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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Peptides from Goat Milk Fermented by Lactobacillus casei L61: Preparation, Optimization, and Stability Evaluation in Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060797
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity
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Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity to produce antioxidant peptides. An optimal nutrients formula (casein, casein peptone, glucose, soybean peptone, inulin, calcium lactate, and cysteine) was investigated by Plackett–Burman (P–B) and Box–Behnken (B–B) designs for response surface methodology (RSM). Antioxidant peptides were successively isolated and purified from the fermented goat milk. Furthermore, the stability of the antioxidant peptides was evaluated in a simulated gastrointestinal tract at 37 °C. The results showed that calcium lactate, glucose, and casein peptone significantly affected the antioxidant activity of goat milk. The optimal additive amounts were 0.99% (w/v) calcium lactate, 0.21% (w/v) glucose, and 0.29% (w/v) casein peptone. The hydroxyl free radical scavenging rate increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 56.50 ± 0.57% to 88.01 ± 0.69%; the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging rate increased up to 63.48 ± 1.22% under the optimal conditions (n = 3). Our research provides a fitted mathematical model for antioxidant peptides production. Besides, these antioxidant peptides had great stability during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessReview Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy—Implications for Therapies
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060796
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The interactions between nutrition and metabolism and skeletal muscle have long been known. Muscle is the major metabolic organ—it consumes more calories than other organs—and therefore, there is a clear need to discuss these interactions and provide some direction for future research areas
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The interactions between nutrition and metabolism and skeletal muscle have long been known. Muscle is the major metabolic organ—it consumes more calories than other organs—and therefore, there is a clear need to discuss these interactions and provide some direction for future research areas regarding muscle pathologies. In addition, new experiments and manuscripts continually reveal additional highly intricate, reciprocal interactions between metabolism and muscle. These reciprocal interactions include exercise, age, sex, diet, and pathologies including atrophy, hypoxia, obesity, diabetes, and muscle myopathies. Central to this review are the metabolic changes that occur in the skeletal muscle cells of muscular dystrophy patients and mouse models. Many of these metabolic changes are pathogenic (inappropriate body mass changes, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, and increased Ca2+) and others are compensatory (increased phosphorylated AMP activated protein kinase (pAMPK), increased slow fiber numbers, and increased utrophin). Therefore, reversing or enhancing these changes with therapies will aid the patients. The multiple therapeutic targets to reverse or enhance the metabolic pathways will be discussed. Among the therapeutic targets are increasing pAMPK, utrophin, mitochondrial number and slow fiber characteristics, and inhibiting reactive oxygen species. Because new data reveals many additional intricate levels of interactions, new questions are rapidly arising. How does muscular dystrophy alter metabolism, and are the changes compensatory or pathogenic? How does metabolism affect muscular dystrophy? Of course, the most profound question is whether clinicians can therapeutically target nutrition and metabolism for muscular dystrophy patient benefit? Obtaining the answers to these questions will greatly aid patients with muscular dystrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Open AccessArticle Personalized Nutrition—Genes, Diet, and Related Interactive Parameters as Predictors of Cancer in Multiethnic Colorectal Cancer Families
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060795
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
To personalize nutrition, the purpose of this study was to examine five key genes in the folate metabolism pathway, and dietary parameters and related interactive parameters as predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) by measuring the healthy eating index (HEI) in multiethnic families. The
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To personalize nutrition, the purpose of this study was to examine five key genes in the folate metabolism pathway, and dietary parameters and related interactive parameters as predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) by measuring the healthy eating index (HEI) in multiethnic families. The five genes included methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 and 1298, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) 19bp, and they were used to compute a total gene mutation score. We included 53 families, 53 CRC patients and 53 paired family friend members of diverse population groups in Southern California. We measured multidimensional data using the ensemble bootstrap forest method to identify variables of importance within domains of genetic, demographic, and dietary parameters to achieve dimension reduction. We then constructed predictive generalized regression (GR) modeling with a supervised machine learning validation procedure with the target variable (cancer status) being specified to validate the results to allow enhanced prediction and reproducibility. The results showed that the CRC group had increased total gene mutation scores compared to the family members (p < 0.05). Using the Akaike’s information criterion and Leave-One-Out cross validation GR methods, the HEI was interactive with thiamine (vitamin B1), which is a new finding for the literature. The natural food sources for thiamine include whole grains, legumes, and some meats and fish which HEI scoring included as part of healthy portions (versus limiting portions on salt, saturated fat and empty calories). Additional predictors included age, as well as gender and the interaction of MTHFR 677 with overweight status (measured by body mass index) in predicting CRC, with the cancer group having more men and overweight cases. The HEI score was significant when split at the median score of 77 into greater or less scores, confirmed through the machine-learning recursive tree method and predictive modeling, although an HEI score of greater than 80 is the US national standard set value for a good diet. The HEI and healthy eating are modifiable factors for healthy living in relation to dietary parameters and cancer prevention, and they can be used for personalized nutrition in the precision-based healthcare era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle Do Chinese Preschool Children Eat a Sufficiently Diverse Diet? A Cross-Sectional Study in China
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060794
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Background: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate dietary diversity and its associated factors in Chinese preschoolers and explore whether the daily food consumption of children with different dietary diversity-associated characteristics met recommended dietary amounts. Methods: A cross-sectional study covering seven cities and two
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Background: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate dietary diversity and its associated factors in Chinese preschoolers and explore whether the daily food consumption of children with different dietary diversity-associated characteristics met recommended dietary amounts. Methods: A cross-sectional study covering seven cities and two villages was conducted and included 697 preschool children aged 3–7 years old. Dietary diversity score (DDS) and DDS 10 were calculated based on 24-h dietary recall. The food-intake differences among children with different DDS 10 predictors were examined. Results: The mean DDS and DDS 10 in Chinese preschool children were 7.4 ± 1.5 (ranged from 3 to 9) and 7.0 ± 3 (ranged from 3 to 9) respectively. Positive predictors of dietary diversity included residing in an urban environment, a higher household expenditure on children’s food, and a higher frequency of eating outside. Food-intake differences existed among the predictors. Conclusions: Education and intervention should be strengthened to improve the dietary diversity of preschool children, especially in rural areas. The overall dietary pattern of children requires attention, which means not only increasing dietary diversity but also avoiding an unbalanced diet. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inulin Supplementation Does Not Reduce Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentrations in Individuals at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060793
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prebiotic supplementation has been purported to reduce TMAO production, but whether prebiotics reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO levels is unclear. Sedentary, overweight/obese adults at risk
[...] Read more.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prebiotic supplementation has been purported to reduce TMAO production, but whether prebiotics reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO levels is unclear. Sedentary, overweight/obese adults at risk for T2DM (n = 18) were randomized to consume a standardized diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat) with 10 g/day of either an inulin supplement or maltodextrin placebo for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained in the fasting state and hourly during a 4-h high-fat challenge meal (820 kcal; 25% carbohydrate, 63% fat; 317.4 mg choline, 62.5 mg betaine, 8.1 mg l-carnitine) before and after the diet. Plasma TMAO and trimethylamine (TMA) moieties (choline, l-carnitine, betaine, and γ-butyrobetaine) were measured using isocratic ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). There were no differences in fasting or postprandial TMAO or TMA moieties between the inulin and placebo groups at baseline (all p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in fasting or postprandial plasma TMAO or TMA moiety concentrations following inulin or placebo. These findings suggest that inulin supplementation for 6 weeks did not reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO in individuals at risk for T2DM. Future studies are needed to identify efficacious interventions that reduce plasma TMAO concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Intake of Polydextrose Alters Hematology and the Profile of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Partially Gastrectomized Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060792
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Polydextrose (PDX) ingestion may increase the intestinal absorption of iron. This study evaluated the effects of 7.5% polydextrose supplementation on markers of iron uptake, transport and storage in partially gastrectomized rats. Half of a batch of 40 male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent
[...] Read more.
Polydextrose (PDX) ingestion may increase the intestinal absorption of iron. This study evaluated the effects of 7.5% polydextrose supplementation on markers of iron uptake, transport and storage in partially gastrectomized rats. Half of a batch of 40 male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent Billroth II partial gastrectomy with anterior truncal vagotomy (GXT), while the other half underwent sham gastrectomy (SHAM). At 7 postoperative days, the animals were subdivided into four groups (n = 10): Sham Control and GXT Control (no polydextrose); Sham PDX and GXT PDX (with 7.5% PDX). The animals were euthanized after 60 day of PDX treatment. Organ weight, cecal pH, the characterization and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), hematological parameters, hepatic iron content and the expression of ferroportin (FPT) in the jejunum, cecum, colon and liver were evaluated. PDX caused changes in the cecum of the supplemented animals, where there was a decrease in pH, increase in cecal wall and marked production of SCFA, especially acetic and propionic acids (p < 0.05). Hepatic iron levels were lower in GXT animals. PDX increased hemoglobin (HGB) values by 29.2% and hematocrit (HCT) by 55.8% in the GXT PDX group compared to the GXT Control group. The GXT PDX group had lower hepatic FPT expression (p < 0.05). PDX led to increased SCFA concentration in the supplemented animals. Considering that SCFAs play a central role in the increasing nutrients uptake, this mechanism may be involved in altering the hematology profile observed in these animals but not enough to reverse iron deficiency anemia in post-gastrectomy rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Salvianolic Acid A against Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute Colitis in Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060791
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is an active phenolic acid derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). To explore whether SAA has a therapeutic effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an acute colitis model was induced in rats by administering 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)
[...] Read more.
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is an active phenolic acid derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). To explore whether SAA has a therapeutic effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an acute colitis model was induced in rats by administering 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for one week. SAA in doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/day was given by tail vein injection during DSS administration. Both dosages of SAA ameliorated the colitis symptoms, with decreases observed in the disease activity index. A high dosage of SAA (8 mg/kg/day) promoted a longer colon length and an improved colonic tissue structure, compared with the DSS-treated rats not receiving SAA. SAA dose-dependently decreased colonic gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6). Moreover, a high dosage of SAA protected against DSS-induced damage to tight junctions (TJ) in the rats’ colons, by increasing TJ-related gene expression (ZO-1 and occuldin). Finally, using 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequencing, we found that SAA modulated gut microbiota imbalance during colitis by increasing the gut microbial diversity as well as selectively promoting some probiotic populations, including Akkermansia spp. Our study suggests that SAA is a promising candidate for the treatment of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Requirements of Lung Transplant Recipients: Challenges and Considerations
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060790
Received: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
An optimal nutritional status is associated with better post-transplant outcomes and survival. Post-lung transplant nutrition management is however particularly challenging as lung recipients represent a very heterogeneous group of patients in terms of age, underlying diseases, weight status and presence of comorbidities. Furthermore,
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An optimal nutritional status is associated with better post-transplant outcomes and survival. Post-lung transplant nutrition management is however particularly challenging as lung recipients represent a very heterogeneous group of patients in terms of age, underlying diseases, weight status and presence of comorbidities. Furthermore, the post-transplant period encompasses several stages characterized by physiological and pathophysiological changes that affect nutritional status of patients and necessitate tailored nutrition management. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding nutritional requirements in the post-lung transplant period from the immediate post-operative phase to long-term follow-up. In the immediate post-transplantation phase, the high doses of immunosuppressants and corticosteroids, the goal of maintaining hemodynamic stability, the presence of a catabolic state, and the wound healing process increase nutritional demands and lead to metabolic perturbations that necessitate nutritional interventions. As time from transplantation increases, complications such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, and kidney disease, may develop and require adjustments to nutrition management. Until specific nutritional guidelines for lung recipients are elaborated, recommendations regarding nutrient requirements are formulated to provide guidance for clinicians caring for these patients. Finally, the management of recipients with special considerations is also briefly addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationship between Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Interaction between an ADCY3 Genetic Variant and Two Weight-Lowering Diets Affecting Body Fatness and Body Composition Outcomes Depending on Macronutrient Distribution: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060789
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution
[...] Read more.
The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan) were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acids and Calcium Regulation in Prostate Cancer
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060788
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Prostate cancer is a widespread malignancy characterized by a comparative ease of primary diagnosis and difficulty in choosing the individualized course of treatment. Management of prostate cancer would benefit from a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the transition to the lethal,
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Prostate cancer is a widespread malignancy characterized by a comparative ease of primary diagnosis and difficulty in choosing the individualized course of treatment. Management of prostate cancer would benefit from a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the transition to the lethal, late-stage forms of the disease, which could potentially yield new biomarkers for differential prognosis and treatment prioritization in addition to possible new therapeutic targets. Epidemiological research has uncovered a significant correlation of prostate cancer incidence and progression with the intake (and often co-intake) of fatty acids and calcium. Additionally, there is evidence of the impact of these nutrients on intracellular signaling, including the mechanisms mediated by the calcium ion as a second messenger. The present review surveys the recent literature on the molecular mechanisms associated with the critical steps in the prostate cancer progression, with special attention paid to the regulation of these processes by fatty acids and calcium homeostasis. Testable hypotheses are put forward that integrate some of the recent results in a more unified picture of these phenomena at the interface of cell signaling and metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Gastric Emptying Rate, Appetite and Gut Derived Hormone Responses after Consuming a Standardised Semi-Solid Meal in Healthy Males
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060787
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH),
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH), 40% V˙O2Peak (LOW) or rest (CONTROL). Baseline samples were collected after an overnight fast before undertaking the 60 min exercise or rest period, followed by 30 min rest before consumption of a standardised semi-solid meal (~242 kcal). During the 2 h postprandial period, gastric emptying rate of the meal was examined using the 13C-breath test method, appetite was measured using visual analogue scales, and serum concentrations of acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were assessed. Subjective appetite response was not different between trials (p > 0.05). Half emptying time of the meal was 89 ± 13, 82 ± 8 and 94 ± 31 min on CONTROL, LOW and HIGH, respectively (p = 0.247). In healthy un-trained adult males, responses to exercise at intensities of 70% and 40% V˙O2Peak did not differ to a non-exercise control for measurements of subsequent gastric emptying, circulating gut hormone response or appetite. These results suggest that exercise intensity has little effect on post-exercise appetite response to a semi-solid meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Acute Malnutrition in Children in Cambodia Requires Both Mid Upper Arm Circumference and Weight-For-Height to Offset Gender Bias of Each Indicator
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060786
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition remains a serious health problem in Cambodia with over 10% of children less than five years of age suffering from acute malnutrition. In addition to the presence of nutritional edema, two indicators are recommended by the World Health Organization for the diagnosis
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Malnutrition remains a serious health problem in Cambodia with over 10% of children less than five years of age suffering from acute malnutrition. In addition to the presence of nutritional edema, two indicators are recommended by the World Health Organization for the diagnosis of acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ; with acute malnutrition defined as WHZ < −2 Z-score) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, with acute malnutrition defined as MUAC < 12.5 cm). Earlier, we showed that WHZ and MUAC identified different subgroups of children with acute malnutrition. To explore factors associated with both indicators of acute malnutrition, we analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study in three provinces in Cambodia: Phnom Penh (capital, urban environment), Kratie (rural province), and Ratanakiri (hilly, rural province). Data was available for 4381 children below 30 months of age. Malnutrition rates were higher in the two rural provinces than in the capital. Although both MUAC and WHZ showed gender bias, with MUAC identifying more girls, and WHZ identifying more boys with acute malnutrition, the gender effect was strongest for MUAC. The gender bias of MUAC diminished with older age, but remained significant up to 30 months of age. Only using both MUAC and WHZ as indicators resulted in gender neutral identification of acute malnutrition. WHZ alone always identified more children with acute malnutrition than MUAC alone. In Phnom Penh, MUAC alone identified only 11% with acute malnutrition in addition to WHZ. To conclude, both MUAC and WHZ showed gender bias in this cohort of Cambodian children. In Cambodia, implementation of a MUAC-only or a WHZ-only program for the identification of acute malnutrition would be unethical as it will lead to many children remaining undiagnosed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adequacy of Some Locally Produced Complementary Foods Marketed in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060785
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Adequate complementary foods are needed to help reduce the high prevalence of stunting in children in many Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). We assessed the availability, affordability, and nutrient adequacy of imported and locally produced processed cereal-based blends (PCBBs), marketed as complementary
[...] Read more.
Adequate complementary foods are needed to help reduce the high prevalence of stunting in children in many Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). We assessed the availability, affordability, and nutrient adequacy of imported and locally produced processed cereal-based blends (PCBBs), marketed as complementary food for young children in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal. In total, 19 local producers and 275 points of sale in the four countries were surveyed to evaluate the quantities and accessibility of PCBBs. In addition, 32 PCBBs were analysed for their nutritional composition and packaging information. The results showed that only 7 out of 32 PCBBs could be classified as nutritionally satisfactory. Access to the products was insufficient in all surveyed settings. At the points of sale, the PCBB market was dominated by imported products, even though two out of four imported PCBBs were not nutritionally satisfactory. Imported PCBBs were two to three times more expensive than locally produced PCBBs. Labelling of the PCBBs was inadequate in many aspects. Technical support should be offered to local PCBB producers to ensure the adequate formulation and supply of an appropriate vitamin and mineral premix. The development of national specific regulations on PCBB composition and labelling is strongly recommended in these countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle TRPM6 is Essential for Magnesium Uptake and Epithelial Cell Function in the Colon
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060784
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Intestinal magnesium (Mg) uptake is essential for systemic Mg homeostasis. Colon cells express the two highly homologous transient receptor potential melastatin type (TRPM) 6 and 7 Mg2+ channels, but their precise function and the consequences of their mutual interaction are not clear.
[...] Read more.
Intestinal magnesium (Mg) uptake is essential for systemic Mg homeostasis. Colon cells express the two highly homologous transient receptor potential melastatin type (TRPM) 6 and 7 Mg2+ channels, but their precise function and the consequences of their mutual interaction are not clear. To explore the functional role of TRPM6 and TRPM7 in the colon, we used human colon cell lines that innately express both channels and analyzed the functional consequences of genetic knocking-down, by RNA interference, or pharmacological inhibition, by NS8593, of either channel. TRPM7 silencing caused an increase in Mg2+ influx, and correspondingly enhanced cell proliferation and migration, while downregulation of TRPM6 did not affect significantly either Mg2+ influx or cell proliferation. Exposure to the specific TRPM6/7 inhibitor NS8593 reduced Mg2+ influx, and consequently cell proliferation and migration, but Mg supplementation rescued the inhibition. We propose a model whereby in colon cells the functional Mg2+ channel at the plasma membrane may consist of both TRPM7 homomers and TRPM6/7 heteromers. A different expression ratio between the two proteins may result in different functional properties. Altogether, our findings confirm that TRPM6 cannot be replaced by TRPM7, and that TRPM6/7 complexes and TRPM6/7-mediated Mg2+ influx are indispensable in human epithelial colon cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Radical Scavenging Properties of Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) Essential Oils
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060783
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically
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Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically related bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso). The present study aimed to investigate potential in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of chinotto essential oils (CEOs) and to establish to what extent their composition and bioactivities are dependent on maturation. Essential oil from half ripe chinotto (CEO2) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inflammatory genes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264,7 macrophages. Limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and γ-terpinene were found to be the main components in CEO2. Moreover, CEO2 showed high radical scavenging activity measured as Trolox equivalents (TE) against both 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). These findings show that chinotto essential oil represents a valuable part of this fruit and warrants further in vivo studies to validate its anti-inflammatory potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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Open AccessArticle Whey Protein Concentrate WPC-80 Improves Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Salivary Glands of 14-Month Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060782
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is characterized by powerful antioxidant properties, but its effect on redox homeostasis of salivary glands of aging organisms is still unknown. In this study, we are the first to evaluate the antioxidant barrier of salivary glands of 14-month Wistar
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Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is characterized by powerful antioxidant properties, but its effect on redox homeostasis of salivary glands of aging organisms is still unknown. In this study, we are the first to evaluate the antioxidant barrier of salivary glands of 14-month Wistar rats fed WPC-80. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) are estimated in the submandibular and parotid glands of rats administered WPC-80 intragastrically for a period of 7 and 14 days. We demonstrate a significant increase in GSH, GPx and SOD in the salivary glands of rats fed WPC-80 for 14 days and a significant increase in TAS, GPx and SOD in the parotid glands of rats fed WPC-80 for 7 days compared to control rats. The beneficial effects of WPC-80 on salivary glands are also demonstrated by lower TOS and OSI in the parotid glands of rats fed WPC-80 compared to the submandibular glands. In summary, we demonstrate that WPC-80 improves redox homeostasis in salivary glands, particularly in the parotid glands of old rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Intake in Older Adults and Elderly People)
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Open AccessArticle An Exploratory Study Examining Obesity Risk in Non-Obese Mothers of Young Children Using a Socioecological Approach
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060781
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to (1) develop an obesity risk score using a comprehensive set of variables assessing mothers’ intrapersonal weight-related characteristics and those of their homes’ interpersonal and physical environments, and (2) determine how weight-related characteristics differ by obesity risk level.
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This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to (1) develop an obesity risk score using a comprehensive set of variables assessing mothers’ intrapersonal weight-related characteristics and those of their homes’ interpersonal and physical environments, and (2) determine how weight-related characteristics differ by obesity risk level. U.S. mothers (N = 550) of preschool-aged children completed an online survey that assessed maternal self-report weight status, sociodemographics, health-related characteristics, and maternal intrapersonal and their homes’ interpersonal and physical environment weight-related characteristics. Binomial logistic regression analysis identified variables significantly associated with obesity. Scores for all obesity risk variables were summed to create a weighted obesity risk score for non-obese participants (n = 386). Analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc tests determined how non-obese mothers’ sociodemographic, health-related, and intrapersonal and their homes’ interpersonal and physical environment characteristics differed among obesity risk score tertiles. Results revealed that eight variables explained 53 percent of maternal obesity risk, including African American race, lower education level, more children in household, poorer maternal health, higher weight teasing history, higher body dissatisfaction, primary relative with obesity, and greater concern about children’s overweight risk. Non-obese mothers in the highest obesity risk tertile had greater food insecurity risk, lower family affluence, worse sleep quality, less fruit/vegetable availability, and reported less frequent modeling of healthy behaviors and more family conflict. In conclusion, eight characteristics that explained more than half of the risk for obesity in non-obese mothers of young children, may help healthcare professionals identify mothers at increased risk of obesity and offer preventive care early. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times)
Open AccessReview Dietary Cholesterol and the Lack of Evidence in Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060780
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. For years, dietary cholesterol was implicated in increasing blood cholesterol levels leading to the elevated risk of CVD. To date, extensive research did not show evidence to support a role
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. For years, dietary cholesterol was implicated in increasing blood cholesterol levels leading to the elevated risk of CVD. To date, extensive research did not show evidence to support a role of dietary cholesterol in the development of CVD. As a result, the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans removed the recommendations of restricting dietary cholesterol to 300 mg/day. This review summarizes the current literature regarding dietary cholesterol intake and CVD. It is worth noting that most foods that are rich in cholesterol are also high in saturated fatty acids and thus may increase the risk of CVD due to the saturated fatty acid content. The exceptions are eggs and shrimp. Considering that eggs are affordable and nutrient-dense food items, containing high-quality protein with minimal saturated fatty acids (1.56 gm/egg) and are rich in several micronutrients including vitamins and minerals, it would be worthwhile to include eggs in moderation as a part of a healthy eating pattern. This recommendation is particularly relevant when individual’s intakes of nutrients are suboptimal, or with limited income and food access, and to help ensure dietary intake of sufficient nutrients in growing children and older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Cholesterol:Is It Related to Chronic Disease)
Open AccessArticle Mediterranean Diet Score: Associations with Metabolic Products of the Intestinal Microbiome, Carotid Plaque Burden, and Renal Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060779
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs) affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would
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Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs) affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carotid plaque burden was measured by ultrasound; CKD-Epi equations were used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate. In total, 276 patients completed the study. Even moderate renal function significantly increased plasma GDUTs, which were significantly associated with higher carotid plaque burden. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of any GDUT associated with a Mediterranean diet score or with intake of dietary precursors. In omnivorous patients with vascular disease, the intake of dietary precursors of intestinal metabolites or adherence to a Mediterranean diet did not change plasma GDUT. Approaches other than diet, such as probiotics and repopulation of the intestinal microbiome, may be required to mitigate the adverse effects of GDUTs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Influence on Body Fluid Acid-Base and Volume Balance: The Deleterious “Norm” Furthers and Cloaks Subclinical Pathophysiology
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060778
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The popular modern diet, characterized by an excess of animal protein and salt but insufficient in fruits, vegetables and water, is a poor fit for human physiological and homeostatic regulatory systems. Sustained net acid and sodium retention, coupled with an insufficient intake of
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The popular modern diet, characterized by an excess of animal protein and salt but insufficient in fruits, vegetables and water, is a poor fit for human physiological and homeostatic regulatory systems. Sustained net acid and sodium retention, coupled with an insufficient intake of cardiovascular protective potassium-rich foods and hydration in the modern diet can give rise to debilitating chronic organ dysfunction and ultimately, mortality. This holds true, especially in our aging population who are already facing inevitable decline in organ functional reserve. Importantly, in most cases, despite the mismatch and adverse effects to multiple organ systems, plasma electrolyte and acid-base parameters can, on the surface, be maintained within a “normal” reference range, primarily by activating (often maximally activating) compensatory homeostatic mechanisms. These diet-induced effects can thus be clinically silent for decades. Embodied in the chronic corrective homeostatic processes, however, are real risks for multiorgan damage. According to the Dietary Guideline Advisory Committee (DGAC), half of American adults have one or more chronic diseases that are preventable with dietary modification. Here, homeostasis of body fluid acid-base, sodium, potassium and water is examined. Our current dietary habits and their required regulatory adaptation, maladaptation and relevant physiology and pathophysiology are discussed. A framework of dietary modifications to avoid a propensity for maladaptation and thus lowers the risks of common modern diseases (primary prevention) and minimizes the risk of chronic and age-related disease progression (secondary prevention) is emphasized. Although there are other variables at play, a key to restoring the all-important dietary potassium to sodium ratio is greater consumption of vegetables/fruits and adopting salt temperance. Dietary and nutritional optimization is an under-emphasized area of health care that has an enormous potential to temper the epidemics of prevalent chronic diseases in modern society and improve population health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Consumption on Markers of CVD Risk
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060777
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
A number of epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in whole grains are linked to lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality. Quinoa, a pseudo-cereal, is included in the “whole grain” category but the effects of quinoa consumption in humans is not
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A number of epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in whole grains are linked to lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality. Quinoa, a pseudo-cereal, is included in the “whole grain” category but the effects of quinoa consumption in humans is not widely studied. Our aim was to undertake a dietary intervention study to investigate the effects of daily consumption of quinoa-enriched bread (providing 20 g quinoa flour) on CVD risk markers compared with a 100% refined wheat bread control. Thirty-seven healthy overweight men (35–70 years, body mass index >25 kg/m2) completed a 4-week cross-over intervention, separated by a 4-week washout period. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each intervention period. Continuous glucose monitoring was undertaken at the end of each intervention period. After 4 weeks of intervention, blood glucose and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly lower than baseline in both groups but there was no difference between quinoa and control. Anthropometric measures and other blood metabolites were not different between the two treatments. The cumulative area under the blood glucose curve for the last 4 days of the quinoa intervention tended to be lower than the first 4 days of wash-out (p = 0.054), and was significantly lower than the corresponding period of the wheat treatment (p = 0.039). In conclusion, daily consumption of quinoa in this short-term intervention appears to modify glucose response, but has minimal effects on other CVD risk biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grains and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Biological and Clinical Aspects of an Olive Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion—A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060776
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) have been an integral component of parenteral nutrition for more than 50 years. Numerous formulations are available and are based on vegetable (soybean, olive, coconut) and animal (fish) oils. Therefore, each of these formulations has a unique fatty acid
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Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) have been an integral component of parenteral nutrition for more than 50 years. Numerous formulations are available and are based on vegetable (soybean, olive, coconut) and animal (fish) oils. Therefore, each of these formulations has a unique fatty acid composition that offers both benefits and limitations. As clinical experience and our understanding of the effects of fatty acids on various physiological processes has grown, there is evidence to suggest that some ILEs may have benefits compared with others. Current evidence suggests that olive oil-based ILE may preserve immune, hepatobiliary, and endothelial cell function, and may reduce lipid peroxidation and plasma lipid levels. There is good evidence from a large randomized controlled study to support a benefit of olive oil-based ILE over soybean oil-based ILE on reducing infections in critically ill patients. At present there is limited evidence to demonstrate a benefit of olive oil-based ILE over other ILEs on glucose metabolism, and few data exist to demonstrate a benefit on clinical outcomes such as hospital or intensive care unit stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or mortality. We review the current research and clinical evidence supporting the potential positive biological and clinical aspects of olive oil-based ILE and conclude that olive oil-based ILE is well tolerated and provides effective nutritional support to various PN-requiring patient populations. Olive oil-based ILE appears to support the innate immune system, is associated with fewer infections, induces less lipid peroxidation, and is not associated with increased hepatobiliary or lipid disturbances. These data would suggest that olive oil-based ILE is a valuable option in various PN-requiring patient populations. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and Interactions with Statins
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060775
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Decreases in global cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in recent decades can be partly attributed to cholesterol reduction through statin use. n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are recommended by some authorities for primary and secondary CVD prevention, and for triglyceride
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Decreases in global cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in recent decades can be partly attributed to cholesterol reduction through statin use. n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are recommended by some authorities for primary and secondary CVD prevention, and for triglyceride reduction. The residual risk of CVD that remains after statin therapy may potentially be reduced by n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the effects of concomitant use of statins and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are not well understood. Pleiotropic effects of statins and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids overlap. For example, cytochrome P450 enzymes that metabolize statins may affect n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and vice versa. Clinical and mechanistic study results show both synergistic and antagonistic effects of statins and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids when used in combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Habitual Fructose Intake Relates to Insulin Sensitivity and Fatty Liver Index in Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Individuals without Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060774
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The association between the amount and sources of fructose intake with insulin sensitivity and liver fat needs further elucidation. This study aimed at examining whether habitual intake of sucrose plus non-sucrose bound as well as of non-sucrose bound fructose (total fructose, fruit-derived, juice-derived,
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The association between the amount and sources of fructose intake with insulin sensitivity and liver fat needs further elucidation. This study aimed at examining whether habitual intake of sucrose plus non-sucrose bound as well as of non-sucrose bound fructose (total fructose, fruit-derived, juice-derived, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB)-derived fructose) is cross-sectionally associated with insulin sensitivity and fatty liver index (FLI). Fructose intake was estimated using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire from 161 participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the ongoing German Diabetes Study (GDS) (age 53 ± 9 years; HbA1c 6.4 ± 0.9%) and 62 individuals without diabetes (CON) (47 ± 14 years; 5.3 ± 0.3%). Peripheral (M-value) and hepatic insulin resistance were assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with stable isotope dilution. FLI was calculated based on body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride and gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. A doubling of SSB-derived sucrose plus non-sucrose bound as well as of non-sucrose bound fructose intake was independently associated with a reduction of the M-value by −2.6% (−4.9; −0.2) and −2.7% (−5.2; −0.1) among T2D, respectively, with an increase in the odds of fatty liver by 16% and 17%, respectively among T2D (all p < 0.05). Doubling fruit-derived sucrose plus non-sucrose bound fructose intake independently related to a reduction in the odds of fatty liver by 13% (p = 0.033) among T2D. Moderate SSB-derived fructose intake may detrimentally affect peripheral insulin sensitivity, whereas fruit-derived fructose intake appeared beneficial for liver fat content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Effects of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation on the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Level and Cardiometabolic Profile in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060773
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
During the postmenopausal period, the risk of cardiovascular diseases is increased in many obese women and is associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile and a sub-chronic low-grade systemic inflammation caused by a gut barrier permeability dysfunction. Here, we tested whether administration of two
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During the postmenopausal period, the risk of cardiovascular diseases is increased in many obese women and is associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile and a sub-chronic low-grade systemic inflammation caused by a gut barrier permeability dysfunction. Here, we tested whether administration of two different dosages of the multispecies probiotic Ecologic® Barrier influenced the cardiometabolic biochemical parameters and lipopolysaccharide levels, the latter used as a marker of increased gut permeability in obese postmenopausal women. A total of 81 obese Caucasian postmenopausal women participated in the trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups that received a placebo, a low dose (LD) (2.5 × 109 colony forming units (CFU) per day), or a high dose (HD) (1 × 1010 CFU per day) of lyophilisate powder containing live multispecies probiotic bacteria. The probiotic supplement was administered each day in two equal portions for 12 weeks. We found significant (p < 0.05) favorable changes (mostly large or medium effects) in the evaluated parameters in both the HD and LD groups but not in the placebo group. In the HD group, lipopolysaccharide, waist, fat mass, subcutaneous fat, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and insulin-resistant index (HOMA-IR) were improved. Similar changes were observed in the LD group, except for lipopolysaccharide, uric acid, triglycerides, and glucose levels. Additionally, significant differences were observed in both groups in terms of fat percentage and visceral fat. When the mean changes were compared between the three groups, statistically significant differences in lipopolysaccharide levels, uric acid, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR were found. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences in the mean changes (mostly medium effects) between the HD and LD groups for uric acid, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR. In the 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention, we observed that supplementation with the multispecies probiotic Ecologic® Barrier favorably affected the risk factors in a dose-dependent manner, showing beneficial effects on the cardiometabolic parameters and gut permeability of the patients. Our results suggest that this product can be effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in obese postmenopausal women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nobiletin Inhibits CD36-Dependent Tumor Angiogenesis, Migration, Invasion, and Sphere Formation Through the Cd36/Stat3/Nf-Κb Signaling Axis
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060772
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Targeted cancer therapy with natural compounds is more effective than nontargeted therapy. Nobiletin is a flavonoid derived from citrus peel that has anticancer activity. Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family that is involved in
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Targeted cancer therapy with natural compounds is more effective than nontargeted therapy. Nobiletin is a flavonoid derived from citrus peel that has anticancer activity. Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family that is involved in importing fatty acids into cells. CD36 plays a role in tumor angiogenesis by binding to its ligand, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and then interacting with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). CD36 is implicated in tumor metastasis through its roles in fatty acid metabolism. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying nobiletin’s anticancer activity by characterizing its interactions with CD36 as the target molecule. We hypothesize that the anti-angiogenic activity of nobiletin involving its regulation of CD36 via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) rather than through TSP-1. Gene analysis identified a Gamma interferon activation site (GAS) element in the CD36 gene promoter that acts as a STAT3 binding site, an interaction that was confirmed by ChIP assay. STAT3 interacts with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), suggesting that nobiletin also acts through the CD36/ (STAT3)/NF-κB signaling axis. Nobiletin inhibited CD36-dependent breast cancer cell migration and invasion as well as CD36-mediated tumor sphere formation. Taken together, these results suggest that nobiletin inhibits cancer stem cells in multiple ways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Cholesterol Intake and Sources among U.S Adults: Results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2001–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060771
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that individuals should minimize their dietary cholesterol intake. However, current dietary cholesterol intake and its food sources have not been well-characterized. We examined dietary cholesterol intake by age, sex, race, and food sources using 24-h dietary
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The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that individuals should minimize their dietary cholesterol intake. However, current dietary cholesterol intake and its food sources have not been well-characterized. We examined dietary cholesterol intake by age, sex, race, and food sources using 24-h dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 5047 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in NHANES (2013–2014 survey cycle). We also reported trends in cholesterol intake across the past seven NHANES surveys. Mean dietary cholesterol intake was 293 mg/day (348 mg/day for men and 242 mg/day for women) in the 2013–2014 survey cycle; 39% of adults had dietary cholesterol intake above 300 mg/day (46% for men and 28% for women). Meat, eggs, grain products, and milk were the highest four food sources of cholesterol, contributing to 96% of the total consumption. Both average cholesterol intake and food source varied by age, sex, and race (each p < 0.05). Mean cholesterol intake of the overall population had been relatively constant at ~290 mg/day from 2001–2002 to 2013–2014 (p-trend = 0.98). These results should inform public health efforts in implementing dietary guidelines and tailoring dietary recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Cholesterol, Lipid Levels, and Cardiovascular Risk among Adults with Diabetes or Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Framingham Offspring Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060770
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Previous recommendations to limit dietary cholesterol intake have been eliminated for most adults. Questions remain about whether dietary cholesterol has adverse cardiovascular effects among individuals with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes (IFG/T2DM). We used data for 993 adults (40.9% female), ages 35–<65 years,
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Previous recommendations to limit dietary cholesterol intake have been eliminated for most adults. Questions remain about whether dietary cholesterol has adverse cardiovascular effects among individuals with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes (IFG/T2DM). We used data for 993 adults (40.9% female), ages 35–<65 years, with prevalent IFG/T2DM in the prospective Framingham Offspring Study to address this question. Dietary cholesterol was assessed using 3-day diet records at exams 3 and 5 and used to classify subjects into sex-specific tertiles of mean cholesterol intake. Outcomes included fasting lipid levels over 20 years and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statistical analyses included repeated measures mixed regression models and Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for confounding. Among adults with T2DM/IFG, there was no consistent association between dietary cholesterol intake and fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL/HDL ratio, or triglycerides over 20 years of follow-up. In longitudinal analyses, the adjusted hazard ratio for CVD in the highest (vs. lowest) sex-specific tertile of cholesterol intake was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.90). These analyses provide no evidence of an adverse association between dietary cholesterol and serum lipid levels or atherosclerotic CVD risk among adults with prevalent IFG/T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Cholesterol:Is It Related to Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Bolus Ingestion of Whey Protein Immediately Post-Exercise Does Not Influence Rehydration Compared to Energy-Matched Carbohydrate Ingestion
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060769
Received: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP) or maltodextrin
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Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP) or maltodextrin (MD) at the onset of a rehydration period, followed by ingestion of water to a volume equivalent to 150% of the amount of body mass lost during exercise in the heat. The gastric emptying rates of the solutions were measured using 13C breath tests. Recovery was monitored for a further 3 h by the collection of blood and urine samples. The time taken to empty half of the initial solution (T1/2) was different between the trials (WP = 65.5 ± 11.4 min; MD = 56.7 ± 6.3 min; p = 0.05); however, there was no difference in cumulative urine volume throughout the recovery period (WP = 1306 ± 306 mL; MD = 1428 ± 443 mL; p = 0.314). Participants returned to net negative fluid balance 2 h after the recovery period with MD and 3 h with WP. The results of this study suggest that whey protein empties from the stomach at a slower rate than MD; however, this does not seem to exert any positive or negative effects on the maintenance of fluid balance in the post-exercise period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trimester-Specific Dietary Intakes in a Sample of French-Canadian Pregnant Women in Comparison with National Nutritional Guidelines
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060768
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Diet during pregnancy greatly impacts health outcomes. This study aims to measure changes in dietary intakes throughout trimesters and to assess pregnant women’s dietary intakes in comparison with current Canadian nutritional recommendations. Seventy-nine pregnant women were recruited and completed, within each trimester, three
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Diet during pregnancy greatly impacts health outcomes. This study aims to measure changes in dietary intakes throughout trimesters and to assess pregnant women’s dietary intakes in comparison with current Canadian nutritional recommendations. Seventy-nine pregnant women were recruited and completed, within each trimester, three Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and one Web questionnaire on supplement use. Dietary intakes from food, with and without supplements, were compared to nutritional recommendations throughout pregnancy. Energy and macronutrient intakes remained stable throughout pregnancy. A majority of women exceeded their energy and protein requirements in the first trimester, and fat intakes as a percentage of energy intakes were above recommendations for more than half of the women in all trimesters. Supplement use increased dietary intakes of most vitamins and minerals, but 20% of women still had inadequate total vitamin D intakes and most women had excessive folic acid intakes. This study showed that pregnant women did not increase their energy intakes throughout pregnancy as recommended. Furthermore, although prenatal supplementation reduces the risk of inadequate intake for most micronutrients, there is still a risk of excessive folic acid and insufficient vitamin D intake, which needs further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation)
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