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Special Issue "Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jason Wu

The George Institute for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food policy; nutrition epidemiology; food environment; cardiometabolic diseases
Guest Editor
Dr. Matti Marklund

The George Institute for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
E-Mail
Interests: nutritional epidemiology; public health; food policy; dietary biomarkers; fatty acids; whole grains; nutrient metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The impact of fat intake on hypercholesterolemia and related atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been studied for decades. However, the current evidence base suggests that fatty acids also influences cardiometabolic diseases through other mechanisms including effects on glucose metabolism, body fat distribution, blood pressure, inflammation, and heart rate. Furthermore, studies evaluating single fatty acids have challenged the simplistic view of shared health effects within fatty acid groups categorized by degree of saturation. In addition, investigations of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, including genetic studies of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, and the identification of novel metabolically derived fatty acids have further increased the complexity of fatty acids’ health impacts.

This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on genetic and dietary modulation of fatty acids, and the role and function of dietary and metabolically derived fatty acids in cardiometabolic health.

Dr. Jason Wu
Dr. Matti Marklund
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fatty acids
  • Cardiometabolic health
  • Risk factors
  • Inflammation
  • Glucose metabolism
  • Diet

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Erythrocyte n-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Outcomes and Total Mortality in the Framingham Heart Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122012
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without [...] Read more.
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon, and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status, and red blood cell (RBC) n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 coronary heart disease (CHD) events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher circulating levels of marine n-3 FA levels are associated with reduced risk for incident CVD and ischemic stroke and for death from CHD and all-causes; however, in the same sample little evidence exists for association with n-6 FAs. Further work is needed to identify a full profile of FAs associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Quality of Dietary Fat Intake and Body Weight and Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: Secondary Analyses within the PREDIMED Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122011
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the [...] Read more.
A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the PREDIMED trial, with yearly repeated validated food-frequency questionnaires, and anthropometric outcomes (median follow-up: 4.8 years). The effects of replacing dietary fat subtypes for one another, proteins or carbohydrates were estimated using generalized estimating equations substitution models. Replacement of 5% energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in weight changes of −0.38 kg (95% Confidece Iinterval (CI): −0.69, −0.07), and −0.51 kg (95% CI: −0.81, −0.20), respectively. Replacing proteins with MUFA or PUFA decreased the odds of becoming obese. Estimates for the daily substitution of one portion of red meat with white meat, oily fish or white fish showed weight changes up to −0.87 kg. Increasing the intake of unsaturated fatty acids at the expense of SFA, proteins, and carbohydrates showed beneficial effects on body weight and obesity. It may therefore be desirable to encourage high-quality fat diets like the Mediterranean diet instead of restricting total fat intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Association Studies of Estimated Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Serum and Adipose Tissue in Elderly Individuals: Associations with Insulin Sensitivity
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111791
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Abstract
Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of δ-5-desaturase (D5D), [...] Read more.
Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of δ-5-desaturase (D5D), δ-6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD) activities (estimated by product-to-precursor ratios of fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography) in serum cholesterol esters (n = 1453) and adipose tissue (n = 783, all men) were performed in two Swedish population-based cohorts. Genome-wide significant associated loci were evaluated for associations with IS measured with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n = 554). Variants at the FADS1 were strongly associated with D5D in both cholesterol esters (p = 1.9 × 10−70) and adipose tissue (p = 1.1 × 10−27). Variants in three further loci were associated with D6D in cholesterol esters (FADS2, p = 3.0 × 10−67; PDXDCI, p = 4.8 × 10−8; and near MC4R, p = 3.7 × 10−8) but no associations with D6D in adipose tissue attained genome-wide significance. One locus was associated with SCD in adipose tissue (PKDL1, p = 2.2 × 10−19). Genetic variants near MC4R were associated with IS (p = 3.8 × 10−3). The FADS cluster was the main genetic determinant of estimated FADS activity. However, fatty acid (FA) ratios in adipose tissue and cholesterol esters represent FADS activities in separate tissues and are thus influenced by different genetic factors with potential varying effects on IS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Possible Role of CYP450 Generated Omega-3/Omega-6 PUFA Metabolites in the Modulation of Blood Pressure and Vascular Function in Obese Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111689
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is often accompanied by metabolic and haemodynamic disorders such as hypertension, even during childhood. Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), vasoactive and natriuretic metabolites that contribute to blood pressure (BP) [...] Read more.
Obesity is often accompanied by metabolic and haemodynamic disorders such as hypertension, even during childhood. Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), vasoactive and natriuretic metabolites that contribute to blood pressure (BP) regulation. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may compete with AA for CYP450-dependent bioactive lipid mediator formation. We aimed at investigating the role of AA, EPA and DHA and their CYP450-dependent metabolites in BP control and vascular function in 66 overweight/obese children. Fatty acid profile moderately correlated with the corresponding CYP450-derived metabolites but their levels did not differ between children with normal BP (NBP) and high BP (HBP), except for higher EPA-derived epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs) and their diols in HBP group, in which also the estimated CYP450-epoxygenase activity was higher. In the HBP group, EPA inversely correlated with BP, EEQs inversely correlated both with systolic BP and carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT). The DHA-derived epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) were inversely correlated with diastolic BP. Omega-3 derived epoxymetabolites appeared beneficially associated with BP and vascular structure/function only in obese children with HBP. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of omega-3/omega-6 epoxymetabolites in children’s hemodynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Erucic Acid (22:1n-9) in Fish Feed, Farmed, and Wild Fish and Seafood Products
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101443
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a risk assessment of erucic acid (22:1n-9) in 2016, establishing a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for humans of 7 mg kg−1 body weight per day. This report largely excluded the contribution of erucic acid from [...] Read more.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a risk assessment of erucic acid (22:1n-9) in 2016, establishing a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for humans of 7 mg kg−1 body weight per day. This report largely excluded the contribution of erucic acid from fish and seafood, due to this fatty acid often not being reported separately in seafood. The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) in Norway analyzes erucic acid and has accumulated extensive data from analyses of fish feeds, farmed and wild fish, and seafood products. Our data show that rapeseed oil (low erucic acid varieties) and fish oil are the main sources of erucic acid in feed for farmed fish. Erucic acid content increases with total fat content, both in farmed and wild fish, and it is particularly high in fish liver, fish oil, and oily fish, such as mackerel. We show that the current TDI could be exceeded with a 200 g meal of mackerel, as at the maximum concentration analyzed, such a meal would contribute 143% to the TDI of a 60 kg person. These data cover a current knowledge gap in the scientific literature regarding the content of erucic acid in fish and seafood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle 10,12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Driven Weight Loss Is Protective against Atherosclerosis in Mice and Is Associated with Alternative Macrophage Enrichment in Perivascular Adipose Tissue
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101416
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
The dietary fatty acid 10,12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation, but its effects on atherosclerosis are less clear. We recently showed that weight loss induced by 10,12 CLA in an atherosclerosis-susceptible mouse model with characteristics similar [...] Read more.
The dietary fatty acid 10,12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation, but its effects on atherosclerosis are less clear. We recently showed that weight loss induced by 10,12 CLA in an atherosclerosis-susceptible mouse model with characteristics similar to human metabolic syndrome is accompanied by accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages within subcutaneous adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss was associated with an atheroprotective phenotype. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice were made obese with 12 weeks of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet feeding (HFHS: 36% fat, 36% sucrose, 0.15% added cholesterol), then either continued on the HFHS diet with or without caloric restriction (CR), or switched to a diet with 1% of the lard replaced by either 9,11 CLA or 10,12 CLA for 8 weeks. Atherosclerosis and lipid levels were quantified at sacrifice. Weight loss in mice following 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR as a weight-matched control group had improved cholesterol and triglyceride levels, yet only the 10,12 CLA-treated mice had improved en face and aortic sinus atherosclerosis. 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice had increased lesion macrophage content, with enrichment of surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) alternative macrophages, which may contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic effect of 10,12 CLA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Inflammation but Does Not Restore Renal Function and Klotho Expression in an Adenine-Induced CKD Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091283
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Background: Chronic kidney disease and inflammation promote loss of Klotho expression. Given the well-established anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids, we aimed to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation in a model of CKD. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice received supplementation with an [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic kidney disease and inflammation promote loss of Klotho expression. Given the well-established anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids, we aimed to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation in a model of CKD. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice received supplementation with an adenine-enriched diet (AD, n = 5) or standard diet (CTL, n = 5) for 10 days. Two other experimental groups were kept under the adenine diet for 10 days. Following adenine withdrawal on the 11th day, the animals returned to a standard diet supplemented with fish oil (Post AD-Fish oil, n = 9) or not (Post AD-CTL, n = 9) for an additional period of 7 days. Results: Adenine mice exhibited significantly higher mean serum urea, creatinine, and renal expression of the pro-inflammatory markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in addition to prominent renal fibrosis and reduced renal Klotho gene expression compared to the control. Post AD-Fish oil animals demonstrated a significant reduction of IL-6, C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9), and IL-1β compared to Post AD-CTL animals. However, serum creatinine, renal fibrosis, and Klotho were not significantly different in the fish oil-treated group. Furthermore, renal histomorphological changes such as tubular dilatation and interstitial infiltration persisted despite treatment. Conclusions: Fish oil supplementation reduced renal pro-inflammatory markers but was not able to restore renal function nor Klotho expression in an adenine-induced CKD model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Medium-Chain Triglycerides Lower Blood Lipids and Body Weight in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080963
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are distinguished from other triglycerides in that each fat molecule consists of 6 to 12 carbons in length. MCTs and long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) are absorbed and utilized in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the effects [...] Read more.
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are distinguished from other triglycerides in that each fat molecule consists of 6 to 12 carbons in length. MCTs and long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) are absorbed and utilized in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of replacing soybean oil with MCT oil, in a low- or high-fat diet, on lipid metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There were, thirty-two T2DM Sprague-Dawley rats divided into low-fat-soybean oil (LS), low-fat-MCT oil (LM), high-fat-soybean oil (HS), and high-fat-MCT oil (HM) groups. After 8 weeks, blood sugar, serum lipids, liver lipids, and enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism were measured. Under a high-fat diet condition, replacement of soybean oil with MCT oil lowered serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-esterified fatty acids, and liver total cholesterol; whilst it increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio. A low-fat diet with MCT oil resulted in lower body weight and reproductive white adipose tissues compared to the HS groups, and higher hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase activities (the key enzyme in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation) compared to the LS group in T2DM rats. In conclusion, MCTs showed more protective effects on cardiovascular health in T2DM rats fed a high-fat diet, by improving serum lipid profiles and reducing hepatic total cholesterol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Setting of Coronary Artery Disease and COPD: A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121864
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
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Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing healthcare concern and will represent the third leading cause of death worldwide within the next decade. COPD is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors, especially cigarette smoking, air pollution, and genetic preconditions, [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing healthcare concern and will represent the third leading cause of death worldwide within the next decade. COPD is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors, especially cigarette smoking, air pollution, and genetic preconditions, which result in persistent inflammation of the airways. There is growing evidence that the chronic inflammatory state, measurable by increased levels of circulating cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins, may not be confined to the lungs. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and especially coronary artery disease (CAD) are common comorbidities of COPD, and low-grade systemic inflammation plays a decisive role in its pathogenesis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert multiple functions in humans and are crucially involved in limiting and resolving inflammatory processes. n-3 PUFAs have been intensively studied for their ability to improve morbidity and mortality in patients with CVD and CAD. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the effects of n-3 PUFA on inflammation and its impact on CAD in COPD from a clinical perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessReview Genes and Dietary Fatty Acids in Regulation of Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma and Erythrocyte Membranes
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111785
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
The fatty acid compositions of plasma lipids and cell membranes of certain tissues are modified by dietary fatty acid composition. Furthermore, many other factors (age, sex, ethnicity, health status, genes, and gene × diet interactions) affect the fatty acid composition of cell membranes [...] Read more.
The fatty acid compositions of plasma lipids and cell membranes of certain tissues are modified by dietary fatty acid composition. Furthermore, many other factors (age, sex, ethnicity, health status, genes, and gene × diet interactions) affect the fatty acid composition of cell membranes or plasma lipid compartments. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the complexity of mechanisms that may modify fatty acid compositions of plasma or tissues. We carried out an extensive literature survey of gene × diet interaction in the regulation of fatty acid compositions. Most of the related studies have been observational studies, but there are also a few intervention trials that tend to confirm that true interactions exist. Most of the studies deal with the desaturase enzyme cluster (FADS1, FADS2) in chromosome 11 and elongase enzymes. We expect that new genetic variants are being found that are linked with the genetic regulation of plasma or tissue fatty acid composition. This information is of great help to understanding the contribution of dietary fatty acids and their endogenic metabolism to the development of some chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessReview Uncommon Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101559
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality. The effects of several unsaturated fatty acids on cardiometabolic health, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), and oleic acid (OA) have received much attention in [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality. The effects of several unsaturated fatty acids on cardiometabolic health, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), and oleic acid (OA) have received much attention in past years. In addition, results from recent studies revealed that several other uncommon fatty acids (fatty acids present at a low content or else not contained in usual foods), such as furan fatty acids, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and conjugated fatty acids, also have favorable effects on cardiometabolic health. In the present report, we searched the literature in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to review the research progress on anti-CVD effect of these uncommon fatty acids. DPA has a favorable effect on cardiometabolic health in a different way to other long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), such as EPA and DHA. Furan fatty acids and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) may be potential bioactive fatty acids beneficial for cardiometabolic health, but evidence from intervention studies in humans is still limited, and well-designed clinical trials are required. The favorable effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cardiometabolic health observed in animal or in vitro cannot be replicated in humans. However, most intervention studies in humans concerning CLA have only evaluated its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors but not its direct effect on risk of CVD, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be required to clarify this point. However, several difficulties and limitations exist for conducting RCTs to evaluate the effect of these fatty acids on cardiometabolic health, especially the high costs for purifying the fatty acids from natural sources. This review provides a basis for better nutritional prevention and therapy of CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Fats and Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101385
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
The role of dietary fat has been long studied as a modifiable variable in the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable cardiometabolic disease. Once heavily promoted to the public, the low-fat diet has been demonstrated to be non-effective in preventing cardiometabolic disease, and an [...] Read more.
The role of dietary fat has been long studied as a modifiable variable in the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable cardiometabolic disease. Once heavily promoted to the public, the low-fat diet has been demonstrated to be non-effective in preventing cardiometabolic disease, and an increasing body of literature has focused on the effects of a relatively higher-fat diet. More recent evidence suggests that a diet high in healthy fat, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, such as the Mediterranean dietary pattern, may, in fact, prevent the development of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also reduce cardiovascular events. This review will specifically focus on clinical trials which collected data on dietary fatty acid intake, and the association of these fatty acids over time with measured cardiometabolic health outcomes, specifically focusing on morbidity and mortality outcomes. We will also describe mechanistic studies investigating the role of dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors to describe the potential mechanisms of action through which unsaturated fatty acids may exert their beneficial effects. The state of current knowledge on the associations between dietary fatty acids and cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality outcomes will be summarized and directions for future work will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessReview The Role of n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and Interactions with Statins
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060775
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Decreases in global cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in recent decades can be partly attributed to cholesterol reduction through statin use. n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are recommended by some authorities for primary and secondary CVD prevention, and for triglyceride [...] Read more.
Decreases in global cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in recent decades can be partly attributed to cholesterol reduction through statin use. n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are recommended by some authorities for primary and secondary CVD prevention, and for triglyceride reduction. The residual risk of CVD that remains after statin therapy may potentially be reduced by n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the effects of concomitant use of statins and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are not well understood. Pleiotropic effects of statins and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids overlap. For example, cytochrome P450 enzymes that metabolize statins may affect n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and vice versa. Clinical and mechanistic study results show both synergistic and antagonistic effects of statins and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids when used in combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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