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Breakfast Consumption in Spain: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Quality. Findings from the ANIBES Study, a Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Open AccessArticle

Towards an Evidence-Based Recommendation for a Balanced Breakfast—A Proposal from the International Breakfast Research Initiative

Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin D04 V1W8, Ireland
Department of Food, Nutrition & Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Nutri Psy Consult, 91 rue de la Santé, 75013 Paris, France
Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-3410, USA
Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, The National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Cereal Partners Worldwide, CH-1350 Orbe, Switzerland
Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, 28668 Madrid, Spain
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN 55427-3870, USA
MS-Nutrition, 13385 Marseille CEDEX 5, France
Swiss Distance University of Applied Sciences, Althardstrasse 60, Regendorf-Zürich CH-8105, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1540;
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
The International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI) set out to derive nutritional recommendations for a balanced breakfast using a standardized analysis of national nutrition surveys from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, UK and the US. In all countries, the frequency of breakfast consumption by age was high and U-shaped with children and older adults having a higher frequency of breakfast consumption. Breakfast contributed 16% to 21% of daily energy intake. In all countries, breakfast was a carbohydrate- and nutrient-rich meal, providing more carbohydrates (including sugars), thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, potassium, and magnesium, and less vitamin A, fats and sodium relative to its contribution to daily energy intakes. Breakfast consumers were stratified by tertiles of the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index, used as a measure of diet quality. Breakfast intakes associated with the top tertile of NRF, along with the Codex Alimentarius international food standards and World Health Organization (WHO) diet guidelines, were used to derive the proposed nutrient recommendations. The goal was to preserve the nutrient density of existing breakfasts, while addressing concerns regarding added sugars, saturated fats, dietary fiber, and vitamin D. This initiative is unique in seeking to derive nutrient recommendations for a specific meal using the observed nutritional profile of such meal. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast; IBRI; nutrient recommendations breakfast; IBRI; nutrient recommendations
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Gibney, M.J.; Barr, S.I.; Bellisle, F.; Drewnowski, A.; Fagt, S.; Hopkins, S.; Livingstone, B.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Moreno, L.; Smith, J.; Vieux, F.; Thielecke, F.; Masset, G. Towards an Evidence-Based Recommendation for a Balanced Breakfast—A Proposal from the International Breakfast Research Initiative. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1540.

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