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Special Issue "Calcium and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Joshua Lewis

Centre for Kidney Research, Children’s Hospital Westmead; Sydney Medical School, School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Westmead
Website | E-Mail
Interests: genetics; imaging; vascular calcification and atherosclerosis; nutrition and metabolism; bone health
Guest Editor
Prof. Richard Prince

Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, University of Western Australia, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bone disease; endocrinology and metabolism; genetics of bone and joint disease; nutritional and physical activity effects on bone and joint disease
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Igor Sergeev

Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: vitamin D; calcium; bioactive food components; nutrient regulation of apoptosis; vitamin D, calcium, and bioactives in the prevention of obesity and cancer; vitamin D and cell calcium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is on calcium, the most abundant mineral in the human body. While much of the focus on calcium and an associated factor, vitamin D, has been around skeletal development in early life and maintenance of bone health during ageing, in recent years the effects of calcium and vitamin D on non-skeletal systems such as muscle and vascular anatomy and function have also emerged. In addition to these non-skeletal roles, a further important question has been the optimal calcium intake in relation to vitamin D status for these systems. Indeed in the case of vascular tissue the question of excess calcium has been raised. Given these developments this special issue will provide a timely, broadly based, overview for the role of calcium and vitamin D on these aspects of human health to update researchers, nutritionists and clinicians on a rapidly expanding area. We therefore invite researchers in the field to submit review and original research articles to this special issue on the following subjects:

Dr. Joshua Lewis
Prof. Richard Prince
Prof. Igor Sergeev
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Calcium
  • Homeostasis
  • Absorption
  • Bone
  • Muscle
  • Vasculature
  • Mineral-bone disorders
  • Food sources of calcium
  • Supplemental calcium and vitamin D
  • Recommended daily intake
  • Vascular calcification
  • Attitudes toward calcium rich foods
  • Attitudes towards calcium supplements

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Association of Habitually Low Intake of Dietary Calcium with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in a Population with Predominantly Plant-Based Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050603
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years or older in this analysis. Food intakes were measured by 3-day 24-h individual recalls combined with a weighing and measuring of household food inventory. The participants were divided into normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to their mean blood pressure of three repeated measurements. Six intake levels were decided by percentiles of gender-specific dietary calcium intakes (P0–10, P10–30, P30–50, P50–70, P70–90, and P90–100). Average dietary calcium intakes were 405 mg/day for men and 370 mg/day for women, 80% and 84% of which were derived from plant-based food in men and women, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that dietary calcium intakes were not related with blood pressure in both genders (all P > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed a lower risk of pre-hypertension with higher dietary calcium intakes in women (all Pfor trend < 0.001), but not in men; no association between dietary calcium intake and hypertensive risk was found in both genders (all Pfor trend > 0.05). This study suggests that there are no conclusive associations of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk in Chinese individuals consuming predominantly plant-based diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Behavioral Intervention in Adolescents Improves Bone Mass, Yet Lactose Maldigestion Is a Barrier
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040421
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium intake during adolescence is important for attainment of peak bone mass. Lactose maldigestion is an autosomal recessive trait, leading to lower calcium intake. The Adequate Calcium Today study aimed to determine if a school-based targeted behavioral intervention over one year could improve [...] Read more.
Calcium intake during adolescence is important for attainment of peak bone mass. Lactose maldigestion is an autosomal recessive trait, leading to lower calcium intake. The Adequate Calcium Today study aimed to determine if a school-based targeted behavioral intervention over one year could improve calcium intake and bone mass in early adolescent girls. The school-randomized intervention was conducted at middle schools in six states over one school year. A total of 473 girls aged 10–13 years were recruited for outcome assessments. Bone mineral content (BMC) was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary calcium intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Baseline calcium intake and BMC were not significantly different between groups. After the intervention period, there were no differences in changes in calcium intake and BMC at any site between groups. An unanticipated outcome was a greater increase in spinal BMC among lactose digesters than lactose maldigesters in the intervention schools only (12 months) (6.9 ± 0.3 g vs. 6.0 ± 0.4 g, p = 0.03) and considering the entire study period (18 months) (9.9 ± 0.4 vs. 8.7 ± 0.5 g, p < 0.01). Overall, no significant differences between the intervention and control schools were observed. However, lactose digesters who received the intervention program increased bone mass to a greater extent than lactose maldigesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Dietary Intake and Coronary Artery Calcification in Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: The PROGREDIR Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030372
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a widespread condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diet may play an important role in CAC, but this role is not clear. This study evaluated the association between macro-and micronutrient intakes and CAC in non-dialysis CKD patients. We [...] Read more.
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a widespread condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diet may play an important role in CAC, but this role is not clear. This study evaluated the association between macro-and micronutrient intakes and CAC in non-dialysis CKD patients. We analyzed the baseline data from 454 participants of the PROGREDIR study. Dietary intake was evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. CAC was measured by computed tomography. After exclusion of participants with a coronary stent, 373 people remained for the analyses. The highest tertile of CAC was directly associated with the intake of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. There was a higher intake of pantothenic acid and potassium in the second tertile. After adjustments for confounding variables, the intake of pantothenic acid, phosphorus, calcium and potassium remained associated with CAC in the generalized linear mixed models. In order to handle the collinearity between these nutrients, we used the LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression to evaluate the nutrients associated with CAC variability. In this approach, the nutrients that most explained the variance of CAC were phosphorus, calcium and potassium. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess the role of interventions regarding these micronutrients on CAC prevention and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Fatty Acids and Calcium Regulation in Prostate Cancer
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060788
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer is a widespread malignancy characterized by a comparative ease of primary diagnosis and difficulty in choosing the individualized course of treatment. Management of prostate cancer would benefit from a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the transition to the lethal, [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is a widespread malignancy characterized by a comparative ease of primary diagnosis and difficulty in choosing the individualized course of treatment. Management of prostate cancer would benefit from a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the transition to the lethal, late-stage forms of the disease, which could potentially yield new biomarkers for differential prognosis and treatment prioritization in addition to possible new therapeutic targets. Epidemiological research has uncovered a significant correlation of prostate cancer incidence and progression with the intake (and often co-intake) of fatty acids and calcium. Additionally, there is evidence of the impact of these nutrients on intracellular signaling, including the mechanisms mediated by the calcium ion as a second messenger. The present review surveys the recent literature on the molecular mechanisms associated with the critical steps in the prostate cancer progression, with special attention paid to the regulation of these processes by fatty acids and calcium homeostasis. Testable hypotheses are put forward that integrate some of the recent results in a more unified picture of these phenomena at the interface of cell signaling and metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Vitamin D on the Cardiovascular System in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Dialysis Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060709
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is much more common than in the general population. The role of vitamin D deficiency had been underestimated until a significant association was found between vitamin D therapy and survival [...] Read more.
In patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is much more common than in the general population. The role of vitamin D deficiency had been underestimated until a significant association was found between vitamin D therapy and survival benefit in haemodialysis patients. Vitamin D deficiency is present even in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. The results of experimental studies have revealed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and impairment of cardiac contractile function, higher cardiac mass and increased myocardial collagen content. Experimental models propose that intermediate end points for the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and higher risk of cardiovascular disease comprise diminished left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), enhanced left ventricular diastolic function, and decreased frequency of heart failure. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated an association between the use of active vitamin D therapy in patients on dialysis and with CKD and improved survival. However, there are also many studies indicating important adverse effects of such treatment. Therefore, large randomized trials are required to analyze whether supplementation of vitamin D may affect outcomes and whether it is safe to be used in CKD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Vitamin D in Vascular Calcification: A Double-Edged Sword?
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050652
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic [...] Read more.
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification. Therefore, more complex underlying processes involving physiochemical changes to mineral balance, vascular remodelling and perturbed hormonal responses such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) are likely to contribute to VC. In particular, VC resulting from modifications to calcium, phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis has been recently elucidated. Notably, deregulation of vitamin D metabolism, dietary calcium intake and renal mineral handling are associated with imbalances in systemic calcium and phosphate levels and endothelial cell dysfunction, which can modulate both bone and soft tissue calcification. This review addresses the current understanding of VC pathophysiology, with a focus on the pathogenic role of vitamin D that has provided new insights into the mechanisms of VC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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