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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060771

Dietary Cholesterol Intake and Sources among U.S Adults: Results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2001–2014

1
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
3
Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract

The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that individuals should minimize their dietary cholesterol intake. However, current dietary cholesterol intake and its food sources have not been well-characterized. We examined dietary cholesterol intake by age, sex, race, and food sources using 24-h dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 5047 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in NHANES (2013–2014 survey cycle). We also reported trends in cholesterol intake across the past seven NHANES surveys. Mean dietary cholesterol intake was 293 mg/day (348 mg/day for men and 242 mg/day for women) in the 2013–2014 survey cycle; 39% of adults had dietary cholesterol intake above 300 mg/day (46% for men and 28% for women). Meat, eggs, grain products, and milk were the highest four food sources of cholesterol, contributing to 96% of the total consumption. Both average cholesterol intake and food source varied by age, sex, and race (each p < 0.05). Mean cholesterol intake of the overall population had been relatively constant at ~290 mg/day from 2001–2002 to 2013–2014 (p-trend = 0.98). These results should inform public health efforts in implementing dietary guidelines and tailoring dietary recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; cholesterol; NHANES-WWEIA; food groups diet; cholesterol; NHANES-WWEIA; food groups
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Xu, Z.; McClure, S.T.; Appel, L.J. Dietary Cholesterol Intake and Sources among U.S Adults: Results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2001–2014. Nutrients 2018, 10, 771.

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