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Special Issue "The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Christina Bamia

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias st, 115 27 Athens, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30-210-7462096
Fax: +30-210-7462079
Interests: health effects of diet and dietary patterns; epidemiological studies of the association of lifestyle factors with health outcomes; interactions between dietary components in relation to health outcomes; coffee intake in relation to cancer incidence/mortality
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Dr. Marilyn Cornelis

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 680 N Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-312-503-4548
Interests: the genetics of coffee consumption; caffeine metabolism; taste preferences and other dietary behaviors; nutritional and metabolic diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health”. The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes.

We welcome the submission of original research articles and/or systematic Reviews/meta-analyses focusing on several aspects of coffee/caffeine intake in relation to human health. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes.
  • Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.)
  • Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine.
  • Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Christina Bamia
Assist. Prof. Dr. Marilyn Cornelis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coffee
  • caffeine
  • health
  • biomarker
  • epidemiology
  • clinical trial
  • genetics

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020416
Received: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and is also a major source of caffeine for most populations [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Lipidomic Response to Coffee Consumption
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121851
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
Coffee is widely consumed and contains many bioactive compounds, any of which may impact pathways related to disease development. Our objective was to identify individual lipid changes in response to coffee drinking. We profiled the lipidome of fasting serum samples collected from a [...] Read more.
Coffee is widely consumed and contains many bioactive compounds, any of which may impact pathways related to disease development. Our objective was to identify individual lipid changes in response to coffee drinking. We profiled the lipidome of fasting serum samples collected from a previously reported single blinded, three-stage clinical trial. Forty-seven habitual coffee consumers refrained from drinking coffee for 1 month, consumed 4 cups of coffee/day in the second month and 8 cups/day in the third month. Samples collected after each coffee stage were subject to quantitative lipidomic profiling using ion-mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry. A total of 853 lipid species mapping to 14 lipid classes were included for univariate analysis. Three lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species including LPC (20:4), LPC (22:1) and LPC (22:2), significantly decreased after coffee intake (p < 0.05 and q < 0.05). An additional 72 species mapping to the LPC, free fatty acid, phosphatidylcholine, cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol classes of lipids were nominally associated with coffee intake (p < 0.05 and q > 0.05); 58 of these decreased after coffee intake. In conclusion, coffee intake leads to lower levels of specific LPC species with potential impacts on glycerophospholipid metabolism more generally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Coffee Consumption with Hearing and Tinnitus Based on a National Population-Based Survey
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101429
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Coffee is the one of the most common beverages worldwide and has received considerable attention for its beneficial health effects. However, the association of coffee with hearing and tinnitus has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
Coffee is the one of the most common beverages worldwide and has received considerable attention for its beneficial health effects. However, the association of coffee with hearing and tinnitus has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of coffee with hearing and tinnitus based on a national population-based survey. We evaluated hearing and tinnitus data from the 2009–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and their relationship with a coffee consumption survey. All patients underwent a medical interview, physical examination, hearing test, tinnitus questionnaire and nutrition examination. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between coffee and hearing loss or tinnitus. We evaluated 13,448 participants (≥19 years) participants. The frequency of coffee consumption had a statistically significant inverse correlation with bilateral hearing loss in the 40–64 years age group. Daily coffee consumers had 50–70% less hearing loss than rare coffee consumers, which tended to be a dose-dependent relationship. In addition, the frequency of coffee consumption had an inverse correlation with tinnitus in the 19–64 years age group but its association was related with hearing. Brewed coffee had more of an association than instant or canned coffee in the 40–64 years age group. These results suggest a protective effect of coffee on hearing loss and tinnitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Coffee, Wine, and Chocolate Consumption on Cognitive Outcome and MRI Parameters in Old Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101391
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Coffee, wine and chocolate are three frequently consumed substances with a significant impact on cognition. In order to define the structural and cerebral blood flow correlates of self-reported consumption of coffee, wine and chocolate in old age, we assessed cognition and brain MRI [...] Read more.
Coffee, wine and chocolate are three frequently consumed substances with a significant impact on cognition. In order to define the structural and cerebral blood flow correlates of self-reported consumption of coffee, wine and chocolate in old age, we assessed cognition and brain MRI measures in 145 community-based elderly individuals with preserved cognition (69 to 86 years). Based on two neuropsychological assessments during a 3-year follow-up, individuals were classified into stable-stable (52 sCON), intermediate (61 iCON) and deteriorating-deteriorating (32 dCON). MR imaging included voxel-based morphometry (VBM), tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and arterial spin labelling (ASL). Concerning behavior, moderate consumption of caffeine was related to better cognitive outcome. In contrast, increased consumption of wine was related to an unfavorable cognitive evolution. Concerning MRI, we observed a negative correlation of wine and VBM in bilateral deep white matter (WM) regions across all individuals, indicating less WM lesions. Only in sCON individuals, we observed a similar yet weaker association with caffeine. Moreover, again only in sCON individuals, we observed a significant positive correlation between ASL and wine in overlapping left parietal WM indicating better baseline brain perfusion. In conclusion, the present observations demonstrate an inverse association of wine and coffee consumption with cognitive performances. Moreover, low consumption of wine but also moderate to heavy coffee drinking was associated with better WM preservation and cerebral blood-flow notably in cognitively stable elders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Acute Effects of Caffeinated Black Coffee on Cognition and Mood in Healthy Young and Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101386
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 24 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
Cognitive and mood benefits of coffee are often attributed to caffeine. However, emerging evidence indicates behavioural effects of non-caffeine components within coffee, suggesting the potential for direct or synergistic effects of these compounds when consumed with caffeine in regular brewed coffee. The current [...] Read more.
Cognitive and mood benefits of coffee are often attributed to caffeine. However, emerging evidence indicates behavioural effects of non-caffeine components within coffee, suggesting the potential for direct or synergistic effects of these compounds when consumed with caffeine in regular brewed coffee. The current randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced-crossover study compared the effects of regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and placebo on measures of cognition and mood. Age and sex effects were explored by comparing responses of older (61–80 years, N = 30) and young (20–34 years, N = 29) males and females. Computerised measures of episodic memory, working memory, attention, and subjective state were completed at baseline and 30 min post-drink. Regular coffee produced the expected effects of decreased reaction time and increased alertness when compared to placebo. When compared to decaffeinated coffee, increased digit vigilance accuracy and decreased tiredness and headache ratings were observed. Decaffeinated coffee also increased alertness when compared to placebo. Higher jittery ratings following regular coffee in young females and older males represented the only interaction of sex and age with treatment. These findings suggest behavioural activity of coffee beyond its caffeine content, raising issues with the use of decaffeinated coffee as a placebo and highlighting the need for further research into its psychoactive effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle NADH Dehydrogenase Subunit-2 237 Leu/Met Polymorphism Influences the Association of Coffee Consumption with Serum Chloride Levels in Male Japanese Health Checkup Examinees: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101344
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Background: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met) polymorphism has been shown to modify the association of coffee consumption with the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormal glucose tolerance, and low serum chloride levels have been shown to be associated [...] Read more.
Background: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met) polymorphism has been shown to modify the association of coffee consumption with the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormal glucose tolerance, and low serum chloride levels have been shown to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism influences the association of coffee consumption with serum chloride levels in male Japanese health checkup examinees. Methods: From among individuals visiting the hospital for a regular medical checkup, 402 men (mean age ± standard deviation, 53.9 ± 7.8 years) were selected for inclusion in the study. After ND2-237 Leu/Met genotyping, we conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study to examine the combined association of ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism and coffee consumption with serum electrolyte levels. Results: After adjusting for age, body mass index, habitual smoking, alcohol consumption, green tea consumption, and antihypertensive medication, coffee consumption significantly increased serum chloride levels (p for trend = 0.001) in men with the ND2-237Leu genotype. After these adjustments, the odds ratios (ORs) for low levels of serum chloride, defined as <100 mEq/L, were found to be dependent on coffee consumption (p for trend = 0.001). In addition, the OR for low levels of serum chloride was significantly lower in men with the ND2-237Leu genotype who consumed ≥4 compared with <1 cup of coffee per day (OR = 0.096, 95% confidence interval = 0.010–0.934; p = 0.044). However, neither serum chloride levels nor risk of low levels of serum chloride appeared to be dependent on coffee consumption. Conclusions: The results suggest that ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism modifies the association of coffee consumption with serum chloride levels in middle-aged Japanese men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091333
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed drinks around the world, while depression is considered the major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the investigation on coffee consumption and depression is limited and results may be confounded by the [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed drinks around the world, while depression is considered the major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the investigation on coffee consumption and depression is limited and results may be confounded by the overall dietary pattern. We assessed the relationship between coffee intake and the risk of depression, controlling for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We studied 14,413 university graduates of the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) cohort, initially free of depression. We evaluated coffee consumption using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident depression cases were adjudicated only if the participant met two criteria simultaneously: (a) validated physician-diagnosed depression together with (b) new onset of habitual antidepressant use. Both criteria were needed; participants meeting only one of them were not classified as cases. Participants who drank at least four cups of coffee per day showed a significantly lower risk of depression than participants who drank less than one cup of coffee per day (HR: 0.37 (95% CI 0.15–0.95)). However, overall, we did not observe an inverse linear dose–response association between coffee consumption and the incidence of depression (p for trend = 0.22). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Maternal and Paternal Caffeine Intake and ART Outcomes in Couples Referring to an Italian Fertility Clinic: A Prospective Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081116
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Caffeine intake, a frequent lifestyle exposure, has a number of biological effects. We designed a cohort study to investigate the relation between lifestyle and assisted reproduction technique (ART) outcomes. From September 2014 to December 2016, 339 subfertile couples referring to an Italian fertility [...] Read more.
Caffeine intake, a frequent lifestyle exposure, has a number of biological effects. We designed a cohort study to investigate the relation between lifestyle and assisted reproduction technique (ART) outcomes. From September 2014 to December 2016, 339 subfertile couples referring to an Italian fertility clinic and eligible for ART procedures were enrolled in our study. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and usual alcohol and caffeine consumption in the year prior to ART were recorded. The mean age of participants was 36.6 ± 3.6 years in women and 39.4 ± 5.2 years in men. After oocytes retrieval, 293 (86.4%) underwent implantation, 110 (32.4%) achieved clinical pregnancy, and 82 (24.2%) live birth. Maternal age was the main determinant of ART outcome. In a model including women’s age and college degree, smoking habits, calorie and alcohol intake for both partners, previous ART cycles, and partner’s caffeine intake, we did not observe any association between caffeine intake and ART outcome. Using the first tertile of caffeine intake by women as a reference, the adjusted rate ratio (ARR) for live birth was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–1.50) in the second and 0.99 (95% CI 0.71–1.40) in the third tertiles. In conclusion, a moderate caffeine intake by women and men in the year prior to the ART procedure was not associated with negative ART outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Coffee Consumption and Whole-Blood Gene Expression in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081047
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Norwegians are the second highest consumers of coffee in the world. Lately, several studies have suggested that beneficial health effects are associated with coffee consumption. By analyzing whole-blood derived, microarray based mRNA gene expression data from 958 cancer-free women from the Norwegian Women [...] Read more.
Norwegians are the second highest consumers of coffee in the world. Lately, several studies have suggested that beneficial health effects are associated with coffee consumption. By analyzing whole-blood derived, microarray based mRNA gene expression data from 958 cancer-free women from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort, we assessed the potential associations between coffee consumption and gene expression profiles and elucidated functional interpretation. Of the 958 women included, 132 were considered low coffee consumers (<1 cup of coffee/day), 422 moderate coffee consumers (1–3 cups of coffee/day), and 404 were high coffee consumers (>3 cups of coffee/day). At a false discovery rate <0.05, 139 genes were differentially expressed between high and low consumers of coffee. A subgroup of 298 nonsmoking, low tea consumers was established to isolate the effects of coffee from smoking and potential caffeine containing tea consumption. In this subgroup, 297 genes were found to be differentially expressed between high and low coffee consumers. Results indicate differentially expressed genes between high and low consumers of coffee with functional interpretations pointing towards a possible influence on metabolic pathways and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Coffee and Tea Consumption and the Contribution of Their Added Ingredients to Total Energy and Nutrient Intakes in 10 European Countries: Benchmark Data from the Late 1990s
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060725
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients [...] Read more.
Background: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries. Method: Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals’ characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to ~20%). Conclusion: Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Alcohol and Coffee Intake on the Risk of Advanced Liver Fibrosis: A Longitudinal Analysis in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients (ANRS CO-13 HEPAVIH Cohort)
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060705
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Coffee intake has been shown to modulate both the effect of ethanol on serum GGT activities in some alcohol consumers and the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis in some patients with chronic diseases. This study aimed to analyze the impact of coffee intake [...] Read more.
Background: Coffee intake has been shown to modulate both the effect of ethanol on serum GGT activities in some alcohol consumers and the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis in some patients with chronic diseases. This study aimed to analyze the impact of coffee intake and alcohol consumption on advanced liver fibrosis (ALF) in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Methods: ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH is a French, nationwide, multicenter cohort of HIV-HCV-co-infected patients. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data including alcohol and coffee consumption were prospectively collected using annual self-administered questionnaires during five years of follow-up. Mixed logistic regression models were performed, relating coffee intake and alcohol consumption to ALF. Results: 1019 patients were included. At the last available visit, 5.8% reported high-risk alcohol consumption, 27.4% reported high coffee intake and 14.5% had ALF. Compared with patients with low coffee intake and high-risk alcohol consumption, patients with low coffee intake and low-risk alcohol consumption had a lower risk of ALF (aOR (95% CI) 0.24 (0.12–0.50)). In addition, patients with high coffee intake had a lower risk of ALF than the reference group (0.14 (0.03–0.64) in high-risk alcohol drinkers and 0.11 (0.05–0.25) in low-risk alcohol drinkers). Conclusions: High coffee intake was associated with a low risk of liver fibrosis even in HIV-HCV co-infected patients with high-risk alcohol consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Caffeine in the Diet: Country-Level Consumption and Guidelines
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111772
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Coffee, tea, caffeinated soda, and energy drinks are important sources of caffeine in the diet but each present with other unique nutritional properties. We review how our increased knowledge and concern with regard to caffeine in the diet and its impact on human [...] Read more.
Coffee, tea, caffeinated soda, and energy drinks are important sources of caffeine in the diet but each present with other unique nutritional properties. We review how our increased knowledge and concern with regard to caffeine in the diet and its impact on human health has been translated into food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG). Using the Food and Agriculture Organization list of 90 countries with FBDG as a starting point, we found reference to caffeine or caffeine-containing beverages (CCB) in 81 FBDG and CCB consumption data (volume sales) for 56 of these countries. Tea and soda are the leading CCB sold in African and Asian/Pacific countries while coffee and soda are preferred in Europe, North America, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Key themes observed across FBDG include (i) caffeine-intake upper limits to avoid risks, (ii) CCB as replacements for plain water, (iii) CCB as added-sugar sources, and (iv) health benefits of CCB consumption. In summary, FBDG provide an unfavorable view of CCB by noting their potential adverse/unknown effects on special populations and their high sugar content, as well as their diuretic, psycho-stimulating, and nutrient inhibitory properties. Few FBDG balanced these messages with recent data supporting potential benefits of specific beverage types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Key Findings and Implications of a Recent Systematic Review of the Potential Adverse Effects of Caffeine Consumption in Healthy Adults, Pregnant Women, Adolescents, and Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101536
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety that set out to determine whether conclusions that were presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 [...] Read more.
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety that set out to determine whether conclusions that were presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process. In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2.5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake that were put forth by Health Canada in 2003 as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview The Influence of Caffeine Expectancies on Sport, Exercise, and Cognitive Performance
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101528
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Caffeine (CAF) is widely consumed across sport and exercise for its reputed ergogenic properties, including central nervous stimulation and enhanced muscular force development. However, expectancy and the related psychological permutations that are associated with oral CAF ingestion are generally not considered in most [...] Read more.
Caffeine (CAF) is widely consumed across sport and exercise for its reputed ergogenic properties, including central nervous stimulation and enhanced muscular force development. However, expectancy and the related psychological permutations that are associated with oral CAF ingestion are generally not considered in most experimental designs and these could be important in understanding if/how CAF elicits an ergogenic effect. The present paper reviews 17 intervention studies across sport, exercise, and cognitive performance. All explore CAF expectancies, in conjunction with/without CAF pharmacology. Thirteen out of 17 studies indicated expectancy effects of varying magnitudes across a range of exercise tasks and cognitive skills inclusive off but not limited to; endurance capacity, weightlifting performance, simple reaction time and memory. Factors, such as motivation, belief, and habitual CAF consumption habits influenced the response. In many instances, these effects were comparable to CAF pharmacology. Given these findings and the lack of consistency in the experimental design, future research acknowledging factors, such as habitual CAF consumption habits, habituated expectations, and the importance of subjective post-hoc analysis will help to advance knowledge within this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessReview Impact of Genetic Variability on Physiological Responses to Caffeine in Humans: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101373
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 23 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
Emerging research has demonstrated that genetic variation may impact physiological responses to caffeine consumption. The purpose of the present review was to systematically recognize how select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) impact habitual use of caffeine as well as the ergogenic and anxiogenic consequences [...] Read more.
Emerging research has demonstrated that genetic variation may impact physiological responses to caffeine consumption. The purpose of the present review was to systematically recognize how select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) impact habitual use of caffeine as well as the ergogenic and anxiogenic consequences of caffeine. Two databases (PubMed and EBSCO) were independently searched using the same algorithm. Selected studies involved human participants and met at least one of the following inclusion criteria: (a) genetic analysis of individuals who habitually consume caffeine; (b) genetic analysis of individuals who underwent measurements of physical performance with the consumption of caffeine; (c) genetic analysis of individuals who underwent measurements of mood with the consumption of caffeine. We included 26 studies (10 randomized controlled trials, five controlled trials, seven cross-sectional studies, three single-group interventional studies and one case-control study). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in or near the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) genes were consistently associated with caffeine consumption. Several studies demonstrated that the anxiogenic consequences of caffeine differed across adenosine 2a receptor (ADORA2A) genotypes, and the studies that investigated the effects of genetic variation on the ergogenic benefit of caffeine reported equivocal findings (CYP1A2) or warrant replication (ADORA2A). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Genetics in Moderating the Inter-Individual Differences in the Ergogenicity of Caffeine
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101352
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Caffeine use is widespread among athletes following its removal from the World Anti-Doping Agency banned list, with approximately 75% of competitive athletes using caffeine. While literature supports that caffeine has a small positive ergogenic effect for most forms of sports and exercise, there [...] Read more.
Caffeine use is widespread among athletes following its removal from the World Anti-Doping Agency banned list, with approximately 75% of competitive athletes using caffeine. While literature supports that caffeine has a small positive ergogenic effect for most forms of sports and exercise, there exists a significant amount of inter-individual difference in the response to caffeine ingestion and the subsequent effect on exercise performance. In this narrative review, we discuss some of the potential mechanisms and focus on the role that genetics has in these differences. CYP1A2 and ADORA2A are two of the genes which are thought to have the largest impact on the ergogenicity of caffeine. CYP1A2 is responsible for the majority of the metabolism of caffeine, and ADORA2A has been linked to caffeine-induced anxiety. The effects of CYP1A2 and ADORA2A genes on responses to caffeine will be discussed in detail and an overview of the current literature will be presented. The role of these two genes may explain a large portion of the inter-individual variance reported by studies following caffeine ingestion. Elucidating the extent to which these genes moderate responses to caffeine during exercise will ensure caffeine supplementation programs can be tailored to individual athletes in order to maximize the potential ergogenic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessReview Mendelian Randomization Studies of Coffee and Caffeine Consumption
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101343
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Habitual coffee and caffeine consumption has been reported to be associated with numerous health outcomes. This perspective focuses on Mendelian Randomization (MR) approaches for determining whether such associations are causal. Genetic instruments for coffee and caffeine consumption are described, along with key concepts [...] Read more.
Habitual coffee and caffeine consumption has been reported to be associated with numerous health outcomes. This perspective focuses on Mendelian Randomization (MR) approaches for determining whether such associations are causal. Genetic instruments for coffee and caffeine consumption are described, along with key concepts of MR and particular challenges when applying this approach to studies of coffee and caffeine. To date, at least fifteen MR studies have investigated the causal role of coffee or caffeine use on risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, gout, osteoarthritis, cancers, sleep disturbances and other substance use. Most studies provide no consistent support for a causal role of coffee or caffeine on these health outcomes. Common study limitations include low statistical power, potential pleiotropy, and risk of collider bias. As a result, in many cases a causal role cannot confidently be ruled out. Conceptual challenges also arise from the different aspects of coffee and caffeine use captured by current genetic instruments. Nevertheless, with continued genome-wide searches for coffee and caffeine related loci along with advanced statistical methods and MR designs, MR promises to be a valuable approach to understanding the causal impact that coffee and caffeine have in human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessReview Biases Inherent in Studies of Coffee Consumption in Early Pregnancy and the Risks of Subsequent Events
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091152
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Consumption of coffee by women early in their pregnancy has been viewed as potentially increasing the risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and childhood leukemias. Many of these reports of epidemiologic studies have not acknowledged the potential biases inherent in studying the relationship [...] Read more.
Consumption of coffee by women early in their pregnancy has been viewed as potentially increasing the risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and childhood leukemias. Many of these reports of epidemiologic studies have not acknowledged the potential biases inherent in studying the relationship between early-pregnancy-coffee consumption and subsequent events. I discuss five of these biases, recall bias, misclassification, residual confounding, reverse causation, and publication bias. Each might account for claims that attribute adversities to early-pregnancy-coffee consumption. To what extent these biases can be avoided remains to be determined. As a minimum, these biases need to be acknowledged wherever they might account for what is reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessReview Effects of Caffeine on Myocardial Blood Flow: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081083
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Background. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants worldwide. It is a well-recognized antagonist of adenosine and a potential cause of false-negative functional measurements during vasodilator myocardial perfusion. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence regarding the [...] Read more.
Background. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants worldwide. It is a well-recognized antagonist of adenosine and a potential cause of false-negative functional measurements during vasodilator myocardial perfusion. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence regarding the effects of caffeine intake on functional measurements of myocardial perfusion in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched using a predefined electronic search strategy. Participants—healthy subjects or patients with known or suspected CAD. Comparisons—recent caffeine intake versus no caffeine intake. Outcomes—measurements of functional myocardial perfusion. Study design—observational. Fourteen studies were deemed eligible for this systematic review. There was a wide range of variability in study design with varying imaging modalities, vasodilator agents, serum concentrations of caffeine, and primary outcome measurements. The available data indicate a significant influence of recent caffeine intake on cardiac perfusion measurements during adenosine and dipyridamole induced hyperemia. These effects have the potential to affect the clinical decision making by re-classification to different risk-categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Caffeine-Related Deaths: Manner of Deaths and Categories at Risk
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050611
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive compound worldwide. It is mostly found in coffee, tea, energizing drinks and in some drugs. However, it has become really easy to obtain pure caffeine (powder or tablets) on the Internet markets. Mechanisms of action are [...] Read more.
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive compound worldwide. It is mostly found in coffee, tea, energizing drinks and in some drugs. However, it has become really easy to obtain pure caffeine (powder or tablets) on the Internet markets. Mechanisms of action are dose-dependent. Serious toxicities such as seizure and cardiac arrhythmias, seen with caffeine plasma concentrations of 15 mg/L or higher, have caused poisoning or, rarely, death; otherwise concentrations of 3–6 mg/kg are considered safe. Caffeine concentrations of 80–100 mg/L are considered lethal. The aim of this systematic review, performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for the identification and selection of studies, is to review fatal cases in which caffeine has been recognized as the only cause of death in order to identify potential categories at risk. A total of 92 cases have been identified. These events happened more frequently in infants, psychiatric patients, and athletes. Although caffeine intoxication is relatively uncommon, raising awareness about its lethal consequences could be useful for both clinicians and pathologists to identify possible unrecognized cases and prevent related severe health conditions and deaths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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Open AccessReply Response to “Are There Non-Responders to the Ergogenic 3 Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Exercise Performance?”
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111752
Received: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
In response to “Letter: are there non-responders to the ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise performance” by Grgic [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessLetter Are There Non-Responders to the Ergogenic Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Exercise Performance?
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111736
Received: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
I have read with interest the recent review paper by Southward and colleagues [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
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