Special Issue "Health Benefits of Fermentation"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Bordoni
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agro-Food Sciences and Technologies (DISTAL), University of Bologna, piazza Goidanich, 60, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
Interests: human nutrition; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acids; in vitro digestion; bioavailability; nutrigenomics; bioactive compounds
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Andrea Gianotti
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agri-Food Sciences and Technologies, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
Interests: fermented foods; microbial metabolites; functional foods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although humans have used microbial fermentation to produce foods, particularly beverages, since the Neolithic era, and advances in microbiology and fermentation technology have continued steadily up to the present, different aspects of the link between fermentation and health still need to be addressed.

The functional aspects of microbial fermentation of foods are mostly related to the concepts of probiotic bacteria and prebiotics. Probiotics provided by fermented foods can modulate composition and stability of the intestinal microbiota. Prebiotics, which are fermented in the gut and selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria, have a role as well, and exert a fundamental impact on intestinal ecology. Several scientific reports link the gut microbiome with human health.

Notwithstanding, restrict the fermentation-health relationship to the modulation of gut microbiome by probiotics and prebiotics is limiting, and recently fermentation has been linked to the delivery of bioactive compounds. Food fermentation represents the most impacting food transformation bringing to deep changes both on quali/quantitative composition of beneficial molecules, such as bioactive peptides. Likewise, functional molecules such as short chain fatty acids come from intestinal fermentation.

All functional molecules derived from fermentation deserve additional attention, and further research focused on revealing the mechanisms behind the fermentation-health association are needed.

The current Special Issue aims to welcome original works and literature reviews further explaining the potential role of fermentation in health and disease prevention.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Technological advances in food fermentation and product development;
  • Description of mechanism of action, pathways, and targets at molecular level of functional molecules derived from food fermentation;
  • Description of mechanism of action, pathways, and targets at molecular level of functional molecules derived from gut fermentation;
  • Observational studies on the association of fermented food consumption with chronic diseases;
  • Level of evidence on the association of functional molecules derived from food/gut fermentation with human health, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Please join us as a part of this Special Issue of Nutrients on this important and timely topic.

Prof. Alessandra Bordoni
Prof. Andrea Gianotti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Food fermentation
  • Intestinal fermentation
  • Functional foods
  • Bioactive compounds

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Probiotic Enrichment and Reduction of Aflatoxins in a Traditional African Maize-Based Fermented Food
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020265 - 25 Jan 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
Fermentation of food products can be used for the delivery of probiotic bacteria and means of food detoxification, provided that probiotics are able to grow, and toxins are reduced in raw materials with minimal effects on consumer acceptability. This study evaluated probiotic enrichment [...] Read more.
Fermentation of food products can be used for the delivery of probiotic bacteria and means of food detoxification, provided that probiotics are able to grow, and toxins are reduced in raw materials with minimal effects on consumer acceptability. This study evaluated probiotic enrichment and detoxification of kwete, a commonly consumed traditional fermented cereal beverage in Uganda, by the use of starter culture with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106. Probiotic kwete was produced by fermenting a suspension of ground maize grain at 30 °C for a period of 24 h, leading to a decrease of the pH value to ≤ 4.0 and increase in titratable acidity of at least 0.2% (w/v). Probiotic kwete was acceptable to the consumers with a score of ≥6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. The products were stable over a month’s study period with a mean pH of 3.9, titratable acidity of 0.6% (w/v), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus counts >108 cfu g−1. HPLC analysis of aflatoxins of the water-soluble fraction of kwete indicated that fermentation led to an over 1000-fold reduction of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 spiked in the raw ingredients. In vitro fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed binding of aflatoxin B1 to Lactobacillus rhamnosus with an efficiency of 83.5%. This study shows that fermentation is a means to enrich with probiotics and reduce widely occurring aflatoxin contamination of maize products that are consumed as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Dairy and Plant-Derived Lactobacilli as Starters for Cherry Juice Fermentation
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020213 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibit a great biodiversity that can be exploited for different purposes, such as to enhance flavours or metabolize phenolic compounds. In the present study, the use of dairy and plant-derived LAB strains to perform cherry juice fermentation is [...] Read more.
Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibit a great biodiversity that can be exploited for different purposes, such as to enhance flavours or metabolize phenolic compounds. In the present study, the use of dairy and plant-derived LAB strains to perform cherry juice fermentation is reported. Methods: The growth ability of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in cherry juice. Profiling of sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds was performed by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry), while the phenolic fraction was characterized using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) equipped with a linear ion trap-mass spectrometer. Results: Sucrose significantly decreased in all fermented samples as well as malic acid, converted to lactic acid by malolactic fermentation. The total amount of volatile compounds increased. Specifically, propyl acetate, an ester with fruit notes, reached the highest concentration in L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei (dairy strains) fermented juices. Phenolics were extensively metabolized: caffeic acid was converted into dihydrocaffeic acid, p-coumaric acid into 4-ethylphenol and phenyllactic acid was produced. Conclusion: Lactic acid fermentation confer fruit notes to the juice and enhance phenyllactic acids, especially employing dairy strains (L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei). The level of dihydrocaffeic acid, a compound with putative biological activity was also increased (in particular with L. plantarum). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevention of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Suckling Rats by a Specific Fermented Milk Concentrate with Prebiotic Mixture
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010189 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Several microbial modulatory concepts, such as certain probiotics and prebiotics, confer protection against gastrointestinal infections, among which is acute diarrhea caused by the rotavirus (RV). Other microbiota modulators, such as postbiotics, produced during fermentation, might also have the potential to counteract RV infection. [...] Read more.
Several microbial modulatory concepts, such as certain probiotics and prebiotics, confer protection against gastrointestinal infections, among which is acute diarrhea caused by the rotavirus (RV). Other microbiota modulators, such as postbiotics, produced during fermentation, might also have the potential to counteract RV infection. In light of this, a fermented milk, made by using Bifidobacterium breve C50 (BbC50) and Streptococcus thermophilus 065 (St065) with a prebiotic mixture—short chain galactooligosaccharides/long chain fructooligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS 9:1)—with potential to impact the intestinal microbiota composition was tested. An RV infected rat model was used to evaluate the amelioration of the infectious process and the improvement of the immune response induced by the fermented milk with prebiotic mixture. The dietary intervention caused a reduction in the clinical symptoms of diarrhea, such as severity and incidence. Furthermore, a modulation of the immune response was observed, which might enhance the reduction of the associated diarrhea. In addition, the fermented milk with prebiotic mixture was able to bind the virus and reduce its clearance. In conclusion, the postbiotic components in the fermented milk in combination with the prebiotics used here showed protective properties against RV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Designer Synbiotic Attenuates Chronic-Binge Ethanol-Induced Gut-Liver Injury in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010097 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Gut dysbiosis and altered short-chain fatty acids are associated with ethanol-induced liver injury. SCFA are fermentation byproducts of the gut microbiota known to have many beneficial biological effects. We tested if a designer synbiotic could protect against ethanol-induced gut-liver injury. C57BL/6 female mice [...] Read more.
Gut dysbiosis and altered short-chain fatty acids are associated with ethanol-induced liver injury. SCFA are fermentation byproducts of the gut microbiota known to have many beneficial biological effects. We tested if a designer synbiotic could protect against ethanol-induced gut-liver injury. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to chronic-binge ethanol feeding consisting of ethanol (5% vol/vol) for 10 days, followed by a single gavage (5 g/kg body weight) 6 h before euthanasia. A group of mice also received oral supplementation daily with a designer synbiotic, and another group received fecal slurry (FS); control animals received saline. Control mice were isocalorically substituted maltose dextran for ethanol over the entire exposure period. Ethanol exposure reduced expression of tight junction proteins in the proximal colon and induced hepatocyte injury and steatosis. Synbiotic supplementation not only mitigated losses in tight junction protein expression, but also prevented ethanol-induced steatosis and hepatocyte injury. Ethanol exposure also increased hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress, which was also attenuated by synbiotic supplementation. Mice receiving FS were not protected from ethanol-induced liver injury or steatosis. Results were associated with luminal SCFA levels and SCFA transporter expression in the proximal colon and liver. These results indicate supplementation with a designer synbiotic is effective in attenuating chronic-binge ethanol-induced gut-liver injury and steatosis in mice, and highlight the beneficial effects of the gut microbial fermentation byproducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Kombucha Beverage from Green, Black and Rooibos Teas: A Comparative Study Looking at Microbiology, Chemistry and Antioxidant Activity
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010001 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 22
Abstract
Kombucha is usually obtained from the fermentation of black or green tea by a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. In this study, kombucha was prepared from the same starter consortium using green and black teas as well as, for the first [...] Read more.
Kombucha is usually obtained from the fermentation of black or green tea by a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. In this study, kombucha was prepared from the same starter consortium using green and black teas as well as, for the first time, an infusion of rooibos leaves (Aspalathus linearis). Microbial diversity was analysed during fermentation both in the biofilm and in the corresponding kombuchas, using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Polyphenols, flavonoids, ethanol, and acids were quantified and anti-oxidant activities were monitored. All of the Kombuchas showed similarity in bacterial composition, with the dominance of Komagataeibacter spp. Beta diversity showed that the yeast community was significantly different among all tea substrates, between 7 and 14 days of fermentation and between biofilm and kombucha, indicating the influence of the substrate on the fermenting microbiota. Kombucha from rooibos has a low ethanol concentration (1.1 mg/mL), and a glucuronic acid amount that was comparable to black tea. Although antioxidant activity was higher in black and green kombucha compared to rooibos, the latter showed an important effect on the recovery of oxidative damage on fibroblast cell lines against oxidative stress. These results make rooibos leaves interesting for the preparation of a fermented beverage with health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Sourdough Fermentation Favorably Influences Selenium Biotransformation and the Biological Effects of Flatbread
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121898 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Although selenium is of great importance for the human body, in several world regions the intake of this essential trace element does not meet the dietary reference values. To achieve optimal intake, fortification of bread by using selenium-enriched flour has been put forward. [...] Read more.
Although selenium is of great importance for the human body, in several world regions the intake of this essential trace element does not meet the dietary reference values. To achieve optimal intake, fortification of bread by using selenium-enriched flour has been put forward. Less is known on the potential effect of sourdough fermentation, which might be worth exploring as the biological effects of selenium strongly depend on its chemical form and sourdough fermentation is known to cause transformations of nutrients and phytochemicals, including the conversion of inorganic selenium into organic selenocompounds. Here we investigated the bio transformation of selenium by sourdough fermentation in a typical Italian flatbread (piadina) made with standard (control) or selenium-enriched flour. The different piadina were submitted to in vitro digestion, and the biological activity of the resulting hydrolysates was tested by means of cultured human liver cells exposed to an exogenous oxidative stress. The use of selenium-enriched flour and sourdough fermentation increased the total content of bioaccessible selenium in organic form, compared to conventional fermentation, and led to protective effects counteracting oxidative damage in cultured cells. The present study suggests that selenium-rich, sourdough-fermented bakery products show promise for improving human selenium nutrition whenever necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Oral Administration of Lactic Acid Bacteria Metabolites on Skin Barrier Function and Water Content in a Murine Model of Atopic Dermatitis
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121858 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The effects of orally administered lactic acid bacteria metabolites on skin were studied using an atopic dermatitis-like murine model generated by feeding HR-AD to mice. Lactic acid bacteria metabolites were obtained by inoculating and culturing soy milk with 35 strains of 16 species [...] Read more.
The effects of orally administered lactic acid bacteria metabolites on skin were studied using an atopic dermatitis-like murine model generated by feeding HR-AD to mice. Lactic acid bacteria metabolites were obtained by inoculating and culturing soy milk with 35 strains of 16 species of lactic acid bacteria. The atopic dermatitis-like murine model was generated by feeding HR-AD to HR-1 mice for 40 days. The skin condition of HR-AD-fed mice worsened compared with normal mice, showing reduced water content in the stratum corneum, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reduced ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and increased epidermis thickness. When HR-AD-fed mice were orally administered a raw liquid containing lactic acid bacteria metabolites, water content in the stratum corneum, TEWL, ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and epidermis thickness improved. To determine the active components responsible for these effects, filtrate, residue, and lipid components extracted from the raw liquid containing lactic acid bacteria metabolites were examined. While water-soluble components and residue obtained after filtration had no effects, the lipid fraction showed similar effects to the raw liquid. These findings suggest that lactic acid bacteria metabolites improve skin injury in an atopic dermatitis-like murine model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Fermentation with Different Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures on Biogenic Amine Content and Ripening Patterns in Dry Fermented Sausages
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101497 - 13 Oct 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
In the present study, two different diameter (small and large) Milano-type dry fermented sausages were industrially produced to evaluate the effect of two different LAB starter cultures (Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus) on biogenic amines (BAs) content, proteolysis, and lipolysis taking [...] Read more.
In the present study, two different diameter (small and large) Milano-type dry fermented sausages were industrially produced to evaluate the effect of two different LAB starter cultures (Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus) on biogenic amines (BAs) content, proteolysis, and lipolysis taking place during both fermentation and ripening. With regard to BAs, putrescine and tyramine were mostly found in fermented sausages having large diameter and those inoculated with P. pentosaceus/S. xylosus exhibited significantly higher accumulation of these compounds. Overall, the small size sausages showed a more pronounced proteolysis taking place during processing. In addition, aside from the distinctive electrophoretic bands detected with both starter cultures, a more pronounced proteolysis and a faster protein hydrolysis was observed in salami inoculated with P. pentosaceus/S. xylosus. As for lipolysis, a significantly higher amount of diacylglycerols was observed at the end of ripening in the sausages inoculated with L. sakei/S. xylosus, which concurrently exhibited an increased D32, D34, and D36 series. The results of the present study confirms profound differences in BAs concentration, proteolysis, and lipolysis. These findings are strictly dependent on the starter cultures, which demonstrates that the choice of an appropriate starter optimized for peculiar products and processes should be the key factor to improve safety and quality features of traditional fermented sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Bee Collected Pollen with Enhanced Health Benefits, Produced by Fermentation with a Kombucha Consortium
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101365 - 23 Sep 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The bioavailability of pollen bioactive compounds for humans is limited. In this study, our aim was to enhance the health-related benefits of pollen by fermentation with a Kombucha/SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts) consortium. We performed the fermentation of pollen suspended from [...] Read more.
The bioavailability of pollen bioactive compounds for humans is limited. In this study, our aim was to enhance the health-related benefits of pollen by fermentation with a Kombucha/SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts) consortium. We performed the fermentation of pollen suspended from the beginning with SCOBY on sweetened green tea or on Kombucha vinegar, by adding pollen after 20 days of Kombucha fermentation. We analyzed: formation of bioactive compounds (anti-oxidant polyphenols, soluble silicon, hydroxy-acids, short chain fatty acids—SCFA); parameters related to Kombucha fermentation (dynamics of lactic acid bacteria—LAB, formation of organic acids, soluble sugar evolution on Kombucha vinegar); the influence of Kombucha fermentation on pollen morphology and ultrastructure; in vitro cytotoxic and antitumoral effects of the Kombucha fermented pollen. The pollen addition increases LAB proportion in the total number of SCOBY microbial strains. SEM images highlight the adhesion of the SCOBY bacteria to pollen. Ultrastructural analysis reveals the release of the pollen content. The content of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, soluble silicon species and SCFA) is higher in the fermented pollen and the product shows a moderate antitumoral effect on Caco-2 cells. The health benefits of pollen are enhanced by fermentation with a Kombucha consortium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Applicability of Yeast Fermentation to Reduce Fructans and Other FODMAPs
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091247 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and, polyols (FODMAPs) is recommended for people affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and non-coeliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) in order to reduce symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of [...] Read more.
A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and, polyols (FODMAPs) is recommended for people affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and non-coeliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) in order to reduce symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 13 sourdough-related yeasts on FODMAP degradation, especially fructans. First, a model system containing a typical wheat carbohydrate profile was applied to evaluate the growth rate of each yeast strain. Additionally, changes in the sugar composition, for up to four days, were monitored by high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC). A more realistic approach with a wheat flour suspension was used to characterize CO2 production according to the Einhorn method. The reduction of the total fructans was analyzed using an enzymatic method. Furthermore, a fingerprint of the present fructans with different degrees of polymerization was analyzed by HPAEC. The results revealed strong differences in the examined yeast strains’ ability to degrade fructans, in both the model system and wheat flour. Overall, Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Austrian traditional sourdough showed the highest degree of degradation of the total fructan content and the highest gas building capacity, followed by Torulaspora delbrueckii. Hence, this study provides novel knowledge about the FODMAP conversion of yeast strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Peptides from Goat Milk Fermented by Lactobacillus casei L61: Preparation, Optimization, and Stability Evaluation in Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060797 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity [...] Read more.
Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity to produce antioxidant peptides. An optimal nutrients formula (casein, casein peptone, glucose, soybean peptone, inulin, calcium lactate, and cysteine) was investigated by Plackett–Burman (P–B) and Box–Behnken (B–B) designs for response surface methodology (RSM). Antioxidant peptides were successively isolated and purified from the fermented goat milk. Furthermore, the stability of the antioxidant peptides was evaluated in a simulated gastrointestinal tract at 37 °C. The results showed that calcium lactate, glucose, and casein peptone significantly affected the antioxidant activity of goat milk. The optimal additive amounts were 0.99% (w/v) calcium lactate, 0.21% (w/v) glucose, and 0.29% (w/v) casein peptone. The hydroxyl free radical scavenging rate increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 56.50 ± 0.57% to 88.01 ± 0.69%; the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging rate increased up to 63.48 ± 1.22% under the optimal conditions (n = 3). Our research provides a fitted mathematical model for antioxidant peptides production. Besides, these antioxidant peptides had great stability during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Organoleptic Characterization of a Skimmed Goat Milk Fermented with the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050633 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The benefits of goat milk, fermented milks, and probiotics for the humans are well documented. In this study, a novel fermented goat milk was manufactured with the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4 together with L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Ultrafiltration was [...] Read more.
The benefits of goat milk, fermented milks, and probiotics for the humans are well documented. In this study, a novel fermented goat milk was manufactured with the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4 together with L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Ultrafiltration was chosen as the skimmed milk concentration method because it produced the best viscosity and syneresis and a high casein content. The viability rate of all bacterial strains was >107 cfu/mL, even after 5 weeks of storage or after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, which is especially important for exertion of the probiotic strain functionalities. This fermented milk is also a good source of nutrients, having a low lactose and fat content, high protein proportion, and good mineral concentration. According to these data and the overall acceptability described by panelists, this fermented milk is a healthy dairy product comparable with commercially available fermented milks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Beneficial Effect of Intestinal Fermentation of Natural Polysaccharides
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081055 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 28
Abstract
With the rapid development of modern society, many chronic diseases are increasing including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, etc., which further cause an increased death rate worldwide. A high caloric diet with reduced natural polysaccharides, typically indigestible polysaccharides, is considered a health risk factor. [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of modern society, many chronic diseases are increasing including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, etc., which further cause an increased death rate worldwide. A high caloric diet with reduced natural polysaccharides, typically indigestible polysaccharides, is considered a health risk factor. With solid evidence accumulating that indigestible polysaccharides can effectively prevent and/or ameliorate symptoms of many chronic diseases, we give a narrative review of many natural polysaccharides extracted from various food resources which mainly contribute their health beneficial functions via intestinal fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fermented Food and Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases: A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040448 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 28
Abstract
Fermented foods represent a significant fraction of human diets. Although their impact on health is positively perceived, an objective evaluation is still missing. We have, therefore, reviewed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the relationship between fermented foods and non-transmissible chronic diseases. [...] Read more.
Fermented foods represent a significant fraction of human diets. Although their impact on health is positively perceived, an objective evaluation is still missing. We have, therefore, reviewed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the relationship between fermented foods and non-transmissible chronic diseases. Overall, after summarizing 25 prospective studies on dairy products, the association of fermented dairy with cancer was found to be neutral, whereas it was weakly beneficial, though inconsistent, for specific aspects of cardio-metabolic health, in particular stroke and cheese intake. The strongest evidence for a beneficial effect was for yoghurt on risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Although mechanisms explaining this association have not been validated, an increased bioavailability of insulinotropic amino acids and peptides as well as the bacterial biosynthesis of vitamins, in particular vitamin K2, might contribute to this beneficial effect. However, the heterogeneity in the design of the studies and the investigated foods impedes a definitive assessment of these associations. The literature on fermented plants is characterized by a wealth of in vitro data, whose positive results are not corroborated in humans due to the absence of RCTs. Finally, none of the RCTs were specifically designed to address the impact of food fermentation on health. This question should be addressed in future human studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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