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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060774

Habitual Fructose Intake Relates to Insulin Sensitivity and Fatty Liver Index in Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Individuals without Diabetes

1
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
3
Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
4
Institute of Nutrition, Consumption and Health, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
5
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
The GDS Group Consists of M. Roden (Speaker), H. Al-Hasani, A. E. Buyken, B. Belgardt, G. Geerling C. Herder, A. Icks, J. Kotzka, O. Kuß, E. Lammert, J. -H. Hwang, K. Müssig, D. Markgraf, W. Rathmann, J. Szendroedi, D. Ziegler and their co-workers who contributed to the design and conduct of the GDS.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract

The association between the amount and sources of fructose intake with insulin sensitivity and liver fat needs further elucidation. This study aimed at examining whether habitual intake of sucrose plus non-sucrose bound as well as of non-sucrose bound fructose (total fructose, fruit-derived, juice-derived, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB)-derived fructose) is cross-sectionally associated with insulin sensitivity and fatty liver index (FLI). Fructose intake was estimated using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire from 161 participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the ongoing German Diabetes Study (GDS) (age 53 ± 9 years; HbA1c 6.4 ± 0.9%) and 62 individuals without diabetes (CON) (47 ± 14 years; 5.3 ± 0.3%). Peripheral (M-value) and hepatic insulin resistance were assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with stable isotope dilution. FLI was calculated based on body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride and gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. A doubling of SSB-derived sucrose plus non-sucrose bound as well as of non-sucrose bound fructose intake was independently associated with a reduction of the M-value by −2.6% (−4.9; −0.2) and −2.7% (−5.2; −0.1) among T2D, respectively, with an increase in the odds of fatty liver by 16% and 17%, respectively among T2D (all p < 0.05). Doubling fruit-derived sucrose plus non-sucrose bound fructose intake independently related to a reduction in the odds of fatty liver by 13% (p = 0.033) among T2D. Moderate SSB-derived fructose intake may detrimentally affect peripheral insulin sensitivity, whereas fruit-derived fructose intake appeared beneficial for liver fat content. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary fructose; peripheral insulin sensitivity; hepatic insulin sensitivity; observational cohort study dietary fructose; peripheral insulin sensitivity; hepatic insulin sensitivity; observational cohort study
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Weber, K.S.; Simon, M.-C.; Strassburger, K.; Markgraf, D.F.; Buyken, A.E.; Szendroedi, J.; Müssig, K.; Roden, M.; GDS Group. Habitual Fructose Intake Relates to Insulin Sensitivity and Fatty Liver Index in Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Individuals without Diabetes. Nutrients 2018, 10, 774.

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