Special Issue "Nutritional Advances in the Prevention and Management of Chronic Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maria Luz Fernandez
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Guest Editor
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Interests: lipoprotein metabolism, functional foods, eggs, metabolic syndrome, diabetes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Lluis Serra-Majem
Website
Guest Editor
Professor of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Director of the Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Interests: Mediterranean diet, public health, nutrition, obesity, epidemiology, diet, macro and micronutrients, hydration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on nutritional advances in the prevention and management of chronic disease. Nutrition can impact the development of many chronic diseases afflicting modern society. Additionally, nutrition may be beneficial in assisting with the management of such diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease.

This Special Issue aims to bring together the latest research on the role of nutrition in preventing and managing chronic disease, arising from the Nutrients 2019 conference on “Nutritional Advances in the Prevention and Management of Chronic Disease”, which will be held in Barcelona, Spain from 25–27 September 2019. Conference presenters as well as plenary and invited speakers will be invited to prepare their presentations as full manuscripts for consideration for publication in the Special Issue. Moreover, others working in the field are also invited to submit manuscripts.

As such, we invite you to submit your latest research to this Special Issue.

Sincerely,

Prof. María Luz Fernández
Prof. Lluis Serra-Majem
Guest Editors

Nutrients 2019 conference participants will be granted a 25% discount on the publication fees. Please note that no other institutional discounts will be applicable, except from reviewers’ discount vouchers. 

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • nutrients
  • chronic disease
  • type 2 diabetes
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cancer
  • dementia
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • depression

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Anti-Cytotoxic and Anti-Genotoxic Effects of Nigella sativa through a Micronucleus Test in BALB/c Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051317 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a medicinal plant used for its therapeutic pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, and immunomodulation. This study explored the anti-cytotoxic and anti-genotoxic effect of N. sativa through a micronucleus test (MNT) of BALB/c mice [...] Read more.
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a medicinal plant used for its therapeutic pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, and immunomodulation. This study explored the anti-cytotoxic and anti-genotoxic effect of N. sativa through a micronucleus test (MNT) of BALB/c mice peripheral blood. Using 6-to-8-week-old healthy male BALB/c mice, four groups were formed: (1) Control (sterile water), single-dose 2 mg/kg/intraperitoneal (i.p); (2) N. sativa oil, 500 mg/kg/24 h/7 days/i.p; (3) Cisplatin (CP), single-dose 2 mg/kg/subcutaneous (s.c); (4) N. sativa + CP with their respective dosage. When evaluating polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE), a biomarker of cytotoxicity, the group treated with N. sativa + CP experienced an increase in the frequency of PCE, which demonstrated the recovery of bone marrow and modulation of cell proliferation. The analysis of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), an acute genotoxicity biomarker, showed similar frequency of MNPCE within the groups except in CP, but, in the N. sativa + CP group, the frequency of MNPCE decreased and then regulated. Finally, the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), a biomarker of genotoxicity, the supplementation of N. sativa oil did not induce genotoxic damage in this model. Thus, we conclude that N. sativa has both cytoprotective, genoprotective effects and modulates cell proliferation in BALB/c mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficiency of Vitamin D Supplementation in Healthy Adults is Associated with Body Mass Index and Baseline Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051268 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Vitamin D (VitD) has a critical role in phosphorous–calcium metabolism as well as an important role in the immune system. In the human body, VitD is synthesized as cholecalciferol in the skin, but this process requires sunlight (UVB) radiation. Numerous reports showed high [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (VitD) has a critical role in phosphorous–calcium metabolism as well as an important role in the immune system. In the human body, VitD is synthesized as cholecalciferol in the skin, but this process requires sunlight (UVB) radiation. Numerous reports showed high prevalence of VitD deficiency, particularly during the winter season, indicating the importance of VitD supplementation. Various factors can affect the absorption of VitD, including dosage and formulation. The primary study objective was to examine the efficiency of supplementation with three different formulations containing cholecalciferol in comparison with the control group. The secondary objective was to identify other factors affecting increase in serum 25-OH-VitD. A randomized controlled intervention study was conducted in Slovenia during wintertime (January– March) on 105 apparently healthy subjects (aged 18–65 years) with suboptimal VitD status (25-OH-VitD 30–50 nmol/L). Subjects were randomized into four groups: three treatment groups receiving (A) capsules with starch-adsorbed VitD, (B) oil-based Valens VitD oral spray, or (C) water-based Valens VitD oral spray and a control group (D) which did not receive supplemental VitD. Two months of supplementation with cholecalciferol (1000 IU; 25 µg daily) resulted in significant increase in serum 25-OH-VitD levels in comparison with control group (pooled Δc 32.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: 23.0, 42.5, p < 0.0001). While we did not observe any significant differences between the tested formulations, the efficiency of supplementation was associated with body mass index and baseline serum 25-OH-VitD level. Higher supplementation efficiency was observed in participants with normal body weight (BMI < 25) and in those with more pronounced VitD insufficiency. We also determined that tested dosage was not sufficient to achieve recommended 25-OH-VitD levels in all subjects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Chronic Disease in Australia: National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051251 - 28 Apr 2020
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is linked to decreased risk of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cognitive disease. Given the health promoting aspects of this diet, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from the National Nutrition and [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is linked to decreased risk of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cognitive disease. Given the health promoting aspects of this diet, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS), which is the largest health study in Australia and the first nutrition-specific national-based study. The primary aim of this analysis was to determine the proportion of Australian adults adhering to the MD and to examine the association between adherence to the MD and markers of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. Out of the 9435 participants included in the study (mean age = 48.6 ± 17.6 years), 65% were in the middle tertile of the MD score. Participants who were married, employed, of a high-socioeconomic level, nonsmokers, educated and had a healthy body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were more likely to have higher adherence levels to the MD, which was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, even after accounting for all possible confounders, higher adherence to the MD was associated with lower risk of dyslipidaemia, OR = 1.06 (1.01–1.10). In conclusion, this analysis is the first to assess adherence to the MD on a national level. Our results indicated that MD adherence may contribute to reducing the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, cerebrovascular disease and elevated blood pressure in a multi-ethnic, non-Mediterranean country. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Combination Effect of Aspalathin and Phenylpyruvic Acid-2-O-β-d-glucoside from Rooibos against Hyperglycemia-Induced Cardiac Damage: An In Vitro Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041151 - 20 Apr 2020
Abstract
Recent evidence shows that rooibos compounds, aspalathin and phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-β-d-glucoside (PPAG), can independently protect cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia-related reactive oxygen species (ROS). While aspalathin shows more potency by enhancing intracellular antioxidant defenses, PPAG acts more as an anti-apoptotic agent. Thus, [...] Read more.
Recent evidence shows that rooibos compounds, aspalathin and phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-β-d-glucoside (PPAG), can independently protect cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia-related reactive oxygen species (ROS). While aspalathin shows more potency by enhancing intracellular antioxidant defenses, PPAG acts more as an anti-apoptotic agent. Thus, to further understand the protective capabilities of these compounds against hyperglycemia-induced cardiac damage, their combinatory effect was investigated and compared to metformin. An in vitro model of H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to chronic glucose concentrations was employed to study the impact of such compounds on hyperglycemia-induced damage. Here, high glucose exposure impaired myocardial substrate utilization by abnormally enhancing free fatty acid oxidation while concomitantly suppressing glucose oxidation. This was paralleled by altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα). The combination treatment improved myocardial substrate metabolism, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential, and attenuated various markers for oxidative stress including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and glutathione content. It also showed a much-improved effect by ameliorating DNA damage when compared to metformin. The current study demonstrates that rooibos compounds offer unique cardioprotective properties against hyperglycemia-induced and potentially against diabetes-induced cardiac damage. These data also support further exploration of rooibos compounds to better assess the cardioprotective effects of different bioactive compound combinations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does Caesarean Section or Preterm Delivery Influence TGF-β2 Concentrations in Human Colostrum?
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041095 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
Human colostrum (HC) is a rich source of immune mediators that play a role in immune defences of a newly born infant. The mediators include transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) which exists in three isoforms that regulate cellular homeostasis and inflammation, can induce [...] Read more.
Human colostrum (HC) is a rich source of immune mediators that play a role in immune defences of a newly born infant. The mediators include transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) which exists in three isoforms that regulate cellular homeostasis and inflammation, can induce or suppress immune responses, limit T helper 1 cells (Th1) reactions and stimulate secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) production. Human milk TGF-β also decreases apoptosis of intestinal cells and suppresses macrophage cytokine expression. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of TGF-β2 in HC obtained from the mothers who delivered vaginally (VD) or by caesarean section (CS), and to compare the concentrations in HC from mothers who delivered at term (TB) or preterm (PB). In this study, 56% of preterm pregnancies were delivered via CS. The concentrations of TGF-β2 were measured in HC from 299 women who delivered in the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Warsaw: 192 (VD), 107 (CS), 251 (TB), and 48 (PB). The colostrum samples were collected within 5 days post-partum. TGF-β2 levels in HC were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test with the Quantikine ELISA Kit-Human TGF-β2 (cat.no. SB250). Statistical significance between groups was calculated by the Student t-test using StatSoft Statistica 13 software. The mean TGF-β2 concentration in patients who delivered at term or preterm were comparable. The levels of TGF-β2 in HC were higher after preterm than term being 4648 vs. 3899 ng/mL (p = 0.1244). The delivery via CS was associated with higher HC concentrations of TGF-β2. The levels of TGF-β2 were significantly higher in HC after CS than VD (7429 vs. 5240 ng/mL; p = 0.0017). The data from this study suggest: caesarean section was associated with increased levels of TGF-β2 in HC. The increased levels of TGF-β2 in HC of women who delivered prematurely require further research. Early and exclusive breast-feeding by mothers after caesarean section and premature births with colostrum containing high TGF-β2 levels may prevent the negative impact of pathogens which often colonize the gastrointestinal tract and may reduce the risk of chronic diseases in this group of patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Specific Dietary Components and Gut Microbiota Composition are Associated with Obesity in Children and Adolescents with Prader–Willi Syndrome
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041063 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
Prader–Willi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder associated with impaired body composition, hyperphagia, and excessive weight gain. Strict dietary restrictions from an early age is crucial to prevent or delay the early onset of obesity, which is the main driver of comorbidities in [...] Read more.
Prader–Willi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder associated with impaired body composition, hyperphagia, and excessive weight gain. Strict dietary restrictions from an early age is crucial to prevent or delay the early onset of obesity, which is the main driver of comorbidities in these patients. The aim of this study was to identify dietary and gut microbiota components closely linked to weight status of these patients. We studied a cohort of children and adolescents with genetic diagnosis of Prader–Willi syndrome (N = 31), in which we determined adiposity by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and dietary composition with 4-day food records. Furthermore, we obtained fecal samples to assess microbiota composition by 16S sequencing. Multivariate regression models showed that body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and body fat mass were directly associated with saturated fat intake and meat consumption, and inversely associated with fruit consumption. Furthermore, the gut microbiome from normal weight patients was characterized by higher phylogenetic diversity compared to those overweight or obese, with differential abundance of several genera, including Alistipes, Klebsiella, and Murimonas. Notably, Alistipes abundance was inversely correlated to adiposity, lipid and glucose homeostasis parameters, and meat intake. Our results suggest that limiting meat and increasing fruit intake might be beneficial for body weight management in children and adolescents with Prader–Willi syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Perceptions of Women from Under-Resourced South African Communities about Participating in a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Nutrition and Health Education Program: A Qualitative Focus Group Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040894 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
Scientific evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets may be effective for managing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Eat Better South Africa (EBSA) is an organization that runs LCHF nutrition education programs for women from low-income communities. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with [...] Read more.
Scientific evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets may be effective for managing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Eat Better South Africa (EBSA) is an organization that runs LCHF nutrition education programs for women from low-income communities. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with 18 women who had taken part in an EBSA program between 2015 and 2017, to explore their perceptions and to identify the facilitators and barriers they faced in implementing and sustaining dietary changes. Thematic analysis of the focus groups was conducted using NVivo 12 software. Women reported that they decided to enroll in the program because they suffered from NCDs. Most women said that the EBSA diet made them feel less hungry, more energetic and they felt that their health had improved. Most women spoke of socioeconomic challenges which made it difficult for them to follow EBSA’s recommendations, such as employment status, safety issues in the community, and lack of support from relatives and doctors. Hence, women felt they needed more support from EBSA after the program. The social determinants that affected these women’s ability to change their health behavior are also NCD risk factors, and these should be assessed to improve the program for other communities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sustained Cerebrovascular and Cognitive Benefits of Resveratrol in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030828 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
Deficits in the cerebral microcirculation contribute to age-related cognitive decline. In a pilot study of postmenopausal women, we found that supplementation with a low dose of resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, for 14 weeks improved cerebrovascular and cognitive functions. We have since undertaken a larger, [...] Read more.
Deficits in the cerebral microcirculation contribute to age-related cognitive decline. In a pilot study of postmenopausal women, we found that supplementation with a low dose of resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, for 14 weeks improved cerebrovascular and cognitive functions. We have since undertaken a larger, longer term study to confirm these benefits. Postmenopausal women aged 45–85 years (n = 129) were randomized to take placebo or 75 mg trans-resveratrol twice daily for 12 months. Effects on cognition, cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) and cardiometabolic markers (blood pressure, diabetes markers and fasting lipids) were assessed. Compared to placebo, resveratrol improved overall cognitive performance (P < 0.001) and attenuated the decline in CVR to cognitive stimuli (P = 0.038). The latter effect was associated with reduction of fasting blood glucose (r = −0.339, P = 0.023). This long-term study confirms that regular consumption of resveratrol can enhance cognitive and cerebrovascular functions in postmenopausal women, with the potential to slow cognitive decline due to ageing and menopause. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Second Version of a Mini-Survey to Evaluate Food Intake Quality (Mini-ECCA v.2): Reproducibility and Ability to Identify Dietary Patterns in University Students
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030809 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
Evaluation of food intake quality using validated tools makes it possible to give individuals or populations recommendations for improving their diet. This study’s objective was to evaluate the reproducibility and ability to identify dietary patterns of the second version of the Mini Food [...] Read more.
Evaluation of food intake quality using validated tools makes it possible to give individuals or populations recommendations for improving their diet. This study’s objective was to evaluate the reproducibility and ability to identify dietary patterns of the second version of the Mini Food Intake Quality Survey (Mini-ECCA v.2). The survey was administered using a remote voting system on two occasions with four-week intervals between administrations to 276 health science students (average age = 20.1 ± 3.1 years; 68% women). We then performed a per-question weighted kappa calculation, a cluster analysis, an ANOVA test by questionnaire item and between identified clusters, and a discriminant analysis. Moderate to excellent agreement was observed (weighted κ = 0.422–0.662). The cluster analysis identified three groups, and the discriminant analysis obtained three classification functions (85.9% of cases were correctly classified): group 1 (19.9%) was characterized by higher intake of water, vegetables, fruit, fats, oilseeds/avocado, meat and legumes (healthy food intake); group 2 (47.1%) frequently consumed both fish and unhealthy fats (habits in need of improvement); group 3 (33%) frequently consumed sweetened beverages, foods not prepared at home, processed foods, refined cereals and alcohol (unhealthy food intake). In conclusion, the Mini-ECCA v.2 has moderate to excellent agreement, and it is able to identify dietary patterns in university students. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Bioavailability of Different Coenzyme Q10 Formulations in Healthy Elderly Individuals
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030784 - 16 Mar 2020
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays a central role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of dietary CoQ10 supplementation, particularly in relation to cardiovascular health. CoQ10 biosynthesis decreases in the elderly, and consequently, the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation in [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays a central role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of dietary CoQ10 supplementation, particularly in relation to cardiovascular health. CoQ10 biosynthesis decreases in the elderly, and consequently, the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation in this population are of greater significance. However, most pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted on younger populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the single-dose bioavailability of different formulations of CoQ10 in a healthy geriatric population. A randomized, three-period, crossover bioavailability study was conducted on 21 healthy older adults (aged 65–74). The treatment was a single dose with a one-week washout period. Three different formulations containing the equivalent of 100 mg of CoQ10 were used: Q10Vital® water-soluble CoQ10 syrup (the investigational product—IP); ubiquinol capsules (the comparative product—CP); and ubiquinone capsules (the standard product—SP). Ubiquinone/ubiquinol was followed in the plasma for 48 h. An analysis of the ratio of the area under the baseline-corrected concentration curve (ΔAUC48) for total CoQ10 and a comparison to SP yielded the following: The bioavailability of CoQ10 in the IP was 2.4-fold higher (95% CI: 1.3–4.5; p = 0.002), while the bioavailability of ubiquinol (CP) was not significantly increased (1.7-fold; 95% CI: 0.9–3.1, p = 0.129). No differences in the redox status of the absorbed coenzyme Q10 were observed between formulations, showing that CoQ10 appeared in the blood mostly as ubiquinol, even if consumed as ubiquinone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Breast Milk Microbiota, Immune Factors, and Fatty Acids in the Rat Mother–Offspring Pair
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020319 - 25 Jan 2020
Abstract
The present study aimed to analyze the rat breast milk profile of fatty acids (FA), immunoglobulins (Ig), microbiota, and their relationship, and to further assess their associations in the mother–offspring pair. Dams were monitored during the three weeks of gestation, allowed to deliver [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to analyze the rat breast milk profile of fatty acids (FA), immunoglobulins (Ig), microbiota, and their relationship, and to further assess their associations in the mother–offspring pair. Dams were monitored during the three weeks of gestation, allowed to deliver at term, and followed during two weeks of lactation. At the end of the study, milk was obtained from the dams for the analysis of fatty acids, microbiota composition, immunoglobulins, and cytokines. Moreover, the cecal content and plasma were obtained from both the dams and pups to study the cecal microbiota composition and the plasmatic levels of fatty acids, immunoglobulins, and cytokines. Rat breast milk lipid composition was ~65% saturated FA, ~15% monounsaturated FA, and ~20% polyunsaturated FA. Moreover, the proportions of IgM, IgG, and IgA were ~2%, ~88%, and ~10%, respectively. Breast milk was dominated by members of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes phyla. In addition, forty genera were shared between the milk and cecal content of dams and pups. The correlations performed between variables showed, for example, that all IgGs subtypes correlated between the three compartments, evidencing their association in the mother-milk-pup line. We established the profile of FA, Ig, and the microbiota composition of rat breast milk. Several correlations in these variables evidenced their association through the mother-milk-pup line. Therefore, it would be interesting to perform dietary interventions during pregnancy and/or lactation that influence the quality of breast milk and have an impact on the offspring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, Physical Activity, and Their Combination with Semen Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010039 - 22 Dec 2019
Abstract
The influence of individual lifestyle factors is widely described in studies on semen quality. However, their synergistic effect is often neglected. The aim of the study was to examine the association between semen quality and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet, physical [...] Read more.
The influence of individual lifestyle factors is widely described in studies on semen quality. However, their synergistic effect is often neglected. The aim of the study was to examine the association between semen quality and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet, physical activity (PA), and the two separately and in combination. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 207 men aged 20–55. Dietary data were collected by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and analysed according to the DASH scoring index. Physical activity was evaluated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Semen parameters were assessed via the computer-aided semen analysis (CASA). Adherence to the DASH diet was associated with higher sperm count (ΔT3-T1 = 82.1 mln/ej) and concentration (ΔT3-T1 = 24.6 mln/mL). Higher PA was related to higher sperm count (ΔT3-T1 = 69.4 mln/ej), total (ΔT3-T1 = 11.9%), and progressive motility (ΔT3-T1 = 8.5%) and morphology (ΔT3-T1 = 2.8%) in the crude model and remained significant after adjustment. The combination of the DASH diet and PA, was significantly positively associated with sperm count (ΔT3-T1 = 98.1 mln/ej), sperm concentration (ΔT3-T1 = 17.5 mln/mL), total (ΔT3-T1 = 11.8%), and progressive motility (ΔT3-T1 = 10.0%) and morphology (ΔT3-T1 = 3.3%) in both models. Adherence to the DASH diet was related to higher sperm count and concentration, whereas after its combination with physical activity it was also positively correlated with sperm motility and morphology. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Anthocyanins and Their Microbial Metabolites on the Expression and Enzyme Activities of Paraoxonase 1, an Important Marker of HDL Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122872 - 24 Nov 2019
Abstract
High circulating HDL concentrations and measures of various HDL functions are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) contributes to many of the athero-protective functions of HDL, such as promoting the reverse cholesterol transport process and reducing the levels of [...] Read more.
High circulating HDL concentrations and measures of various HDL functions are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) contributes to many of the athero-protective functions of HDL, such as promoting the reverse cholesterol transport process and reducing the levels of oxidized LDL. PON1 activities are influenced by several factors, the most important being diet and genetic polymorphisms. Reported data from randomized controlled trials have shown that anthocyanin consumption increased PON1 activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which anthocyanins increase PON1 activity are not understood. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the ability of anthocyanins and their metabolites to increase PON1 gene expression and/or enzyme activities as potential mechanisms. The effect of the two predominant dietary anthocyanins and 18 of their recently identified microbial metabolites including their phase-II conjugates on PON1 gene expression was studied using a PON1-Huh7 stably-transfected cell line and reporter gene assay. The effects of these compounds on PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities were investigated using two isoforms of the PON1 enzyme that are the phenotypes of the 192Q/R polymorphism. None of the compounds caused even modest changes in PON1 promoter activity (p ≥ 0.05). Further, none of the compounds at physiological concentrations caused any significant changes in the arylesterase or lactonase activity of either of the iso-enzymes. Cyanidin reduced the lactonase activity of the PON1-R192R enzyme at high concentrations (−22%, p < 0.001), but not at physiologically achievable concentrations. In conclusion, none of the data reported here support the notion that anthocyanins or their metabolites affect PON1 transactivation or enzyme activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Non-Animal Chondroitin Sulfate Supplementation in the Treatment of Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis in a Group of Overweight Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092027 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the world and is characterized by pain, various disabilities and loss of quality of life. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is recommended as first-line therapy. CS of non-animal origin is of great interest for safety [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the world and is characterized by pain, various disabilities and loss of quality of life. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is recommended as first-line therapy. CS of non-animal origin is of great interest for safety and sustainability reasons. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects, anti-pain and ability-enhancement of a short-term supplementation with non-animal CS in overweight subjects with OA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 60 overweight adults with symptomatic OA were allocated to consume 600 mg of non-animal CS (n = 30) or a placebo (n = 30) daily for 12 consecutive weeks. The assessment of knee-pain, quality of life, related inflammation markers and body composition was performed at 0, 4 and 12 weeks. The Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring (TLKS) scale of the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase (+10.64 points; confidence interval (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.57; 15.70; p < 0.01), while the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score decreased (−12.24 points; CI 95% −16.01; −8.38; p < 0.01). The results also showed a decrease in the C-reactive protein (CRP) level (−0.14 mg/dL, CI 95% −0.26; −0.04; p < 0.01) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) level (−5.01 mm/h, CI 95% −9.18; −0.84, p < 0.01) as well as the visual analogue scale (VAS) score in both knees. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of non-animal CS supplementation in overweight subjects with knee OA in improving knee function, pain and inflammation markers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Maternal Fructose Intake on Perinatal ER-Stress: A Defective XBP1s Nuclear Translocation Affects the ER-stress Resolution
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081935 - 17 Aug 2019
Abstract
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is crucial to appropriate cell functioning, and when disturbed, a safeguard system called unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. Fructose consumption modifies ER homeostasis and has been related to metabolic syndrome. However, fructose sweetened beverages intake is allowed during [...] Read more.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is crucial to appropriate cell functioning, and when disturbed, a safeguard system called unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. Fructose consumption modifies ER homeostasis and has been related to metabolic syndrome. However, fructose sweetened beverages intake is allowed during gestation. Therefore, we investigate whether maternal fructose intake affects the ER status and induces UPR. Thus, administrating liquid fructose (10% w/v) to pregnant rats partially activated the ER-stress in maternal and fetal liver and placenta. In fact, a fructose-induced increase in the levels of pIRE1 (phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme-1) and its downstream effector, X-box binding protein-1 spliced form (XBP1s), was observed. XBP1s is a key transcription factor, however, XBP1s nuclear translocation and the expression of its target genes were reduced in the liver of the carbohydrate-fed mothers, and specifically diminished in the fetal liver and placenta in the fructose-fed mothers. These XBP1s target genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system, used to buffer ER-stress and to restore ER-homeostasis. It is known that XBP1s needs to form a complex with diverse proteins to migrate into the nucleus. Since methylglyoxal (MGO) content, a precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), was augmented in the three tissues in the fructose-fed mothers and has been related to interfere with the functioning of many proteins, the role of MGO in XBP1s migration should not be discarded. In conclusion, maternal fructose intake produces ER-stress, but without XBP1s nuclear migration. Therefore, a complete activation of UPR that would resolve ER-stress is lacking. A state of fructose-induced oxidative stress is probably involved. Full article
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