Next Article in Journal
Mediterranean Diet Score: Associations with Metabolic Products of the Intestinal Microbiome, Carotid Plaque Burden, and Renal Function
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Consumption on Markers of CVD Risk
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pilot Study Examining the Influence of Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Nitrogen Balance and Whole-Body Ammonia and Urea Turnover Following Short-Term Energy Restriction in Older Men
Open AccessArticle

Dietary Influence on Body Fluid Acid-Base and Volume Balance: The Deleterious “Norm” Furthers and Cloaks Subclinical Pathophysiology

by Qi Qian
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, School of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 778;
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
The popular modern diet, characterized by an excess of animal protein and salt but insufficient in fruits, vegetables and water, is a poor fit for human physiological and homeostatic regulatory systems. Sustained net acid and sodium retention, coupled with an insufficient intake of cardiovascular protective potassium-rich foods and hydration in the modern diet can give rise to debilitating chronic organ dysfunction and ultimately, mortality. This holds true, especially in our aging population who are already facing inevitable decline in organ functional reserve. Importantly, in most cases, despite the mismatch and adverse effects to multiple organ systems, plasma electrolyte and acid-base parameters can, on the surface, be maintained within a “normal” reference range, primarily by activating (often maximally activating) compensatory homeostatic mechanisms. These diet-induced effects can thus be clinically silent for decades. Embodied in the chronic corrective homeostatic processes, however, are real risks for multiorgan damage. According to the Dietary Guideline Advisory Committee (DGAC), half of American adults have one or more chronic diseases that are preventable with dietary modification. Here, homeostasis of body fluid acid-base, sodium, potassium and water is examined. Our current dietary habits and their required regulatory adaptation, maladaptation and relevant physiology and pathophysiology are discussed. A framework of dietary modifications to avoid a propensity for maladaptation and thus lowers the risks of common modern diseases (primary prevention) and minimizes the risk of chronic and age-related disease progression (secondary prevention) is emphasized. Although there are other variables at play, a key to restoring the all-important dietary potassium to sodium ratio is greater consumption of vegetables/fruits and adopting salt temperance. Dietary and nutritional optimization is an under-emphasized area of health care that has an enormous potential to temper the epidemics of prevalent chronic diseases in modern society and improve population health. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary salt; hydration; dietary protein; acidosis; disease prevention dietary salt; hydration; dietary protein; acidosis; disease prevention
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Qian, Q. Dietary Influence on Body Fluid Acid-Base and Volume Balance: The Deleterious “Norm” Furthers and Cloaks Subclinical Pathophysiology. Nutrients 2018, 10, 778.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop