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Key Findings and Implications of a Recent Systematic Review of the Potential Adverse Effects of Caffeine Consumption in Healthy Adults, Pregnant Women, Adolescents, and Children

ToxStrategies, Cincinnati, OH 41075, USA
ToxStrategies, Asheville, NC 28804, USA
EF Myers Consulting, Trenton, IL 62293, USA
Cardiovascular Division, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th Street, Suite 1124, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760-5007, USA
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, 4th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 801 NE 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Department of Community Health Sciences, Children’s Hospital, University of Manitoba, 840 Sherbrook Street, Room CE 208, Winnipeg, MB R3A 1S1, Canada
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1536;
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety that set out to determine whether conclusions that were presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process. In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2.5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake that were put forth by Health Canada in 2003 as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; coffee; systematic review; pregnancy; safety caffeine; coffee; systematic review; pregnancy; safety
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Doepker, C.; Franke, K.; Myers, E.; Goldberger, J.J.; Lieberman, H.R.; O’Brien, C.; Peck, J.; Tenenbein, M.; Weaver, C.; Wikoff, D. Key Findings and Implications of a Recent Systematic Review of the Potential Adverse Effects of Caffeine Consumption in Healthy Adults, Pregnant Women, Adolescents, and Children. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1536.

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