.297, 0.199, p = 0.698) for mean difference in weight change (WG versus control interventions). Higher WG intake is significantly inversely associated with BMI in observational studies but not RCTs up to 16 weeks in length; RCTs with longer intervention periods are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Whole Grain Products Consumption and Successful Aging: A Combined Analysis of MEDIS and ATTICA Epidemiological Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061221
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
The quality of carbohydrates in the diet, including whole grains, matters greatly to health. There is emerging evidence supporting various protective effects from whole grain consumption against certain chronic diseases. However, being free of disease is not a requirement for healthy ageing, as [...] Read more.
The quality of carbohydrates in the diet, including whole grains, matters greatly to health. There is emerging evidence supporting various protective effects from whole grain consumption against certain chronic diseases. However, being free of disease is not a requirement for healthy ageing, as many older adults have one or more health conditions but, when well controlled, have little influence on their wellbeing. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between whole grain consumption on successful aging, through an analysis of a sample of n = 3349, over-50-years-old men and women participating in the ATTICA and MEDIS population-based cross-sectional studies. Successful aging was evaluated using the validated successful aging index (SAI, range 0–10) comprising of health-related social, lifestyle and clinical components. High whole grain intake was positively associated with SAI as compared with low (b ± SE: 0.278 ± 0.091, p = 0.002), whereas no significant associations were observed between moderate whole grain consumption and SAI (p > 0.05). Increased whole grain intake has been associated with several health benefits, and, as is shown here, with higher successful aging levels. Therefore, consumption of whole grains should be encouraged, especially by replacing refined grains, without increasing total energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Hepatoprotective Potential of Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Vitro and Vivo
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050963
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
Natural polysaccharides, particularly galactomannans, are potential candidates for treatment of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). However, applications are restricted due to the physicochemical properties associated with the high molecular weight. In this work, guar gum galactomannans were partially hydrolyzed by β-mannanase, and the molecular [...] Read more.
Natural polysaccharides, particularly galactomannans, are potential candidates for treatment of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). However, applications are restricted due to the physicochemical properties associated with the high molecular weight. In this work, guar gum galactomannans were partially hydrolyzed by β-mannanase, and the molecular mechanisms of hepatoprotective effects were elucidated both in vitro and in vivo. Release of lactate dehydrogenase and cytochrome C were attenuated by partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in HepG2 cells, due to protected cell and mitochondrial membrane integrity. PHGG co-administration decreased serum amino transaminases and cholinesterase levels of acute alcohol intoxicated mice, while hepatic pathologic morphology was depleted. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was recovered to 198.2, 34.5, 236.0 U/mg protein, respectively, while malondialdehyde level was decreased by 76.3% (PHGG, 1000 mg/kg∙day). Co-administration of PHGG induced a 4.4-fold increment of p-AMPK expression, and lipid metabolism was mediated. PHGG alleviated toll-like-receptor-4-mediated inflammation via the signaling cascade of MyD88 and IκBα, decreasing cytokine production. Moreover, mediated expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was responsible for inhibited acute alcohol-induced apoptosis with suppressed cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP. Findings gained suggest that PHGG can be used as functional food supplement for the treatment of acute alcohol-induced liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Short Chain Fatty Acid Production from Mycoprotein and Mycoprotein Fibre in an In Vitro Fermentation Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040800
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Dietary mycoprotein (marketed as QuornTM) has many health benefits, including reductions in energy intake. The majority of studies evaluating mycoprotein focus on the protein content and very few consider the fibre content. Fibre consumption is also associated with decreased energy intake, [...] Read more.
Dietary mycoprotein (marketed as QuornTM) has many health benefits, including reductions in energy intake. The majority of studies evaluating mycoprotein focus on the protein content and very few consider the fibre content. Fibre consumption is also associated with decreased energy intake, which is partly attributed to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from fibre fermentation by colonic bacteria. To study the SCFA-producing capability of mycoprotein, in vitro batch fermentations were conducted, and SCFA production compared with that from extracted mycoprotein fibre, oligofructose (OF), rhamnose, and laminarin. Mycoprotein and mycoprotein fibre were both fermentable, resulting in a total SCFA production of 24.9 (1.7) and 61.2 (15.7) mmol/L, respectively. OF led to a significantly higher proportion of acetate compared to all other substrates tested (92.6 (2.8)%, p < 0.01). Rhamnose generated the highest proportion of propionate (45.3 (2.0)%, p < 0.01), although mycoprotein and mycoprotein fibre yielded a higher proportion of propionate compared with OF and laminarin. Butyrate proportion was the highest with laminarin (28.0 (10.0)% although mycoprotein fibre led to a significantly higher proportion than OF (p < 0.01). Mycoprotein is a valuable source of dietary protein, but its fibre content is also of interest. Further evaluation of the potential roles of the fibre content of mycoprotein is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Wheat Bran on Fecal Butyrate-Producing Bacteria and Wheat Bran Combined with Barley on Bacteroides Abundance in Japanese Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121980
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Wheat bran (WB) is rich in insoluble arabinoxylan, while BARLEYmax (BM) is a barley line that is rich in fructan, resistant starch, and β-glucan. In the present study, we investigated which of these two fiber sources would produce more favorable changes in the [...] Read more.
Wheat bran (WB) is rich in insoluble arabinoxylan, while BARLEYmax (BM) is a barley line that is rich in fructan, resistant starch, and β-glucan. In the present study, we investigated which of these two fiber sources would produce more favorable changes in the fecal variables of healthy subjects. Sixty healthy subjects were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15 per group) and fed twice daily for 4 weeks with baked cereal bars containing neither WB nor BM (WB−BM−), WB without BM (WB+BM−), BM without WB (WB−BM+), or WB and BM (WB+BM+). At baseline and after 4 weeks, the fecal microbiota composition and the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were measured. A significant interactive effect of WB and BM on the abundance of genus Bacteroides was observed at week 4. The abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and the fecal concentration of n-butyrate were significantly higher in the WB+ groups than in the WB− groups. In conclusion, WB was associated with elevated fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids including butyrate owing to an increase in the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, the combination of WB and BM was associated with an increase in the abundance of genus Bacteroides. Therefore, both WB alone and WB combined with BM favorably influenced the fecal variables of healthy subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Short-Chain Fatty Acid Acetate in Body Weight Control and Insulin Sensitivity
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081943
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
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Abstract
The interplay of gut microbiota, host metabolism, and metabolic health has gained increased attention. Gut microbiota may play a regulatory role in gastrointestinal health, substrate metabolism, and peripheral tissues including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreas via its metabolites short-chain fatty acids [...] Read more.
The interplay of gut microbiota, host metabolism, and metabolic health has gained increased attention. Gut microbiota may play a regulatory role in gastrointestinal health, substrate metabolism, and peripheral tissues including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreas via its metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Animal and human data demonstrated that, in particular, acetate beneficially affects host energy and substrate metabolism via secretion of the gut hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY, which, thereby, affects appetite, via a reduction in whole-body lipolysis, systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and via an increase in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Thus, potential therapies to increase gut microbial fermentation and acetate production have been under vigorous scientific scrutiny. In this review, the relevance of the colonically and systemically most abundant SCFA acetate and its effects on the previously mentioned tissues will be discussed in relation to body weight control and glucose homeostasis. We discuss in detail the differential effects of oral acetate administration (vinegar intake), colonic acetate infusions, acetogenic fiber, and acetogenic probiotic administrations as approaches to combat obesity and comorbidities. Notably, human data are scarce, which highlights the necessity for further human research to investigate acetate’s role in host physiology, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Metabolic Effects of Resistant Starch Type 2: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081833
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
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Abstract
Published evidence exploring the effects of dietary resistant starch (RS) on human cardiometabolic health is inconsistent. This review aimed to investigate the effect of dietary RS type 2 (RS2) supplementation on body weight, satiety ratings, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance [...] Read more.
Published evidence exploring the effects of dietary resistant starch (RS) on human cardiometabolic health is inconsistent. This review aimed to investigate the effect of dietary RS type 2 (RS2) supplementation on body weight, satiety ratings, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance and lipid levels in healthy individuals and those with overweight/obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS), prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Five electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between 1982 and 2018, with trials eligible for inclusion if they reported RCTs involving humans where at least one group consumed ≥ 8 g of RS2 per day and measured body weight, satiety, glucose and/or lipid metabolic outcomes. Twenty-two RCTs involving 670 participants were included. Meta-analyses indicated that RS2 supplementation significantly reduced serum triacylglycerol concentrations (mean difference (MD) = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI −0.19, −0.01, P = 0.03) in healthy individuals (n = 269) and reduced body weight (MD = −1.29 kg; 95% CI −2.40, −0.17, P = 0.02) in people with T2DM (n = 90). However, these outcomes were heavily influenced by positive results from a small number of individual studies which contradicted the conclusions of the majority of trials. RS2 had no effects on any other metabolic outcomes. All studies ranged from 1–12 weeks in duration and contained small sample sizes (10–60 participants), and most had an unclear risk of bias. Short-term RS2 supplementation in humans is of limited cardiometabolic benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Cereal B-Glucans: The Impact of Processing and How It Affects Physiological Responses
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081729
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
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Abstract
Cereal β-glucans are dietary fibres primarily found in oats and barley, and have several positive effects on health, including lowering the postprandial glucose response and the improvement of blood cholesterol levels. Cereal β-glucans have a specific combination of β-(1→4) and β-(1→3) linkages into [...] Read more.
Cereal β-glucans are dietary fibres primarily found in oats and barley, and have several positive effects on health, including lowering the postprandial glucose response and the improvement of blood cholesterol levels. Cereal β-glucans have a specific combination of β-(1→4) and β-(1→3) linkages into linear long-chain polysaccharides of high molecular weight. Due to their particular structure, cereal β-glucans generate viscosity within the intestinal tract, which is thought to be the main mechanism of action responsible for their positive health effects. However, cereal grains are rarely consumed raw; at least one cooking step is generally required before they can be safely eaten. Cooking and processing methods more generally will modify the physicochemical characteristics of β-glucans, such as molecular weight, extractability and the resulting viscosity. Therefore, the health impact of β-glucans will depend not only on the dose administered, but also on the ways they are processed or converted into food products. This review aims at summarizing the different parameters that can affect β-glucans efficacy to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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