Special Issue "Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Bahram H. Arjmandi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Florida, USA;
Director of Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
Interests: osteoporosis; calcium; vitamin D; estrogen; functional foods; osteoarthritis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is the underlying cause for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, a certain level of inflammation is considered by some to be a protective response, and can be important for healing; by the same token, low-grade, chronic inflammation leads to the development of insulin resistance, CVD, hyperlipidemia, and many other health risks. For instance, the typical Western diet is high in sugar and fat, and the ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acids; this unfavorable tilt in the ratio can lead to chronic inflammatory responses, obesity, and thus disease.  Different nutrients have different effects on inflammatory response, both positive and negative; thus, the disruption or restoration of metabolic processes seems to be mediated on some level by the nutrients we consume.

The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “Inflammation: An Ancient Battle. What Are the Roles of Nutrients?” is to publish selected papers detailing specific aspects of nutrition that could play a role in decreasing inflammation and inflammatory response. Particularly, papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) dealing with the role of specific nutrients and non‐nutritional substances present in food regarding chronic diseases that are caused by or associated with inflammation, both chronic and acute.

On this topic, you are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Special Issue.

Dr. Bahram Arjmandi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Inflammation 
  • Blueberry 
  • Obesity
  • Chronic Disease
  • Antioxidants 
  • Vitamin E
  • Osteoporosis 
  • Sarcopenia 
  • Cardiovascular Disease

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Diet Supplementation in ω3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Favors an Anti-Inflammatory Basal Environment in Mouse Adipose Tissue
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020438 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Oxylipins are metabolized from dietary ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in an inflammatory response. Adipose tissue inflammatory background is a key factor of metabolic disorders and it is accepted that dietary fatty acids, in terms of quality and quantity, [...] Read more.
Oxylipins are metabolized from dietary ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in an inflammatory response. Adipose tissue inflammatory background is a key factor of metabolic disorders and it is accepted that dietary fatty acids, in terms of quality and quantity, modulate oxylipin synthesis in this tissue. Moreover, it has been reported that diet supplementation in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids resolves some inflammatory situations. Thus, it is crucial to assess the influence of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxylipin synthesis and their impact on adipose tissue inflammation. To this end, mice fed an ω6- or ω3-enriched standard diet (ω6/ω3 ratio of 30 and 3.75, respectively) were analyzed for inflammatory phenotype and adipose tissue oxylipin content. Diet enrichment with an ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid induced an increase in the oxylipins derived from ω6 linoleic acid, ω3 eicosapentaenoic, and ω3 docosahexaenoic acids in brown and white adipose tissues. Among these, the level of pro-resolving mediator intermediates, as well as anti-inflammatory metabolites, were augmented. Concomitantly, expressions of M2 macrophage markers were increased without affecting inflammatory cytokine contents. In vitro, these metabolites did not activate macrophages but participated in macrophage polarization by inflammatory stimuli. In conclusion, we demonstrated that an ω3-enriched diet, in non-obesogenic non-inflammatory conditions, induced synthesis of oxylipins which were involved in an anti-inflammatory response as well as enhancement of the M2 macrophage molecular signature, without affecting inflammatory cytokine secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Beta-Cryptoxanthin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption via the Suppression of Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase Activity
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020368 - 10 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Beta-cryptoxanthin (β-cry) is a typical carotenoid found abundantly in fruit and vegetables such as the Japanese mandarin orange, persimmon, papaya, paprika, and carrot, and exerts various biological activities (e.g., antioxidant effects). We previously reported that β-cry suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclast differentiation via the [...] Read more.
Beta-cryptoxanthin (β-cry) is a typical carotenoid found abundantly in fruit and vegetables such as the Japanese mandarin orange, persimmon, papaya, paprika, and carrot, and exerts various biological activities (e.g., antioxidant effects). We previously reported that β-cry suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) E2 production in gingival fibroblasts and restored the alveolar bone loss in a mouse model for periodontitis in vivo. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of β-cry on osteoclast differentiation. In mouse calvarial organ cultures, LPS-induced bone resorption was suppressed by β-cry. In osteoblasts, β-cry inhibited PGE2 production via the downregulation of the LPS-induced mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and membrane-bound PGE synthase (mPGES)-1, which are PGE synthesis-related enzymes, leading to the suppression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA transcriptional activation. In an in vitro assay, β-cry directly suppressed the activity of the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK) β, and adding ATP canceled this IKKβ inhibition. Molecular docking simulation further suggested that β-cry binds to the ATP-binding pocket of IKKβ. In Raw264.7 cells, β-cry suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. The molecular mechanism underlying the involvement of β-cry in LPS-induced bone resorption may involve the ATP-competing inhibition of IKK activity, resulting in the suppression of NF-κB signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Blueberries Improve Pain, Gait Performance, and Inflammation in Individuals with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020290 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder in the world and is the most frequent cause of walking related disability among older adults in the US, which brings a significant economic burden and reduces quality of life. The initiation and development of [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder in the world and is the most frequent cause of walking related disability among older adults in the US, which brings a significant economic burden and reduces quality of life. The initiation and development of OA typically involves degeneration or progressive loss of the structure and function of articular cartilage. Inflammation is one of the major drives of the progression of OA. Dietary polyphenols have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties and potential anabolic effects on the cartilage cells. Blueberries are widely consumed and are high in dietary polyphenols, therefore regular consumption of blueberries may help improve OA. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of freeze dried whole blueberries on pain, gait performance, and inflammation in individuals with symptomatic knee OA. In a randomized, double-blind trial, adults age 45 to 79 with symptomatic knee OA, were randomized to either consume 40 g freeze-dried blueberry powder (n = 33) or placebo powder (n = 30) daily for four months. Blood draws and assessment of pain and gait were conducted at baseline, two months, and four months. Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaires were used to assess pain and GAITRite® electronic walkway was used to evaluate gait spatiotemporal parameters. WOMAC total score and sub-groups, including pain, stiffness, and difficulty to perform daily activities decreased significantly in the blueberry treatment group (p < 0.05), but improvement of WOMAC total score and difficulty to perform daily activities were not observed in the placebo group. Normal walking pace single support percentage for both limbs increased (p = or < 0.007), while double support percentage for both limbs decreased in the blueberry treatment group (p = or < 0.003). No significant changes were observed in plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3, MMP-13, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in both treatment groups. However, an increasing trend for IL-13 concentration and a decreasing trend in MCP-1 concentration were noted in the blueberry group. The findings of this study suggest that daily incorporation of whole blueberries may reduce pain, stiffness, and difficulty to perform daily activities, while improving gait performance, and would therefore improve quality of life in individuals with symptomatic knee OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Tart Cherry Juice on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020228 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The findings of our previous study suggest that 12 weeks consumption of tart cherry juice lowers the levels of systolic blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol [...] Read more.
Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The findings of our previous study suggest that 12 weeks consumption of tart cherry juice lowers the levels of systolic blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in older adults. The present study investigated the effects of tart cherry juice on blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In this randomized-controlled clinical trial, a total of 37 men and women between the ages of 65–80 were randomly assigned to consume 480 mL of tart cherry juice or control drink daily for 12 weeks. Several blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. After the 12 weeks intervention, tart cherry juice significantly increased the plasma levels of DNA repair activity of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (p < 0.0001) and lowered (p = 0.03) the mean c-reactive protein (CRP) level compared to the control group. There was a significant group effect observed for plasma CRP (p = 0.03) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.03), and a borderline significant group effect observed for plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) (p = 0.07). Within group analysis showed that the plasma levels of CRP, MDA, and OxLDL decreased numerically by 25%, 3%, and 11%, respectively after 12 weeks of tart cherry juice consumption compared with corresponding baseline values. The present study suggests that the ability of tart cherry juice to reduce systolic BP and LDL cholesterol, in part, may be due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Larger and longer follow-up studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Inflammatory Index Score and Its Association with Body Weight, Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, and Leptin in Indonesian Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010148 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
It was previously reported that dietary intake is an important trigger for systemic inflammation and one of the lifestyle factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score and [...] Read more.
It was previously reported that dietary intake is an important trigger for systemic inflammation and one of the lifestyle factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score and body weight, blood pressure, lipid profile and leptin in an Indonesian population. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 503 Indonesian adults. The DII score was calculated based on data of 30 nutrients and food components. Anthropometric profile, blood pressure, lipid profile, and leptin were measured. The association of these variables with the DII score was analyzed. The DII score was not associated with body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (both unadjusted and after adjustment for covariates). However, plasma leptin concentration was significantly associated with the DII score (B = 0.096, p = 0.020). Plasma leptin also increased significantly across tertiles of the DII score (ANCOVA, p = 0.031). This positive association between the DII score and plasma leptin concentration suggests a role for the inflammatory properties of the diet in regulating adipose tissue inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Open AccessArticle
Beneficial Effects of Vitamin D Treatment in an Obese Mouse Model of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010077 - 03 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Serum vitamin D levels negatively correlate with obesity and associated disorders such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the mechanisms linking low vitamin D (VD) status to disease progression are not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed the effect of VD treatment on [...] Read more.
Serum vitamin D levels negatively correlate with obesity and associated disorders such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the mechanisms linking low vitamin D (VD) status to disease progression are not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed the effect of VD treatment on NASH in mice. C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sugar diet (HFSD) containing low amounts of VD for 16 weeks to induce obesity, NASH and liver fibrosis. The effects of preventive and interventional VD treatment were studied on the level of liver histology and hepatic/intestinal gene expression. Interestingly, preventive and to a lesser extent also interventional VD treatment resulted in improvements of liver histology. This included a significant decrease of steatosis, a trend towards lower non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score and a slight non-significant decrease of fibrosis in the preventive treatment group. In line with these changes, preventive VD treatment reduced the hepatic expression of lipogenic, inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes. Notably, these beneficial effects occurred in conjunction with a reduction of intestinal inflammation. Together, our observations suggest that timely initiation of VD supplementation (preventive vs. interventional) is a critical determinant of treatment outcome in NASH. In the applied animal model, the improvements of liver histology occurred in conjunction with reduced inflammation in the gut, suggesting a potential relevance of vitamin D as a therapeutic agent acting on the gut–liver axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Tart Cherry Prevents Bone Loss through Inhibition of RANKL in TNF-Overexpressing Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010063 - 29 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Current drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis-associated bone loss come with concerns about their continued use. Thus, it is necessary to identify natural products with similar effects, but with fewer or no side effects. We determined whether tart cherry (TC) could be [...] Read more.
Current drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis-associated bone loss come with concerns about their continued use. Thus, it is necessary to identify natural products with similar effects, but with fewer or no side effects. We determined whether tart cherry (TC) could be used as a supplement to prevent inflammation-mediated bone loss in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-overexpressing transgenic (TG) mice. TG mice were assigned to a 0%, 5%, or 10% TC diet, with a group receiving infliximab as a positive control. Age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates fed a 0% TC diet were used as a normal control. Mice were monitored by measurement of body weight. Bone health was evaluated via serum biomarkers, microcomputed tomography (µCT), molecular assessments, and mechanical testing. TC prevented TNF-mediated weight loss, while it did not suppress elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. TC also protected bone structure from inflammation-induced bone loss with a reduced ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) to a degree comparable to infliximab. Furthermore, unlike with infliximab, TC exhibited a moderate improvement in TNF-mediated decline in bone stiffness. Thus, TC could be used as a prophylactic regimen against future fragility fractures in the context of highly chronic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Polyphenolic Extract from Tarocco (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Clone “Lempso” Exerts Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects via NF-kB and Nrf-2 Activation in Murine Macrophages
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121961 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Citrus fruits are often employed as ingredients for functional drinks. Among Citrus, the variety, “Lempso”, a typical hybrid of the Calabria region (Southern Italy), has been reported to possess superior antioxidant activity when compared to other common Citrus varieties. For these reasons, [...] Read more.
Citrus fruits are often employed as ingredients for functional drinks. Among Citrus, the variety, “Lempso”, a typical hybrid of the Calabria region (Southern Italy), has been reported to possess superior antioxidant activity when compared to other common Citrus varieties. For these reasons, the aim of this study is to investigate in vitro the nutraceutical value of the Tarocco clone, “Lempso”, highlighting its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential. A post-column 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging assay for the screening of antioxidant compounds in these complex matrices was developed. Subsequently, polyphenolic extract was tested on a murine macrophage cell line under inflammatory conditions. The extract resulted was able to significantly inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine release and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The inhibition of these pro-inflammatory factors was associated to Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) inhibition. Our results also indicate an anti-oxidant potential of the extract as evidenced by the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and by the activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) pathway in macrophages. The obtained results highlight the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Lempso extract and its potential use, as a new ingredient for the formulation of functional beverages with high nutraceutical value, providing health benefits to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Dioscorea batatas Flesh and Peel Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111680 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Gastric ulcer is a major digestive disorder and provoked by multifactorial etiologies, including excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, we examined the gastroprotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dioscorea batatas Decne (DBD; commonly called Chinese yam) flesh or peel against acidified [...] Read more.
Gastric ulcer is a major digestive disorder and provoked by multifactorial etiologies, including excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, we examined the gastroprotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dioscorea batatas Decne (DBD; commonly called Chinese yam) flesh or peel against acidified ethanol-induced acute gastric damage in mice. Our findings demonstrated that oral supplementation of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of DBD flesh or peel before ulcer induction was significantly effective in macroscopically and histologically alleviating ethanol-induced pathological lesions in gastric mucosa, decreasing the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide and interleukin-6, attenuating the gastric expression of cyclooxygenase-2, and increasing the gastric content of prostaglandin E2. In particular, pretreatment with the flesh extract prepared in 60% ethanol prominently decreased the expression of biomarkers of oxidative stress, including the plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2-guanosine and malondialdehyde, and restored heme oxygenase-1 expression and superoxide dismutase activity in the stomach. Overall, these findings suggest that the oral supplementation with DBD extract, especially flesh ethanol extract, prior to excessive alcohol consumption, may exert a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in vivo, presumably through the activation of the antioxidant system and suppression of the inflammatory response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Poor Dietary Quality Is Associated with Increased Inflammation in Swedish Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101535 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The aim was to study whether dietary quality was associated with disease activity and inflammation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This cross-sectional analysis included 66 Swedish participants, who each completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at screening. Food intake was scored by [...] Read more.
The aim was to study whether dietary quality was associated with disease activity and inflammation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This cross-sectional analysis included 66 Swedish participants, who each completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at screening. Food intake was scored by a dietary quality index created by the Swedish National Food Agency. Disease activity was measured as Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a patient administered visual analogue scale of perceived global health and the number of tender and swollen joints out of 28 examined. Inflammation was measured as ESR and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Associations between dietary quality, disease activity and inflammation were evaluated using multivariable linear regression analysis. High dietary quality (high intake of fish, shellfish, whole grain, fruit and vegetables and low intake of sausages and sweets) was not related to DAS28 (B = −0.02, p = 0.787). However, dietary quality was significantly negatively associated with hs-CRP (B = −0.6, p = 0.044) and ESR (B = −2.4, p = 0.002) after adjusting for body mass index, age, education, smoking and gender. Both hs-CRP and ESR decreased with increasing dietary quality. In conclusion, among patients with RA, high dietary quality was associated with reduced inflammation but not with disease activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Radical Scavenging Properties of Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) Essential Oils
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060783 - 18 Jun 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically [...] Read more.
Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically related bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso). The present study aimed to investigate potential in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of chinotto essential oils (CEOs) and to establish to what extent their composition and bioactivities are dependent on maturation. Essential oil from half ripe chinotto (CEO2) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inflammatory genes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264,7 macrophages. Limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and γ-terpinene were found to be the main components in CEO2. Moreover, CEO2 showed high radical scavenging activity measured as Trolox equivalents (TE) against both 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). These findings show that chinotto essential oil represents a valuable part of this fruit and warrants further in vivo studies to validate its anti-inflammatory potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Possible Synergistic Effects of Glutathione and C-Reactive Protein in the Progression of Liver Cirrhosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060678 - 27 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Liver cirrhosis is often associated with increased inflammatory responses and changes of glutathione (GSH) status. The possible interactions between these two factors in mediating damages of liver function remain unclear. Here, we measured the inflammatory responses and GSH status in liver cirrhotic patients [...] Read more.
Liver cirrhosis is often associated with increased inflammatory responses and changes of glutathione (GSH) status. The possible interactions between these two factors in mediating damages of liver function remain unclear. Here, we measured the inflammatory responses and GSH status in liver cirrhotic patients and compared them with healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed the relationship of the GSH status and levels of inflammatory markers with the severity of the disease. This was a cross-sectional study. In total, we recruited 63 liver cirrhotic patients with Child–Turcotte–Pugh class A scores, and 12 patients with class B–C scores, together with 110 healthy subjects. Patients with class B–C scores showed the highest level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) when compared with class A patients or healthy subjects. Patients in class A group had significantly higher GSH levels when compared with class B–C group or healthy subjects. After adjusting for potential confounders and each other, serum hs-CRP levels showed positive association with the Child–Turcotte–Pugh scores, while GSH levels showed negative association with Child–Turcotte–Pugh scores. Interactions were found between levels of plasma GSH and serum hs-CRP (β = 0.004, p = 0.016). CRP and GSH levels, which had showed interactions, were associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Water Extract on RAW 264.7 Induced with Lipopolysaccharide
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050647 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism [...] Read more.
The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW). The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT), Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Fluo-4 calcium assay. ASW restored cell viability in RAW 264.7 at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. ASW showed notable anti-inflammatory effects. ASW exhibited IC50 = 954.3, 387.3, 191.7, 317.8, 1267.0, 347.0, 110.1, 573.6, 1171.0, 732.6, 980.8, 125.0, and 257.0 µg/mL for interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCP)-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-10, and intracellular calcium, respectively. Additionally, ASW inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and the LPS-induced mRNA expression of CHOP (GADD153), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), first apoptosis signal receptor (FAS), and c-Fos, NOS2, and PTGS2 (COX2) in RAW 264.7 significantly (p < 0.05). Data suggest that ASW exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 via NO-bursting/calcium-mediated JAK-STAT pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
l-Carnitine Supplementation in Older Women. A Pilot Study on Aging Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020255 - 23 Feb 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism and anabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week l-carnitine supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, IGF-1, body composition and skeletal muscle strength in healthy human subjects over 65 years of age. Women between 65 and 70 years of age were supplemented for 24 weeks with either 1500 mg l-carnitine-l-tartrate or an isonitrogenous placebo per day in a double-blind fashion. Before and after the supplementation protocol, body mass and composition, as well as knee extensor and flexor muscle strength were determined. In the blood samples, free carnitine, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein and IGF-1 were determined. A marked increase in free plasma carnitine concentration was observed due to l-carnitine supplementation. No substantial changes in other parameters were noted. In the current study, supplementation for 24 weeks affected neither the skeletal muscle strength nor circulating markers in healthy women over 65 years of age. Positive and negative aspects of l-carnitine supplementation need to be clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Chemopreventive Effect of Aster glehni on Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020202 - 12 Feb 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Although Aster glehni is a common dietary herb that has various bioactivities, including anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects, A. glehni has not been studied in colon cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized the chemopreventive effects of an ethanol extract of A. glehni (AG) on azoxymethane/dextran [...] Read more.
Although Aster glehni is a common dietary herb that has various bioactivities, including anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects, A. glehni has not been studied in colon cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized the chemopreventive effects of an ethanol extract of A. glehni (AG) on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. In this study, we found that treatment with AG significantly attenuated the AOM/DSS-induced enlargement of the spleen and shortening of the colon. In addition, colonic tumor formation, colonic damage, and increased muscle thickness were significantly reduced in AOM/DSS-induced mice fed AG. Treatment with AG also reduced intestinal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression in mice with AOM/DSS-induced CAC. Furthermore, AG reduced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation via phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of kappa Bα (IκBα), leading to inhibition of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. It also downregulated the expression of NF-κB-related proteins, including the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family and inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), in mice with AOM/DSS-induced CAC. Taken together, these findings suggest that the treatment with AG inhibited colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice, and this chemopreventive effect was strongly mediated by suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway, indicating that AG could be a promising protective agent against CAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Functional Ingredients based on Nutritional Phenolics. A Case Study against Inflammation: Lippia Genus
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071646 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have reported convincing evidence that natural dietary compounds may modify inflammation, it being an important event described in the pathophysiology of age-related infirmity. Among different dietary components, nutritional phenolics have demonstrated links to a lower risk of inflammation in the most [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have reported convincing evidence that natural dietary compounds may modify inflammation, it being an important event described in the pathophysiology of age-related infirmity. Among different dietary components, nutritional phenolics have demonstrated links to a lower risk of inflammation in the most common degenerative and chronic diseases. In this way, the healthy potential of phenolics against inflammation and the emergence of new functional ingredients have caused an enhancement of nutraceutical and functional food formulation. The present review focuses on: (a) nutritional phenolics and their effects on inflammation and (b) functional ingredients based on phenolic compounds with anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, the emerging interest in health-promoting products by consumers has caused an increase in the demand for functional products and nutraceuticals. Additionally, this review includes a case study of the Lippia genus, which has shown anti-inflammatory effects claiming to be a natural alternative for the management of this physiological disorder. This report is a practical tool for healthcare providers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Role of Dietary Lipids in Modulating Inflammation through the Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010117 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Inflammation and its resolution is a tenuous balance that is under constant contest. Though several regulatory mechanisms are employed to maintain homeostasis, disruptions in the regulation of inflammation can lead to detrimental effects for the host. Of note, the gut and microbial dysbiosis [...] Read more.
Inflammation and its resolution is a tenuous balance that is under constant contest. Though several regulatory mechanisms are employed to maintain homeostasis, disruptions in the regulation of inflammation can lead to detrimental effects for the host. Of note, the gut and microbial dysbiosis are implicated in the pathology of systemic chronic low-grade inflammation which has been linked to several metabolic diseases. What remains to be described is the extent to which dietary fat and concomitant changes in the gut microbiota contribute to, or arise from, the onset of metabolic disorders. The present review will highlight the role of microorganisms in host energy regulation and several mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory pathways. This review will also discuss the immunomodulatory effects of the endocannabinoid system and its link with the gut microbiota. Finally, a brief discussion arguing for improved taxonomic resolution (at the species and strain level) is needed to deepen our current knowledge of the microbiota and host inflammatory state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Protective Role of Polyphenols against Vascular Inflammation, Aging and Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010053 - 28 Dec 2018
Cited by 31
Abstract
Aging is a major risk factor in the development of chronic diseases affecting various tissues including the cardiovascular system, muscle and bones. Age-related diseases are a consequence of the accumulation of cellular damage and reduced activity of protective stress response pathways leading to [...] Read more.
Aging is a major risk factor in the development of chronic diseases affecting various tissues including the cardiovascular system, muscle and bones. Age-related diseases are a consequence of the accumulation of cellular damage and reduced activity of protective stress response pathways leading to low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Both inflammation and oxidative stress are major contributors to cellular senescence, a process in which cells stop proliferating and become dysfunctional by secreting inflammatory molecules, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and extracellular matrix components that cause inflammation and senescence in the surrounding tissue. This process is known as the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Thus, accumulation of senescent cells over time promotes the development of age-related diseases, in part through the SASP. Polyphenols, rich in fruits and vegetables, possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities associated with protective effects against major chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we discuss molecular mechanisms by which polyphenols improve anti-oxidant capacity, mitochondrial function and autophagy, while reducing oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs). We also discuss the therapeutic potential of polyphenols in reducing the effects of the SASP and the incidence of CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
The Role of Succinate in the Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010025 - 22 Dec 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Succinate is a metabolic intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle within host cells. Succinate is also produced in large amounts during bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Elevated succinate levels within the gut lumen have been reported in association with microbiome disturbances (dysbiosis), [...] Read more.
Succinate is a metabolic intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle within host cells. Succinate is also produced in large amounts during bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Elevated succinate levels within the gut lumen have been reported in association with microbiome disturbances (dysbiosis), as well as in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and animal models of intestinal inflammation. Recent studies indicate that succinate can activate immune cells via its specific surface receptor, succinate receptor 1(SUCNR1), and enhance inflammation. However, the role of succinate in inflammatory processes within the gut mucosal immune system is unclear. This review includes current literature on the association of succinate with intestinal inflammation and the potential role of succinate–SUCNR1 signaling in gut immune functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessBrief Report
Neurotensin Is a Lipid-Induced Gastrointestinal Peptide Associated with Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040526 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and [...] Read more.
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and the development of insulin-resistance. In humans, higher plasma levels of pro-NT, which is the stable circulating precursor of NT, predict obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. In obesity, the presence of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation leads to unfavorable metabolic outcomes and is associated with the development of T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma pro-NT levels and the presence of VAT inflammation in biopsies from 40 morbidly obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. We demonstrated that higher proNT levels are significantly associated with greater macrophages infiltration, HIF-1α, WISP-1, and UNC5B expression in VAT (all p < 0.01) due to the diagnosis of T2D and NAFLD. The overall results show that, in obesity, pro-NT is a biomarker of VAT inflammation and insulin-resistance. Additionally, NT may be involved in the development of dysmetabolic conditions likely mediated by increased gut fat absorption and the presence of a proinflammatory milieu in the adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop