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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The number of older adults in the world is growing rapidly and ageing is associated with several [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cistanche Tubulosa Extracts on Male Reproductive Function in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101562
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Diabetes is a chronic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to decreased levels of insulin or the inefficiency of the tissue to use it effectively. Infertility is known as a major outcome of diabetes and affects the male reproductive system by causing sperm impairment
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Diabetes is a chronic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to decreased levels of insulin or the inefficiency of the tissue to use it effectively. Infertility is known as a major outcome of diabetes and affects the male reproductive system by causing sperm impairment and gonadal dysfunction. Cistanche tubulosa is a parasitic plant which has the capacity to improve memory, immunity, and sexual ability, reduce impotence, and minimize constipation. This study was focused on the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of echinacoside (ECH) in Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) on the male reproductive system of the diabetic rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and protective effects of CTE were evaluated by both in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro results show that the ECH inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and improved StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and HSD17β3 protein expression. The in vivo analysis was carried out with three doses of echinacoside (ECH) (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg) in CTE. In total, 0.571 mg/kg of rosiglitazone (RSG) was administered as a positive control. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (230 mg/kg) in combination with a high-fat diet (45%). The in vivo studies confirmed that the ECH improved blood sugar levels, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and lipid peroxidation. It can restore kisspeptin 1 (KiSS1), G protein-coupled receptor GPR 54, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3), and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in the hypothalamus and recover sex hormone level. Thus, this study confirmed the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and steroidogenesis effects of CTE. Full article
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Open AccessReview Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Potential Therapeutic Role in Cardiovascular System Disorders—A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101561
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are described as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. Therefore, the importance of cardiovascular diseases prevention is widely reflected in the increasing number of reports on the topic among the key scientific research efforts of the recent
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Cardiovascular diseases are described as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. Therefore, the importance of cardiovascular diseases prevention is widely reflected in the increasing number of reports on the topic among the key scientific research efforts of the recent period. The importance of essential fatty acids (EFAs) has been recognized in the fields of cardiac science and cardiac medicine, with the significant effects of various fatty acids having been confirmed by experimental studies. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be important versatile mediators for improving and maintaining human health over the entire lifespan, however, only the cardiac effect has been extensively documented. Recently, it has been shown that omega-3 fatty acids may play a beneficial role in several human pathologies, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and are also associated with a reduced incidence of stroke and atherosclerosis, and decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. A reasonable diet and wise supplementation of omega-3 EFAs are essential in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
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Open AccessReview Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention Strategies for the Delay of Cognitive Impairment in Healthy Aging
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101560
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract
Present demographic changes demonstrate that the number of elderly people is growing at a frenetic pace. This shift in population consequently results in many social and economic problems, which burden the social and economic systems of countries. The aging process is associated with
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Present demographic changes demonstrate that the number of elderly people is growing at a frenetic pace. This shift in population consequently results in many social and economic problems, which burden the social and economic systems of countries. The aging process is associated with age-related diseases, the most common of which are dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, whose main symptom is a decline in cognitive function, especially memory loss. Unfortunately, it cannot be cured. Therefore, alternative approaches, which are cost-effective, safe, and easy to implement, are being sought in order to delay and prevent cognitive impairment. The purpose of this review was to explore the effect of multidomain lifestyle intervention strategies on the delay and/or prevention of cognitive impairment in healthy older individuals. The methods are based on a literature review of available sources found on the research topic in three acknowledged databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. The results of the identified original studies reveal that multidomain lifestyle interventions generate significant effects. In addition, these interventions seem feasible, cost-effective, and engaging. Thus, there is a call for the implementation of effective lifestyle prevention programs, which would involve goal-setting and would focus on the prevention of crucial risk factors threatening the target group of elderly people, who are at risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Strategies in Cognitive Decline: Focus on Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Uncommon Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101559
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality. The effects of several unsaturated fatty acids on cardiometabolic health, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), and oleic acid (OA) have received much attention in
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality. The effects of several unsaturated fatty acids on cardiometabolic health, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), and oleic acid (OA) have received much attention in past years. In addition, results from recent studies revealed that several other uncommon fatty acids (fatty acids present at a low content or else not contained in usual foods), such as furan fatty acids, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and conjugated fatty acids, also have favorable effects on cardiometabolic health. In the present report, we searched the literature in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to review the research progress on anti-CVD effect of these uncommon fatty acids. DPA has a favorable effect on cardiometabolic health in a different way to other long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), such as EPA and DHA. Furan fatty acids and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) may be potential bioactive fatty acids beneficial for cardiometabolic health, but evidence from intervention studies in humans is still limited, and well-designed clinical trials are required. The favorable effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cardiometabolic health observed in animal or in vitro cannot be replicated in humans. However, most intervention studies in humans concerning CLA have only evaluated its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors but not its direct effect on risk of CVD, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be required to clarify this point. However, several difficulties and limitations exist for conducting RCTs to evaluate the effect of these fatty acids on cardiometabolic health, especially the high costs for purifying the fatty acids from natural sources. This review provides a basis for better nutritional prevention and therapy of CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Sex-Dimorphic Association of Plasma Fatty Acids with Cardiovascular Fitness in Young and Middle-Aged General Adults: Subsamples from NHANES 2003–2004
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101558
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
To explore the potential association of plasma fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular fitness level (CVFL), data of 449 subjects from 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Among these 249 men and 200 women, aged 20–50 years (33.4 ± 8.4
[...] Read more.
To explore the potential association of plasma fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular fitness level (CVFL), data of 449 subjects from 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Among these 249 men and 200 women, aged 20–50 years (33.4 ± 8.4 year, mean ± Standard Deviation), 79 low, 166 moderate and 204 high CVFL were categorized by age- and gender- specific percentile, respectively. Twenty-four fatty acids were quantified from fasting plasma. Higher levels of 2 very long-chain saturated FAs (VLSFAs): Arachidic acid (AR1, C20:0) and Docosanoic acid (DA1, C22:0) as well as 2 n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs): Arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) and Docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, C22:4n-6) were observed in the subjects with low CVFL. Notably this association exists only in men. Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the marker for cardiorespiratory fitness, was used for further regression analysis. After the adjustment of potential confounding factors (age, smoking, hypertension status, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance status, and C-reactive protein (CRP), AA was the only FA correlated with low VO2max in women; while in men AR1, DA1, AA, and DTA remain negatively associated with VO2max. This preliminary analysis suggests a sex-dimorphic relationship between these plasma VLSFAs and n-6 PUFAs with CVFL and merits further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mediterranean Lifestyle in Relation to Cognitive Health: Results from the HELIAD Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101557
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Many lifestyle factors have been linked to cognitive function but little is known about their combined effect. An overall lifestyle pattern for people living in the Mediterranean basin has been proposed, including diet, but also physical activity, sleep and daily living activities with
[...] Read more.
Many lifestyle factors have been linked to cognitive function but little is known about their combined effect. An overall lifestyle pattern for people living in the Mediterranean basin has been proposed, including diet, but also physical activity, sleep and daily living activities with social/intellectual aspects. We aimed to examine the associations between a combination of these lifestyle factors and detailed cognitive performance. A total of 1716 participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), a population-based study of participants ≥65 years, were included in this analysis. Lifestyle factors were evaluated using standard, validated questionnaires and a Total Lifestyle Index (TLI) was constructed. Cognitive outcomes included mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis, a composite z-score (either continuous or with a threshold at the 25th percentile) and z-scores for five cognitive domains. A higher TLI was associated with 65% reduced odds for MCI in the non-demented individuals and 43% reduced odds for low global cognition when MCI participants were excluded, a risk reduction equivalent to 9 and 2.7 fewer years of ageing, respectively. Each lifestyle factor was differentially associated with domain-specific cognitive performance. Our results suggest that a TLI, more so than single lifestyle parameters, may be related to cognitive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Strategies in Cognitive Decline: Focus on Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Low Diversity of Human Milk Oligosaccharides is Associated with Necrotising Enterocolitis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101556
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Difference in human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) composition in breast milk may be one explanation why some preterm infants develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) despite being fed exclusively with breast milk. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of 15 dominant HMOs
[...] Read more.
Difference in human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) composition in breast milk may be one explanation why some preterm infants develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) despite being fed exclusively with breast milk. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of 15 dominant HMOs in breast milk during the neonatal period and investigate how their levels correlated to NEC, sepsis, and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants who were exclusively fed with breast milk. Milk was collected from 91 mothers to 106 infants at 14 and 28 days and at postmenstrual week 36. The HMOs were analysed with high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The HMOs diversity and the levels of Lacto-N-difucohexaose I were lower in samples from mothers to NEC cases, as compared to non-NEC cases at all sampling time points. Lacto-N-difucohexaose I is only produced by secretor and Lewis positive mothers. There were also significant but inconsistent associations between 3′-sialyllactose and 6′-sialyllactose and culture-proven sepsis and significant, but weak correlations between several HMOs and growth rate. Our results suggest that the variation in HMO composition in breast milk may be an important factor explaining why exclusively breast milk fed ELBW infants develop NEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Antioxidant Adaptations to Regular Physical Activity in Elderly People
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101555
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Regular physical activity prescription is a key point for healthy aging and chronic disease management and prevention. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant defense system and the mitochondrial status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the level of oxidative damage in
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Regular physical activity prescription is a key point for healthy aging and chronic disease management and prevention. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant defense system and the mitochondrial status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the level of oxidative damage in plasma in active, intermediate and inactive elderly. In total, 127 healthy men and women >55 years old participated in the study and were classified according on their level of declared physical activity. A more active lifestyle was accompanied by lower weight, fat mass and body mass index when compared to a more sedentary life-style. Active participants exhibited lower circulating PBMCs than inactive peers. Participants who reported higher levels of exercise had increased antioxidant protein levels when compared to more sedentary partakers. Carbonylated protein levels exhibited similar behavior, accompanied by a significant raise in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV in PBMCs. No significant changes were found in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the expression of structural (MitND5) and mitochondrial dynamic-related (PGC1α and Mitofusins1/2.) proteins. Active lifestyle and daily activities exert beneficial effects on body composition and it enhances the antioxidant defenses and oxidative metabolism capabilities in PBMCs from healthy elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Intake in Older Adults and Elderly People)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds in Kimchi Improve the Cognitive and Memory Functions Impaired by Amyloid Beta
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101554
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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This study investigated the abilities of kimchi and its bioactive compounds to ameliorate amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced memory and cognitive impairments. Mice were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35, followed by a daily oral administration of capsaicin (10 mg·kg-bw–1),
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the abilities of kimchi and its bioactive compounds to ameliorate amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced memory and cognitive impairments. Mice were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35, followed by a daily oral administration of capsaicin (10 mg·kg-bw–1), 3-(4′-hydroxyl-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (50 mg/kg bw), ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg bw), or kimchi methanol extract (KME; 200 mg/kg bw) for 2 weeks (n = 7 per group). Carboxymethylcellulose was used as a vehicle for the normal and control groups. Behavioral task tests showed that the learning and memory abilities were significantly waned by the injected Aβ25-35, but these cognitive deficits were recovered by the administrated KME and kimchi bioactive compounds (p < 0.05). The reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were lower, and the glutathione level was higher, in the KME and bioactive compound groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the KME and bioactive compound groups, the protein expression levels of antioxidant enzymes (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-regulated superoxide dismutase-1 and glutathione peroxidase) were increased, whereas those of inflammation-related enzymes (nuclear factor-kappaB -regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were decreased (p < 0.05). Thus, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive compounds-rich kimchi might help to attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bioactivity, Health Benefits, and Related Molecular Mechanisms of Curcumin: Current Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101553
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Curcumin is a principal curcuminoid of turmeric (Curcuma longa), which is commonly used as a spice in cooking and a yellow pigment in the food processing industry. Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin has a variety of biological activities and pharmacological
[...] Read more.
Curcumin is a principal curcuminoid of turmeric (Curcuma longa), which is commonly used as a spice in cooking and a yellow pigment in the food processing industry. Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin has a variety of biological activities and pharmacological performances, providing protection and promotion of human health. In addition to presenting an overview of the gut metabolism of curcumin, this paper reviews the current research progress on its versatile bioactivity, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulatory activities, and also intensively discusses its health benefits, including the protective or preventive effects on cancers and diabetes, as well as the liver, nervous system, and cardiovascular systems, highlighting the potential molecular mechanisms. Besides, the beneficial effects of curcumin on human are further stated based on clinical trials. Considering that there is still a debate on the beneficial effects of curcumin, we also discuss related challenges and prospects. Overall, curcumin is a promising ingredient of novel functional foods, with protective efficacy in preventing certain diseases. We hope this comprehensive and updated review will be helpful for promoting human-based studies to facilitate its use in human health and diseases in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Association with Dietary Intake in a Longitudinal Study of Youth with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101552
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Despite cardioprotective effects of a healthy diet in the general population, few studies have investigated this relationship in individuals with type 1 diabetes, who are at elevated risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to examine
[...] Read more.
Despite cardioprotective effects of a healthy diet in the general population, few studies have investigated this relationship in individuals with type 1 diabetes, who are at elevated risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to examine the association of CVD biomarkers with overall diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), and its dietary components in youth with type 1 diabetes. Youth with type 1 diabetes (n = 136, 8–16.9 years) were enrolled in an 18-month behavioral nutrition intervention trial. Dietary intake from three-day diet records, CVD biomarkers (total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2alpha (8-iso-PGF), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Linear mixed-effects models estimated associations of dietary intake with CVD biomarkers, adjusting for HbA1c and other covariates. Separate models estimated associations of time-varying change in dietary intake with time-varying change in CVD biomarkers. HEI-2015 was not associated with CVD biomarkers, but whole grain intake was inversely associated with TC, HDL-C and DBP, and a greater increase in whole fruit intake was associated with lower DBP. Added sugar, saturated fat and polyunsaturated fat were positively related to serum TG, HDL-C, and DBP, respectively. Findings suggest that the intake of specific dietary components, including whole grains, whole fruits, added sugar and PUFA, may influence cardiometabolic health in youth with type 1 diabetes, independent of glycemic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions)
Open AccessArticle Breakfast in Japan: Findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101551
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
We assessed breakfast in Japan using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary data were obtained from 1444 children (aged 6–11 years), 1134 adolescents (aged 12–17 years), 6531 younger adults (aged 18–49 years), and 13,343 older adults (aged ≥ 50
[...] Read more.
We assessed breakfast in Japan using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary data were obtained from 1444 children (aged 6–11 years), 1134 adolescents (aged 12–17 years), 6531 younger adults (aged 18–49 years), and 13,343 older adults (aged ≥ 50 years), using a one-day weighed dietary record. Overall, 97% of participants reported consuming breakfast. Compared with breakfast skippers, breakfast consumers had a higher daily diet quality score assessed by the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). For those who consumed breakfast, breakfast accounted for 20–25% of daily energy intake. In comparison with the contribution to energy, breakfast accounted for higher proportions of carbohydrate and riboflavin, and lower proportions of MUFA, n-3 PUFA, thiamin, and niacin, as well as vitamins B-6 and C. The overall diet quality (NRF9.3 score) was positively associated with breakfast intake of protein, n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and almost all micronutrients examined, and inversely with that of added sugar. For foods, the NRF9.3 score was positively associated with breakfast intake of rice, potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and eggs and inversely with that of bread, sugar, and soft drinks. The findings will be useful in developing dietary recommendations for a balanced breakfast among Japanese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Protective Effect of Polygonum cuspidatum (PCE) Aqueous Extract in a Dry Eye Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101550
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Dry eyes are caused by highly increased osmolarity of tear film, inflammation, and apoptosis of the ocular surface. In this study, we investigated the effect of Polygonum cuspidatum (PCE) aqueous extract in in vivo and in vitro dry eye models. Dry eye was
[...] Read more.
Dry eyes are caused by highly increased osmolarity of tear film, inflammation, and apoptosis of the ocular surface. In this study, we investigated the effect of Polygonum cuspidatum (PCE) aqueous extract in in vivo and in vitro dry eye models. Dry eye was induced by excision of the lacrimal gland and hyperosmotic media. In vivo, oral administration of PCE in exorbital lacrimal gland-excised rats recovered tear volume and Mucin4 (MUC4) expression by inhibiting corneal irregularity and expression of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, hyperosmotic media induced human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) cytotoxicity though increased inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. PCE treatment significantly inhibited expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α), and activation of NF-κB p65 in hyperosmolar stress-induced HCECs. Hyperosmolarity-induced increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) expression and activation of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 were attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner by PCE. PCE treatment restored anti-oxidative proteins such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in hyperosmolar stress-induced HCECs. These data demonstrate that PCE prevents adverse changes in the ocular surface and tear fluid through inhibition of hyperosmolar stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidation, suggesting that PCE may have the potential to preserve eye health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hesperidin Prevents Nitric Oxide Deficiency-Induced Cardiovascular Remodeling in Rats via Suppressing TGF-β1 and MMPs Protein Expression
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101549
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Hesperidin is a major flavonoid isolated from citrus fruits that exhibits several biological activities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular remodeling induced by n-nitro l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were
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Hesperidin is a major flavonoid isolated from citrus fruits that exhibits several biological activities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular remodeling induced by n-nitro l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg), l-NAME plus hesperidin (15 mg/kg), hesperidin (30 mg/kg), or captopril (2.5 mg/kg) for five weeks (n = 8/group). Hesperidin or captopril significantly prevented the development of hypertension in l-NAME rats. l-NAME-induced cardiac remodeling, i.e., increases in wall thickness, cross-sectional area (CSA), and fibrosis in the left ventricular and vascular remodeling, i.e., increases in wall thickness, CSA, vascular smooth muscle cells, and collagen deposition in the aorta were attenuated by hesperidin or captopril. These were associated with reduced oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), and enhancing plasma nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) in l-NAME treated groups. Furthermore, up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and TGF- β1 protein expression and the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was suppressed in l-NAME rats treated with hesperidin or captopril. These data suggested that hesperidin had cardioprotective effects in l-NAME hypertensive rats. The possible mechanism may involve antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Salt Intake Suggestions in Hypertensive Patients Do not Jeopardize Urinary Iodine Excretion
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101548
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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A low-sodium diet is an essential part of the treatment of hypertension. However, some concerns have been raised with regard to the possible reduction of iodine intake during salt restriction. We obtained 24-h urine collections for the evaluation of iodine (UIE) and sodium
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A low-sodium diet is an essential part of the treatment of hypertension. However, some concerns have been raised with regard to the possible reduction of iodine intake during salt restriction. We obtained 24-h urine collections for the evaluation of iodine (UIE) and sodium excretion (UNaV) from 136 hypertensive patients, before and after 9 ± 1 weeks of a simple low-sodium diet. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), and drug consumption (DDD) were recorded. Data are average ± SEM. Age was 63.6 ± 1.09 year. BMI was 25.86 ± 0.40 kg/m2 before the diet and 25.38 ± 0.37 kg/m2 after the diet (p < 0.05). UNaV decreased from 150.3 ± 4.01 mEq/24-h to 122.8 ± 3.92 mEq/24-h (p < 0.001); UIE decreased from 186.1 ± 7.95 µg/24-h to 175.0 ± 7.74 µg/24-h (p = NS); both systolic and diastolic BP values decreased (by 6.15 ± 1.32 mmHg and by 3.75 ± 0.84 mmHg, respectively, p < 0.001); DDD decreased (ΔDDD 0.29 ± 0.06, p < 0.05). UNaV and UIE were related both before (r = 0.246, p = 0.0040) and after the diet (r = 0.238, p = 0.0050). UNaV and UIE were significantly associated both before and after the diet (p < 0.0001 for both). After salt restriction UIE showed a non-significant decrease remaining in an adequate range. Our dietary suggestions were aimed at avoiding preserved foods, whereas the cautious use of table salt was permitted, an approach which seems safe in terms of iodine intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Unfiltered Coffee and Bioactive Coffee Compounds on the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Components in a High-Fat-/High-Fructose-Fed Rat Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101547
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
The literature is inconsistent as to how coffee affects metabolic syndrome (MetS), and which bioactive compounds are responsible for its metabolic effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of unfiltered coffee on diet-induced MetS and investigate whether or not phenolic acids and
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The literature is inconsistent as to how coffee affects metabolic syndrome (MetS), and which bioactive compounds are responsible for its metabolic effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of unfiltered coffee on diet-induced MetS and investigate whether or not phenolic acids and trigonelline are the main bioactive compounds in coffee. Twenty-four male Sprague‒Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (35% W/W) diet plus 20% W/W fructose in drinking water for 14 weeks, and were randomized into three groups: control, coffee, or nutraceuticals (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, and trigonelline). Coffee or nutraceuticals were provided in drinking water at a dosage equal to 4 cups/day in a human. Compared to the controls, total food intake (p = 0.023) and mean body weight at endpoint (p = 0.016) and estimated average plasma glucose (p = 0.041) were lower only in the coffee group. Surrogate measures of insulin resistance including the overall fasting insulin (p = 0.010), endpoint HOMA-IR (p = 0.022), and oral glucose tolerance (p = 0.029) were improved in the coffee group. Circulating triglyceride levels were lower (p = 0.010), and histopathological and quantitative (p = 0.010) measurements indicated lower grades of liver steatosis compared to controls after long-term coffee consumption. In conclusion, a combination of phenolic acids and trigonelline was not as effective as coffee per se in improving the components of the MetS. This points to the role of other coffee chemicals and a potential synergism between compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Adjuvant Fermented Wheat Germ Extract on Cancer Cell Lines: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101546
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE; trade name AVEMAR) is a natural compound derived from industrial fermentation of wheat germ. Its potential anticancer properties has emerged from recent studies. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the data available in the scientific
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Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE; trade name AVEMAR) is a natural compound derived from industrial fermentation of wheat germ. Its potential anticancer properties has emerged from recent studies. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the data available in the scientific literature concerning the in vitro activity of FWGE on malignant cells. A systematic review of English articles in electronic databases has been performed. The primary outcomes of the review regarded types of cancer cell lines subjected to the investigation and the main results concerning cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis observed within the studies. Sixteen articles were included in the final qualitative analysis. Various types of cancer cells treated with FWGE have been analyzed, showing mainly cytotoxic effects, alteration of the cell cycle, antiproliferative effects, and induction of apoptosis. FWGE can be a promising drug component in cancer treatment; however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to prove its effectiveness and safety in humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Legume Protein Consumption and the Prevalence of Legume Sensitization
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101545
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Sensitization and allergy to legumes can be influenced by different factors, such as exposure, geographical background, and food processing. Sensitization and the allergic response to legumes differs considerably, however, the reason behind this is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study
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Sensitization and allergy to legumes can be influenced by different factors, such as exposure, geographical background, and food processing. Sensitization and the allergic response to legumes differs considerably, however, the reason behind this is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate if there is a correlation between legume protein consumption and the prevalence of legume sensitization. Furthermore, the association between sensitization to specific peanut allergens and their concentration in peanut is investigated. Legume sensitization data (peanut, soybean, lupin, lentil, and pea) from studies were analyzed in relation to consumption data obtained from national food consumption surveys using the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), and What We Eat in America—Food Commodity Intake Database (WWEIA-FCID) databases. Data were stratified for children <4 years, children 4–18 years, and adults. Sufficient data were available for peanut to allow for statistical analysis. Analysis of all age groups together resulted in a low correlation between peanut sensitization and relative peanut consumption (r = 0.407), absolute peanut consumption (r = 0.468), and percentage of peanut consumers (r = 0.243). No correlation was found between relative concentrations of Ara h 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 in peanut and sensitization to these peanut allergens. The results indicate that the amount of consumption only plays a minor role in the prevalence of sensitization to peanut. Other factors, such as the intrinsic properties of the different proteins, processing, matrix, frequency, timing and route of exposure, and patient factors might play a more substantial role in the prevalence of peanut sensitization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle Right Sizing: Sensory-Based Product Design Is a Promising Strategy to Nudge Consumers toward Healthier Portions
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101544
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Research has shown that people consume more food when offered larger portions, and that reducing exposure to large food portions and packages could decrease the average daily energy consumed. In this context, our aim is to develop strategies to promote healthier eating behaviors
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Research has shown that people consume more food when offered larger portions, and that reducing exposure to large food portions and packages could decrease the average daily energy consumed. In this context, our aim is to develop strategies to promote healthier eating behaviors by reducing portion selection and intake. The present research investigates the impact of different visual attributes of foods on quantity perception and portion selection. In the first study, we tested whether modifying the shape of a familiar food influenced the ideal portion size in adults. In the second study, we assessed the impact of shape, number of units, size, and color variety on a perceived quantity for a familiar multiunit product in children. Participants (N1 = 70 adults, N2 = 62 children) completed different picture-based computer tasks. As hypothesized: (1) adults selected a smaller ideal portion size for an elongated product than for wider and thicker shapes, and (2) children’s perception of food quantity was primarily driven by number of pieces, with smaller effects of size and elongation. Perceived quantity was not influenced by color variety. These findings suggest that it may be possible to reduce the size of food portions without negatively impacting perceived quantity, and to provide opportunities to nudge consumers towards smaller portions while maintaining satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Portion Size in Relation to Diet and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Mixed Meal and Leucine Intake on Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations in Young Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101543
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Dietary protein intake is critical for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Plasma amino acid concentrations increase with protein intake and increases in muscle protein synthesis are dependent on leucine concentrations. We aimed to investigate the effect of a mixed meal and free
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Dietary protein intake is critical for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Plasma amino acid concentrations increase with protein intake and increases in muscle protein synthesis are dependent on leucine concentrations. We aimed to investigate the effect of a mixed meal and free amino acids intake on plasma leucine concentrations. In this randomized crossover study, 10 healthy young men (age 25 ± 1 years, height 1.73 ± 0.02 m, weight 65.8 ± 1.5 kg) underwent tests under different conditions—intake of 2 g of leucine (LEU), intake of a mixed meal (protein 27.5 g, including 2.15 g of leucine, protein: fat: carbohydrate ratio—22:25:53) only (MEAL), intake of 2 g of leucine immediately after a mixed meal (MEAL-LEU) and intake of 2 g of leucine 180 min after a mixed meal (MEAL-LEU180). Blood samples were collected within 420 min (240 min for LEU only) after intake and changes in amino acid concentrations were evaluated. Although the maximum plasma leucine concentration increased to 442 ± 24 µM for LEU, it was lower at 347 ± 16 µM (p < 0.05 vs. LEU) for MEAL-LEU, 205 ± 8 µM (p < 0.05 vs. LEU) for MEAL. The maximum plasma leucine concentration for MEAL-LEU180 increased to 481 ± 27 µM and compared to LEU there was no significant difference (p > 0.1). The observation that rapid elevations in plasma leucine concentrations are suppressed when leucine is ingested at the same time as a meal suggests that the timing of its intake must be considered to maximize the anabolic response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Objective Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels: An International Comparative Experimental Study across 12 Countries
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101542
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Front-of-Package labels (FoPLs) are efficient tools for increasing consumers’ awareness of foods’ nutritional quality and encouraging healthier choices. A label’s design is likely to influence its effectiveness; however, few studies have compared the ability of different FoPLs to facilitate a consumer understanding of
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Front-of-Package labels (FoPLs) are efficient tools for increasing consumers’ awareness of foods’ nutritional quality and encouraging healthier choices. A label’s design is likely to influence its effectiveness; however, few studies have compared the ability of different FoPLs to facilitate a consumer understanding of foods’ nutritional quality, especially across sociocultural contexts. This study aimed to assess consumers’ ability to understand five FoPLs [Health Star Rating system (HSR), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), Nutri-Score, Reference Intakes (RIs), and Warning symbol] in 12 different countries. In 2018, approximately 1000 participants per country were recruited and asked to rank three sets of label-free products (one set of three pizzas, one set of three cakes, and one set of three breakfast cereals) according to their nutritional quality, via an online survey. Participants were subsequently randomised to one of five FoPL conditions and were again asked to rank the same sets of products, this time with a FoPL displayed on pack. Changes in a participants’ ability to correctly rank products across the two tasks were assessed by FoPL using ordinal logistic regression. In all 12 countries and for all three food categories, the Nutri-Score performed best, followed by the MTL, HSR, Warning symbol, and RIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label and Public Health)
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Open AccessReview Microbial and Nutritional Programming—The Importance of the Microbiome and Early Exposure to Potential Food Allergens in the Development of Allergies
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101541
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The “microbiota hypothesis” ties the increase in allergy rates observed in highly developed countries over the last decades to disturbances in the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota formation depends on a number of factors and occurs over approximately 1000 days of life, including the
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The “microbiota hypothesis” ties the increase in allergy rates observed in highly developed countries over the last decades to disturbances in the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota formation depends on a number of factors and occurs over approximately 1000 days of life, including the prenatal period. During this period the microbiota helps establish the functional immune phenotype, including immune tolerance. The development of immune tolerance depends also on early exposure to potential food allergens, a process referred to as nutritional programming. This article elaborates on the concepts of microbial and nutritional programming and their role in the primary prevention of allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics)
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Open AccessArticle Towards an Evidence-Based Recommendation for a Balanced Breakfast—A Proposal from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101540
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI) set out to derive nutritional recommendations for a balanced breakfast using a standardized analysis of national nutrition surveys from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, UK and the US. In all countries, the frequency of breakfast consumption by age
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The International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI) set out to derive nutritional recommendations for a balanced breakfast using a standardized analysis of national nutrition surveys from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, UK and the US. In all countries, the frequency of breakfast consumption by age was high and U-shaped with children and older adults having a higher frequency of breakfast consumption. Breakfast contributed 16% to 21% of daily energy intake. In all countries, breakfast was a carbohydrate- and nutrient-rich meal, providing more carbohydrates (including sugars), thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, potassium, and magnesium, and less vitamin A, fats and sodium relative to its contribution to daily energy intakes. Breakfast consumers were stratified by tertiles of the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index, used as a measure of diet quality. Breakfast intakes associated with the top tertile of NRF, along with the Codex Alimentarius international food standards and World Health Organization (WHO) diet guidelines, were used to derive the proposed nutrient recommendations. The goal was to preserve the nutrient density of existing breakfasts, while addressing concerns regarding added sugars, saturated fats, dietary fiber, and vitamin D. This initiative is unique in seeking to derive nutrient recommendations for a specific meal using the observed nutritional profile of such meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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Open AccessArticle Bitter, Sweet, Salty, Sour and Umami Taste Perception Decreases with Age: Sex-Specific Analysis, Modulation by Genetic Variants and Taste-Preference Associations in 18 to 80 Year-Old Subjects
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101539
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
There is growing interest in relating taste perception to diet and healthy aging. However, there is still limited information on the influence of age, sex and genetics on taste acuity as well as on the relationship between taste perception and taste preferences. We
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There is growing interest in relating taste perception to diet and healthy aging. However, there is still limited information on the influence of age, sex and genetics on taste acuity as well as on the relationship between taste perception and taste preferences. We have analysed the influence of age on the intensity rating of the five basic tastes: sweet, salty, bitter, sour and umami (separately and jointly in a “total taste score”) and their modulation by sex and genetics in a relatively healthy population (men and women) aged 18–80 years (n = 1020 Caucasian European participants). Taste perception was determined by challenging subjects with solutions of the five basic tastes using standard prototypical tastants (6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), NaCl, sucrose, monopotassium glutamate and citric acid) at 5 increasing concentrations (I to V). We also measured taste preferences and determined the polymorphisms of the genes taste 2 receptor member 38 (TAS2R38), taste 1 receptor member 2 (TAS2R38) and sodium channel epithelial 1 beta subunit (SCNN1B), as TAS2R38-rs713598, TAS1R2-rs35874116 and SCNN1B-rs239345 respectively. We found a statistically significant decrease in taste perception (“total taste score”) with increasing age for all the concentrations analysed. This association was stronger for the higher concentrations (p = 0.028; p = 0.012; p = 0.005; p = 4.20 × 10−5 and p = 1.48 × 10−7, for I to V in the multivariable-adjusted models). When we analysed taste qualities (using concentration V), the intensity rating of all the 5 tastes was diminished with age (p < 0.05 for all). This inverse association differed depending on the test quality, being higher for bitter (PROP) and sour. Women perceived taste significantly more intense than men (p = 1.4 × 10−8 for total taste score). However, there were differences depending on the taste, umami being the lowest (p = 0.069). There was a complex association between the ability to perceive a taste and the preference for the same. Significant associations were, nevertheless, found between a higher perception of sour taste and a higher preference for it in women. In contrast, the higher perception of sweet was significantly associated with a higher preference for bitter in both, men and women. The TAS2R38-rs713598 was strongly associated with bitter (PROP) taste (p = 1.38 × 10−50), having a significant interaction with sex (p = 0.030). The TAS1R2-rs35874116 was not significantly associated with sweet, whereas the SCNN1B-rs239345 was associated (p = 0.040) with salty taste. In conclusion, the inverse association between age and perceived taste intensity as well as the additional influence of sex and some genetic polymorphisms give rise to large inter-individual differences in taste perception and taste preferences that should be taken into account in future studies and for applications in precision nutrition for healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Diet Interactions)
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Open AccessReview Non-Pharmacological Interventions to Reduce Unhealthy Eating and Risky Drinking in Young Adults Aged 18–25 Years: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101538
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Alcohol use peaks in early adulthood and can contribute both directly and indirectly to unhealthy weight gain. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of preventative targeted interventions focused on reducing unhealthy eating behavior and linked alcohol use in 18–25-year-olds. Twelve electronic
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Alcohol use peaks in early adulthood and can contribute both directly and indirectly to unhealthy weight gain. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of preventative targeted interventions focused on reducing unhealthy eating behavior and linked alcohol use in 18–25-year-olds. Twelve electronic databases were searched from inception to June 2018 for trials or experimental studies, of any duration or follow-up. Eight studies (seven with student populations) met the inclusion criteria. Pooled estimates demonstrated inconclusive evidence that receiving an intervention resulted in changes to self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption (mean change/daily servings: 0.33; 95% CI −0.22 to 0.87) and alcohol consumption (mean reduction of 0.6 units/week; CI −1.35 to 0.19). There was also little difference in the number of binge drinking episodes per week between intervention and control groups (−0.01 sessions; CI −0.07 to 0.04). This review identified only a small number of relevant studies. Importantly, included studies did not assess whether (and how) unhealthy eating behaviors and alcohol use link together. Further exploratory work is needed to inform the development of appropriate interventions, with outcome measures that have the capacity to link food and alcohol consumption, in order to establish behavior change in this population group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behaviours during Young Adulthood)
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Open AccessReview Probiotics in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Disorders
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101537
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Probiotics have been used to ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms since ancient times. Over the past 40 years, probiotics have been shown to impact the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction is linked to gut microbes, their polysaccharide antigens, and key
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Probiotics have been used to ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms since ancient times. Over the past 40 years, probiotics have been shown to impact the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction is linked to gut microbes, their polysaccharide antigens, and key metabolites produced by these bacteria. At least four metabolic pathways have been implicated in mechanistic studies of probiotics, based on mechanistic studies in animal models. Microbial–immune system crosstalk has been linked to: short-chain fatty acid production and signaling, tryptophan metabolism and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors, nucleoside signaling in the gut, and activation of the intestinal histamine-2 receptor. Several randomized controlled trials have now shown that microbial modification by probiotics may improve gastrointestinal symptoms and multiorgan inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and multiple sclerosis. Future work will need to carefully assess safety issues, selection of optimal strains and combinations, and attempts to prolong the duration of colonization of beneficial microbes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Key Findings and Implications of a Recent Systematic Review of the Potential Adverse Effects of Caffeine Consumption in Healthy Adults, Pregnant Women, Adolescents, and Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101536
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety that set out to determine whether conclusions that were presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380
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In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety that set out to determine whether conclusions that were presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process. In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2.5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake that were put forth by Health Canada in 2003 as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Poor Dietary Quality Is Associated with Increased Inflammation in Swedish Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101535
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim was to study whether dietary quality was associated with disease activity and inflammation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This cross-sectional analysis included 66 Swedish participants, who each completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at screening. Food intake was scored by
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The aim was to study whether dietary quality was associated with disease activity and inflammation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This cross-sectional analysis included 66 Swedish participants, who each completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at screening. Food intake was scored by a dietary quality index created by the Swedish National Food Agency. Disease activity was measured as Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a patient administered visual analogue scale of perceived global health and the number of tender and swollen joints out of 28 examined. Inflammation was measured as ESR and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Associations between dietary quality, disease activity and inflammation were evaluated using multivariable linear regression analysis. High dietary quality (high intake of fish, shellfish, whole grain, fruit and vegetables and low intake of sausages and sweets) was not related to DAS28 (B = −0.02, p = 0.787). However, dietary quality was significantly negatively associated with hs-CRP (B = −0.6, p = 0.044) and ESR (B = −2.4, p = 0.002) after adjusting for body mass index, age, education, smoking and gender. Both hs-CRP and ESR decreased with increasing dietary quality. In conclusion, among patients with RA, high dietary quality was associated with reduced inflammation but not with disease activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Open AccessArticle Fish Intake in Pregnancy and Offspring Metabolic Parameters at Age 9–16—Does Gestational Diabetes Modify the Risk?
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101534
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Oily fish, an important source of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), has shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk in adults. Whether maternal fish intake affects offspring metabolic health is less established, especially among high-risk pregnancies. We aimed to examine the association of
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Oily fish, an important source of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), has shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk in adults. Whether maternal fish intake affects offspring metabolic health is less established, especially among high-risk pregnancies. We aimed to examine the association of fish intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health who were either exposed or unexposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our study included 1234 mother-offspring dyads (608 with a GDM index pregnancy and 626 control dyads) nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort, which is a prebirth cohort. Maternal seafood and marine n-3 LCPUFA consumption was quantified by a food frequency questionnaire (gestational week 25) and a sub-sample with interview data (weeks 12 and 30). The offspring were clinically examined at 9–16 years, including a Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and a fasting blood sample. We calculated multivariable effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for anthropometric, adiposity, and metabolic parameters. The median (IQR) intake of total seafood was 23(24) g/day. We found largely no association for total seafood and marine n-3 LCPUFA with offspring metabolic parameters in either group. Using interview data, GDM-exposed women reporting no fish in week 12 and 30 (versus intake >2 times/week) had offspring with a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (ratio of geometric means (RGM): 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.55), waist circumference (RGM: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40), triglycerides (RGM: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.03), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance HOMA-IR (RGM: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.97). We found no associations of n-3 LCPUFA and seafood intake with offspring metabolic outcomes. However, GDM-exposed women who consistently reported eating no fish had offspring with a poorer metabolic profile. Fish intake in pregnancy may mitigate some adverse effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia, however, these findings need replication in better powered studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Carotenoid Intake and Serum Concentration in Young Finnish Children and Their Relation with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101533
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. These foods are the main dietary source of carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary intake and serum concentrations of α-
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Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. These foods are the main dietary source of carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary intake and serum concentrations of α- and β-carotene in a sample of young Finnish children from the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study. The current analysis comprised 3-day food records and serum samples from 207 children aged 1, 2 and 3 years. Spearman and partial correlations, as well as a cross-classification analyses, were used to assess the relationship between dietary intake and the corresponding biomarkers. Serum concentrations of α- and β-carotene were significantly higher among the 1-year-old compared to the 3-year-old children. Dietary intakes of α- and β-carotene correlated significantly with their respective serum concentrations in all age groups, the association being highest at the age of 1 year (α-carotene r = 0.48; p < 0.001 and β-carotene r = 0.47; p < 0.001), and lowest at the age of 3 years (α-carotene r = 0.44; p < 0.001 and β-carotene r = 0.30; p < 0.001). A cross-classification showed that 72–81% of the participants were correctly classified to the same or adjacent quartile, when comparing the reported dietary intakes and the concentrations of the corresponding carotenoid in serum. The 3-day food record seems to be reasonably valid in the assessment of root vegetable consumption among young Finnish children. Root vegetables were the main dietary source of both carotenoids in all age groups. The high consumption of commercial baby foods among the 1-year-old children was reflected in the relatively high dietary intake and serum concentration of both carotenoids. Full article
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