Special Issue "Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Michael Mathai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Victoria Univ, Coll Hlth & Biomed, Ctr Chron Dis, POB 14428, Melbourne, Vic 8001, Australia
Interests: appetite and metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Appetite and metabolism are key determinants of body weight and dysregulation can cause excessive food intake and storage of energy as fat that results in obesity. There are many factors that influence the neurohormonal control of appetite and metabolism, including side-effects of medications, genetic predisposition, gut microbiome composition, cultural trends and psychosocial factors. Evidence has shown that it is difficult to achieve and maintain healthy body weight by adhering to dietary and exercise guidelines. Similarly, there is a shortage of viable pharmaceuticals due to harmful side-effects in many effective treatments, with surgical methods often viewed as the most effective treatment in the medium to long term, although these also have accompanying risks and high cost. Thus, there has been a consistent drive to design optimal diets and discover nutrient extracts that can effectively reduce bodyweight by inhibiting appetite or increasing metabolic rate. These developments have been accompanied by consistent advancement in our understanding of the neurohormonal and cellular mechanisms underpinning the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is expected that dietary manipulations and nutrient extracts can be optimised alone or in combination to reverse the seemingly intractable increase in worldwide obesity.

It is my pleasure to invite you to provide a scientific paper for a Special Issue of Nutrients on "Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity". You have been selected due to your outstanding research, clinical expertise, and publications in this field. Our goal is to provide the best and most updated information to all researchers and health care providers to allow them to understand and incorporate nutrition and nutritional supplements into their approach to the treatment of obesity. We also hope that this special edition will inspire others in this field to continue research and publications on this topic. Please join me as part of this Special Issue of Nutrients in order to make this an exciting and timely publication on this important topic.

Prof. Michael Mathai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • appetite

  • metabolism

  • body weight

  • dysregulation

  • food intake

  • energy fat

  • obesity

  • dietary

  • exercise

  • psychosocial

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study from the 2012–2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101467 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
It is well known that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increases the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, there are not many studies investigating the link between SSBs and increased incidences of diseases in the Asian population, and in [...] Read more.
It is well known that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increases the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, there are not many studies investigating the link between SSBs and increased incidences of diseases in the Asian population, and in particular, in Korea. We explored the association of SSB consumption with the risk of developing obesity and MetS among Korean adults (12,112 participants from the 2012–2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). We calculated the total SSB consumption frequency by counting each beverage item, including soda beverages, fruit juices, and sweetened rice drinks. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. A survey logistic regression analyses was conducted to examine the association of SSB consumption with obesity and MetS, adjusting for related confounders such as age, energy intake, household income, education, alcohol drinking, smoking status, and physical activity. The SSB consumption was positively associated with an increased risk of the prevalence for obesity (Odd ratio (OR): 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23–2.09; p for trend = 0.0009) and MetS (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20–2.16; p for trend = 0.0003) among women. In men, SSB consumption only contributed to a higher prevalence of obesity (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11–1.72; p for trend = 0.0041). In conclusion, increased consumption of SSBs was closely linked with a higher prevalence of obesity and MetS in the Korean population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
Open AccessArticle
The Acute Effect of Oleic- or Linoleic Acid-Containing Meals on Appetite and Metabolic Markers; A Pilot Study in Overweight or Obese Individuals
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101376 - 26 Sep 2018
Abstract
Despite the abundance of plant-derived fats in our diet, their effects on appetite, and metabolic markers, remain unclear. This single-blinded 3-way cross-over pilot study aimed to investigate the ability of the two most abundant dietary plant-derived fats, oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) acids, [...] Read more.
Despite the abundance of plant-derived fats in our diet, their effects on appetite, and metabolic markers, remain unclear. This single-blinded 3-way cross-over pilot study aimed to investigate the ability of the two most abundant dietary plant-derived fats, oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) acids, to modulate postprandial appetite and levels of circulating appetite and metabolic regulators in overweight/obese individuals. Meals were a high-carbohydrate control, a high-OA or a high-LA meal, and provided 30% of participants’ estimated energy requirements. Meals were consumed after an overnight fast, with blood samples collected over 3¼ h. Appetite parameters were assessed via a validated visual analogue scale questionnaire. Hormones and other circulating factors were quantified using multiplex immunoassays. Eight participants (age 45.8 ± 3.6 (years), body mass index 32.0 ± 1.3 (kg/m2)) completed the study. All meals significantly increased fullness and reduced desire to eat. The control and high-OA meals significantly decreased prospective food intake. The high-LA meal increased ghrelin levels (p < 0.05), a hormone which encourages food intake. This was coupled with a significant acute increase in resistin levels, which impairs insulin signaling. Taken together, this study indicates that in overweight/obese individuals, high-LA meals may promote excess energy intake and alter glucose handling, though a larger cohort may be required to strengthen results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of A Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Food and Alcohol Cravings, Physical and Sexual Activity, Sleep Disturbances, and Quality of Life in Obese Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101348 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Psychological well-being and hunger and food control are two relevant factors involved in the success of weight-loss therapy in treating obesity. Thus, this study aims to evaluate food and alcohol cravings, physical and sexual activity, sleep, and life quality (QoL) in obese patients [...] Read more.
Psychological well-being and hunger and food control are two relevant factors involved in the success of weight-loss therapy in treating obesity. Thus, this study aims to evaluate food and alcohol cravings, physical and sexual activity, sleep, and life quality (QoL) in obese patients following a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet, as well as the role of weight lost and ketosis on these parameters. A battery of psychological test was performed in twenty obese patients (12 females, 47.2 ± 10.2 year and BMI of 35.5 ± 4.4) through the course of a 4-month VLCK diet on four subsequent visits: baseline, maximum ketosis, reduced ketosis, and endpoint. Each subject acted as their own control. Relevantly, the dietary-induced changes in body composition (7.7 units of BMI lost, 18 kg of fat mass (1.2 kg of visceral fat mass)) were associated with a statistically significant improvement in food craving scores, physical activity, sleepiness, and female sexual function. Overall, these results also translated in a notable enhancement in QoL of the treated obese patients. Therefore, the rapid and sustained weight and fat mass (FM) loss induced by the VLCK diet is associated with good food control and improvements in the psychological well-being parameters in obese subjects, which could contribute to the long-term success of this therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Orosensory Detection of Dietary Fatty Acids Is Altered in CB1R−/− Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101347 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Obesity is one of the major public health issues, and its prevalence is steadily increasing all the world over. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to be involved in the intake of palatable food via activation of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 [...] Read more.
Obesity is one of the major public health issues, and its prevalence is steadily increasing all the world over. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to be involved in the intake of palatable food via activation of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). However, the involvement of lingual CB1R in the orosensory perception of dietary fatty acids has never been investigated. In the present study, behavioral tests on CB1R−/− and wild type (WT) mice showed that the invalidation of Cb1r gene was associated with low preference for solutions containing rapeseed oil or a long-chain fatty acid (LCFA), such as linoleic acid (LA). Administration of rimonabant, a CB1R inverse agonist, in mice also brought about a low preference for dietary fat. No difference in CD36 and GPR120 protein expressions were observed in taste bud cells (TBC) from WT and CB1R−/− mice. However, LCFA induced a higher increase in [Ca2+]i in TBC from WT mice than that in TBC from CB1R−/− mice. TBC from CB1R−/− mice also exhibited decreased Proglucagon and Glp-1r mRNA and a low GLP-1 basal level. We report that CB1R is involved in fat taste perception via calcium signaling and GLP-1 secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
A Synergistic Formulation of Plant Extracts Decreases Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Peaks: Results from Two Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Studies Using Real-World Meals
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080956 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study investigated the efficacy of a plant-derived dietary supplement with respect to decreasing postprandial glucose and insulin peaks after the intake of real-world meals. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over experiments were conducted on healthy subjects who received a supplement containing extracts of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the efficacy of a plant-derived dietary supplement with respect to decreasing postprandial glucose and insulin peaks after the intake of real-world meals. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over experiments were conducted on healthy subjects who received a supplement containing extracts of white mulberry, white bean, and green coffee or one containing the three extracts with added fibre before consuming high-GI/GL (glycaemic index/glycaemic load) meals. In study one, 32 subjects received an investigational product/placebo before a standardized meal at two visits. In study two, 150 subjects received an investigational product/placebo before five different standardized meals. Postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations were lower 20–35 min after meal intake among subjects taking the investigational product, and fewer episodes of postprandial reactive hypoglycaemia were noted. For example, after consuming breakfast cereal with milk, lower glucose peaks were observed for the investigational product (vs. placebo) after 20 min (100.2 ± 1.97 vs. 112.5 ± 3.12 mg/dL, respectively; p < 0.01); lower insulin peaks were noted at the same time point (45.9 ± 4.02 IU/mL vs. 68.2 ± 5.53 IU/mL, respectively, p < 0.01). The combined formulation decreases the adverse consequences of high-GI/GL meal consumption. It can be an effective dietary supplement for the management of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effects of High-Intensity Interval and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise on GLP-1, Appetite and Energy Intake in Obese Men: A Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070889 - 12 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of high-intensity interval (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), appetite and energy intake (EI) in obese men. In a randomized crossover trial, 12 participants (28.4 ± 2.6 years, 35.5 ± 4.5 kg/m2 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of high-intensity interval (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), appetite and energy intake (EI) in obese men. In a randomized crossover trial, 12 participants (28.4 ± 2.6 years, 35.5 ± 4.5 kg/m2, 39.8 ± 2.2% body fat) performed: (I) Control (CON, no exercise); (II) MICE (20 min, 70% of maximal heart rate) and (III) HIIE (10 × 1 min at 90% of maximal heart rate with 1 min recovery). GLP-1 and appetite were assessed at: (I) PRE: pre-exercise; (II) POST: immediately post-exercise; (III) POST-1 h: 1 h post-exercise. EI was assessed after an ad libitum meal offered 1 h post-exercise and over 24 h. There was a significant time × condition interaction for GLP-1 (p = 0.035). Higher GLP-1 levels in MICE vs. CON (p = 0.024) and a trend for HIIE vs. CON (p = 0.069) POST-1h was found. Hunger was reduced immediately post-HIIE compared to CON (p < 0.01), but was not sustained POST-1 h (p > 0.05). EI did not differ between the sessions 1 h post-exercise or over 24H (p > 0.05). In summary, although MICE increased GLP-1 levels POST-1h and HIIE induced a transient reduction in hunger, both exercise protocols did not impact EI in obese men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Gastric Emptying Rate, Appetite and Gut Derived Hormone Responses after Consuming a Standardised Semi-Solid Meal in Healthy Males
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060787 - 19 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH), [...] Read more.
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH), 40% V˙O2Peak (LOW) or rest (CONTROL). Baseline samples were collected after an overnight fast before undertaking the 60 min exercise or rest period, followed by 30 min rest before consumption of a standardised semi-solid meal (~242 kcal). During the 2 h postprandial period, gastric emptying rate of the meal was examined using the 13C-breath test method, appetite was measured using visual analogue scales, and serum concentrations of acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were assessed. Subjective appetite response was not different between trials (p > 0.05). Half emptying time of the meal was 89 ± 13, 82 ± 8 and 94 ± 31 min on CONTROL, LOW and HIGH, respectively (p = 0.247). In healthy un-trained adult males, responses to exercise at intensities of 70% and 40% V˙O2Peak did not differ to a non-exercise control for measurements of subsequent gastric emptying, circulating gut hormone response or appetite. These results suggest that exercise intensity has little effect on post-exercise appetite response to a semi-solid meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Hunger, Food Cravings, and Diet Satisfaction are Related to Changes in Body Weight During a 6-Month Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention: The Beef WISE Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060700 - 31 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Previously published findings from the Beef WISE Study (Beef’s Role in Weight Improvement, Satisfaction, and Energy) indicated equivalent weight loss between two energy-restricted higher protein (HP) diets: A HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) and a [...] Read more.
Previously published findings from the Beef WISE Study (Beef’s Role in Weight Improvement, Satisfaction, and Energy) indicated equivalent weight loss between two energy-restricted higher protein (HP) diets: A HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) and a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60). Long-term adherence to dietary prescriptions is critical for weight management but may be adversely affected by changes in appetite, food cravings, and diet satisfaction that often accompany weight loss. A secondary a priori aim of the Beef WISE Study was to compare subjective ratings of appetite (hunger and fullness), food cravings, and diet satisfaction (compliance, satisfaction, and deprivation) between the diets and determine whether these factors influenced weight loss. Subjective appetite, food cravings, and diet satisfaction ratings were collected throughout the intervention, and body weight was measured at the baseline, after the weight loss intervention (week 16), and after an eight-week follow-up period (week 24). Hunger and cravings were reduced during weight loss compared to the baseline, while fullness was not different from the baseline. The reduction in cravings was greater for B vs. NB at week 16 only. Higher deprivation ratings during weight loss were reported in NB vs. B at weeks 16 and 24, but participants in both groups reported high levels of compliance and diet satisfaction with no difference between groups. Independent of group assignment, higher baseline hunger and cravings were associated with less weight loss, and greater diet compliance, diet satisfaction, and lower feelings of deprivation were associated with greater weight loss. Strategies to promote reduced feelings of hunger, cravings, and deprivation may increase adherence to dietary prescriptions and improve behavioral weight loss outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Energy Expenditure and Oxidation of Energy Substrates in Adult Males after Intake of Meals with Varying Fat and Carbohydrate Content
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050627 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient [...] Read more.
Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient content, in normal-weight and overweight/obese people. In the study, 46 healthy adult males (23 with normal body weight and 23 overweight/obese), aged 21–58, were examined. During two consecutive visits, subjects received isocaloric standardized meals (450 kcal) with different content of basic nutrients. Resting metabolic rate and carbohydrate and fat utilization were evaluated during the fasting state and postprandially, using an indirect calorimetry method. Energy expenditure was higher in people with normal body weight and slightly higher after the high-carbohydrate meal. In overweight/obese people, increased expenditure was noted after normo-carbohydrate meal intake. The high-fat meal induced lower postprandial thermal response compared to a high-carbohydrate meal, both in people with normal body weight and in overweight/obese men. Glucose utilization was higher after the high-carbohydrate meal, and it was higher in the normal body weight group than in overweight/obese people. In addition, overweight/obese people showed a lower level of fatty acid oxidation under fasting conditions which, together with limited ability to oxidize energy substrates, depending on their availability, indicates that these people are characterized by lower metabolic flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Intake of Japanese Mushrooms on Visceral Fat Accumulation and Gut Microbiota in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050610 - 14 May 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
A lot of Japanese people are generally known for having a healthy diet, and consume a variety of mushrooms daily. Many studies have reported anti-obesity effects of mushrooms, but few have investigated the effects of consuming a variety of edible mushroom types together [...] Read more.
A lot of Japanese people are generally known for having a healthy diet, and consume a variety of mushrooms daily. Many studies have reported anti-obesity effects of mushrooms, but few have investigated the effects of consuming a variety of edible mushroom types together in realistic quantities. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with a variety of mushroom types affects visceral fat accumulation and gut microbiota in mice. The most popular mushroom varieties in Japan were lyophilized and mixed according to their local production ratios. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat (HF) diet, HF with 0.5% mushroom mixture (equivalent to 100 g mushrooms/day in humans) or HF with 3% mushroom mixture (equivalent to 600 g mushrooms/day in humans) for 4 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed, and blood samples, tissue samples and feces were collected. Our results show that mushroom intake suppressed visceral fat accumulation and increased the relative abundance of some short chain fatty acid- and lactic acid-producing gut bacteria. These findings suggest that mushroom intake is an effective strategy for obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Intragastric Administration of Tryptophan on the Blood Glucose Response to a Nutrient Drink and Energy Intake, in Lean and Obese Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040463 - 08 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Tryptophan stimulates plasma cholecystokinin and pyloric pressures, both of which slow gastric emptying. Gastric emptying regulates postprandial blood glucose. Tryptophan has been reported to decrease energy intake. We investigated the effects of intragastric tryptophan on the glycaemic response to, and gastric emptying of, [...] Read more.
Tryptophan stimulates plasma cholecystokinin and pyloric pressures, both of which slow gastric emptying. Gastric emptying regulates postprandial blood glucose. Tryptophan has been reported to decrease energy intake. We investigated the effects of intragastric tryptophan on the glycaemic response to, and gastric emptying of, a mixed-nutrient drink, and subsequent energy intake. Lean and obese participants (n = 16 each) received intragastric infusions of 1.5 g (“Trp-1.5g”) or 3.0 g (“Trp-3.0g”) tryptophan, or control, and 15 min later consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (56 g carbohydrates). Gastric emptying (13C-acetate breath-test), blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and tryptophan concentrations were measured (t = 0–60 min). Energy intake was assessed between t = 60–90 min. In lean individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, slowed gastric emptying, reduced C-peptideAUC and increased glucagonAUC (all P < 0.05), but did not significantly decrease the blood glucose response to the drink, stimulate cholecystokinin or reduce mean energy intake, compared with control. In obese individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, tended to slow gastric emptying (P = 0.091), did not affect C-peptideAUC, increased glucagonAUC (P < 0.001) and lowered blood glucose at t = 30 min (P < 0.05), and did not affect cholecystokinin or mean energy intake. In obese individuals, intragastrically administered tryptophan may reduce postprandial blood glucose by slowing gastric emptying; the lack of effect on mean energy intake requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Regulation and Metabolic Significance of De Novo Lipogenesis in Adipose Tissues
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101383 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is a complex and highly regulated process in which carbohydrates from circulation are converted into fatty acids that are then used for synthesizing either triglycerides or other lipid molecules. Dysregulation of DNL contributes to human diseases such as obesity, [...] Read more.
De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is a complex and highly regulated process in which carbohydrates from circulation are converted into fatty acids that are then used for synthesizing either triglycerides or other lipid molecules. Dysregulation of DNL contributes to human diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the lipogenic pathway may provide a new therapeutic opportunity for combating various pathological conditions that are associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism. Hepatic DNL has been well documented, but lipogenesis in adipocytes and its contribution to energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity are less studied. Recent reports have gained significant insights into the signaling pathways that regulate lipogenic transcription factors and the role of DNL in adipose tissues. In this review, we will update the current knowledge of DNL in white and brown adipose tissues with the focus on transcriptional, post-translational, and central regulation of DNL. We will also summarize the recent findings of adipocyte DNL as a source of some signaling molecules that critically regulate energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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