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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and physical activity (PA) have independently been linked [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Trace Element Provision in Parenteral Nutrition in Children: One Size Does Not Fit All
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111819
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Routine administration of trace elements is recognised as a standard of care in children requiring parenteral nutrition. However, there is a lack of global consensus regarding trace elements provision and dosing in pediatric parenteral nutrition. This review provides an overview of available evidence
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Routine administration of trace elements is recognised as a standard of care in children requiring parenteral nutrition. However, there is a lack of global consensus regarding trace elements provision and dosing in pediatric parenteral nutrition. This review provides an overview of available evidence regarding trace elements supply and posology in parenteral nutrition in neonates and children. Trace elements provision in children should be tailored to the weight and clinical condition of the child with emphasis on those at risk of toxicity or deficiency. Based on current evidence, there is a need to review the formulation of commercial solutions that contain multiple-trace elements and to enable individual trace elements additives to be available for specific indications. Literature supports the removal of chromium provision whereas manganese and molybdenum supplementation are debated. Preterm neonates may have higher parenteral requirements in iodine, selenium and copper than previously recommended. There is growing support for the routine provision of iron in long-term parenteral nutrition. Further studies on trace elements contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions are needed for a range of trace elements. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Pilot Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Supplementation with Prebiotic Synergy 1 on Iron Homeostasis in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease Treated with a Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111818
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs in 15–46% of patients with celiac disease (CD), and in some cases, it may be its only manifestation. Studies in animal models have shown that prebiotics, including inulin, may help to increase intestinal absorption of iron. The aim
[...] Read more.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs in 15–46% of patients with celiac disease (CD), and in some cases, it may be its only manifestation. Studies in animal models have shown that prebiotics, including inulin, may help to increase intestinal absorption of iron. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a prebiotic, oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1), on iron homeostasis in non-anemic children and adolescents with celiac disease (CD) in association with a gluten-free diet (GFD). Thirty-four CD patients (4–18 years old) were randomized into two groups receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin) for three months. Before and after intervention, blood samples were collected from all patients for assessment of blood morphology, biochemical parameters and serum hepcidin concentration. We found that serum hepcidin concentration after the intervention was significantly decreased by 60.9% (p = 0.046) in the Synergy 1 group, whereas no significant difference was observed in the placebo group. No differences in morphological and biochemical blood parameters (including ferritin, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP)) were observed after intervention in either group. Given that hepcidin decrease may improve intestinal iron absorption, these results warrant further investigation in a larger cohort and especially in patients with IDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Body Composition and a Gluten Free Diet in Children with Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111817
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet (GFD). However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and adverse changes in body composition. The study aimed to assess
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The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet (GFD). However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and adverse changes in body composition. The study aimed to assess the impact of a GFD on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), muscle mass (MM) [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and body cell mass (BCM) [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented a significantly higher increase in weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021). The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet)
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Open AccessArticle Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Metabolism Acutely Adapted to Postprandial Transition and Mainly Reflected Metabolic Adipose Tissue Adaptations to a High-Fat Diet in Minipigs
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111816
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Although peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are widely used as a valuable tool able to provide biomarkers of health and diseases, little is known about PBMC functional (biochemistry-based) metabolism, particularly following short-term nutritional challenges. In the present study, the metabolic capacity of minipig
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Although peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are widely used as a valuable tool able to provide biomarkers of health and diseases, little is known about PBMC functional (biochemistry-based) metabolism, particularly following short-term nutritional challenges. In the present study, the metabolic capacity of minipig PBMCs to respond to nutritional challenges was explored at the biochemical and molecular levels. The changes observed in enzyme activities following a control test meal revealed that PBMC metabolism is highly reactive to the arrival of nutrients and hormones in the circulation. The consumption, for the first time, of a high fat–high sucrose (HFHS) meal delayed or sharply reduced most of the observed postprandial metabolic features. In a second experiment, minipigs were subjected to two-month HFHS feeding. The time-course follow-up of metabolic changes in PBMCs showed that most of the adaptations to the new diet took place during the first week. By comparing metabolic (biochemical and molecular) PMBC profiles to those of the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, we concluded that although PBMCs conserved common features with all of them, their response to the HFHS diet was closely related to that of the adipose tissue. As a whole, our results show that PBMC metabolism, particularly during short-term (postprandial) challenges, could be used to evaluate the whole-body metabolic status of an individual. This could be particularly interesting for early diagnosis of metabolic disease installation, when fasting clinical analyses fail to diagnose the path towards the pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview Copper-Fructose Interactions: A Novel Mechanism in the Pathogenesis of NAFLD
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111815
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Compelling epidemiologic data support the critical role of dietary fructose in the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The metabolic effects of fructose on the development of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are not completely understood. High fructose intake
[...] Read more.
Compelling epidemiologic data support the critical role of dietary fructose in the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The metabolic effects of fructose on the development of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are not completely understood. High fructose intake impairs copper status, and copper-fructose interactions have been well documented in rats. Altered copper-fructose metabolism leads to exacerbated experimental metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that copper levels are low in NAFLD patients. Moreover, hepatic and serum copper levels are inversely correlated with the severity of NAFLD. Thus, high fructose consumption and low copper availability are considered two important risk factors in NAFLD. However, the causal effect of copper-fructose interactions as well as the effects of fructose intake on copper status remain to be evaluated in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of copper-fructose interactions in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and discuss the potential underlying mechanisms. This review will shed light on the role of copper homeostasis and high fructose intake and point to copper-fructose interactions as novel mechanisms in the fructose induced NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose and Glucose for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Lipoprotein Subclass Profile after Progressive Energy Deficits Induced by Calorie Restriction or Exercise
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111814
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Weight loss, induced by chronic energy deficit, improves the blood lipid profile. However, the effects of an acute negative energy balance and the comparative efficacy of diet and exercise are not well-established. We determined the effects of progressive, acute energy deficits (20% or
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Weight loss, induced by chronic energy deficit, improves the blood lipid profile. However, the effects of an acute negative energy balance and the comparative efficacy of diet and exercise are not well-established. We determined the effects of progressive, acute energy deficits (20% or 40% of daily energy requirements) induced by a single day of calorie restriction (n = 19) or aerobic exercise (n = 13) in healthy subjects (age: 26 ± 9 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2). Fasting plasma concentrations of very low-, intermediate-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL, respectively) particles and their subclasses were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Total plasma triglyceride and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations decreased after calorie restriction and exercise (all p ≤ 0.025); the pattern of change was linear with an increasing energy deficit (all p < 0.03), with no evidence of plateauing. The number of circulating large and medium VLDL particles decreased after diet and exercise (all p < 0.015), with no change in small VLDL particles. The concentrations of IDL, LDL, and HDL particles, their relative distributions, and the particle sizes were not altered. Our data indicate that an acute negative energy balance induced by calorie restriction and aerobic exercise reduces triglyceride concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, by decreasing circulating large and medium VLDL particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Beneficial Effects of Resveratrol Administration—Focus on Potential Biochemical Mechanisms in Cardiovascular Conditions
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111813
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Resveratrol (RV) is a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol and phytoalexin produced by a number of plants such as peanuts, grapes, red wine and berries. Numerous in vitro studies have shown promising results of resveratrol usage as antioxidant, antiplatelet or anti-inflammatory agent. Beneficial effects of
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Resveratrol (RV) is a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol and phytoalexin produced by a number of plants such as peanuts, grapes, red wine and berries. Numerous in vitro studies have shown promising results of resveratrol usage as antioxidant, antiplatelet or anti-inflammatory agent. Beneficial effects of resveratrol activity probably result from its ability to purify the body from ROS (reactive oxygen species), inhibition of COX (cyclooxygenase) and activation of many anti-inflammatory pathways. Administration of the polyphenol has a potential to slow down the development of CVD (cardiovascular disease) by influencing on certain risk factors such as development of diabetes or atherosclerosis. Resveratrol induced an increase in Sirtuin-1 level, which by disrupting the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signal cascade (toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κ-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells/signal transducer and activator of transcription) reduces production of cytokines in activated microglia. Resveratrol caused an attenuation of macrophage/mast cell-derived pro-inflammatory factors such as PAF (platelet-activating factor), TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α and histamine. Endothelial and anti-oxidative effect of resveratrol may contribute to better outcomes in stroke management. By increasing BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum concentration and inducing NOS-3 (nitric oxide synthase-3) activity resveratrol may have possible therapeutical effects on cognitive impairments and dementias especially in those characterized by defective cerebrovascular blood flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation)
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Open AccessArticle Expression of Selenoprotein Genes and Association with Selenium Status in Colorectal Adenoma and Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111812
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Dietary selenium (Se) intake is essential for synthesizing selenoproteins that are important in countering oxidative and inflammatory processes linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there is limited knowledge on the selenoprotein expression in colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, or the interaction
[...] Read more.
Dietary selenium (Se) intake is essential for synthesizing selenoproteins that are important in countering oxidative and inflammatory processes linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there is limited knowledge on the selenoprotein expression in colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, or the interaction with Se status levels. We studied the expression of seventeen Se pathway genes (including fifteen of the twenty-five human selenoproteins) in RNA extracted from disease-normal colorectal tissue pairs, in the discovery phase of sixty-two CRA/CRC patients from Ireland and a validation cohort of a hundred and five CRC patients from the Czech Republic. Differences in transcript levels between the disease and paired control mucosa were assessed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. GPX2 and TXNRD3 showed a higher expression and GPX3, SELENOP, SELENOS, and SEPHS2 exhibited a lower expression in the disease tissue from adenomas and both cancer groups (p-values from 0.023 to <0.001). In the Czech cohort, up-regulation of GPX1, SELENOH, and SOD2 and down-regulation of SELENBP1, SELENON, and SELENOK (p-values 0.036 to <0.001) was also observed. We further examined the correlation of gene expression with serum Se status (assessed by Se and selenoprotein P, SELENOP) in the Irish patients. While there were no significant correlations with both Se status markers, SELENOF, SELENOK, and TXNRD1 tumor tissue expression positively correlated with Se, while TXNRD2 and TXNRD3 negatively correlated with SELENOP. In an analysis restricted to the larger Czech CRC patient cohort, Cox regression showed no major association of transcript levels with patient survival, except for an association of higher SELENOF gene expression with both a lower disease-free and overall survival. Several selenoproteins were differentially expressed in the disease tissue compared to the normal tissue of both CRA and CRC patients. Altered selenoprotein expression may serve as a marker of functional Se status and colorectal adenoma to cancer progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Selenium in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Intakes and Dietary Quality during Pregnancy in Women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - A Norwegian Longitudinal Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111811
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with maternal diet, however, findings are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to assess whether intakes of foods and beverages during pregnancy differed between women who developed GDM and non-GDM women, and to compare dietary
[...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with maternal diet, however, findings are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to assess whether intakes of foods and beverages during pregnancy differed between women who developed GDM and non-GDM women, and to compare dietary intakes with dietary recommendations of pregnancy. This is a longitudinal study using participants of a randomized controlled trial. Women with complete measurements of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 18–22 and 32–36 weeks gestation were included in the cohort (n = 702). Women were diagnosed for GDM according to the simplified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria at 32–36 weeks (GDM women: n = 40; non-GDM women: n = 662). Dietary data (food frequency questionnaire) was collected at both time points and compared between GDM and non-GDM women. Variability in OGTT values was assessed in a general linear model. Marginal differences between GDM and non-GDM women in intakes of food groups were found. No associations were found between dietary variables and OGTT values. Not all dietary recommendations were followed in the cohort, with frequently reported alcohol consumption giving largest cause for concern. This study did not find dietary differences that could help explain why 40 women developed GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Investigation and Comparison of Nutritional Supplement Use, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Medical and Non-Medical Students in China
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111810
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes of Chinese university students with respect to nutritional supplements. We conducted a cross-sectional study in several universities around China from January to December 2017, and enrolled a total
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The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes of Chinese university students with respect to nutritional supplements. We conducted a cross-sectional study in several universities around China from January to December 2017, and enrolled a total of 8752 students. Of these, 4252 were medical students and 4500 were non-medical students. The use of nutritional supplements was reported by 58.9% in universities students, with a higher rate for medical students as compared to non-medical students. It was found 24.2% of participants had taken supplements in the past year. Medical students had a higher level of knowledge on nutritional supplements than non-medical students (p < 0.001). The most commonly used nutritional supplements were vitamin C, calcium, and vitamin B. Gender (p < 0.001), household income (p < 0.001), and health status (p < 0.001) were related to the nutritional supplement use after adjustment for related factors. In conclusion, in China, nutritional supplement use was found to be more common in medical students than those studying other disciplines, and was associated with sex, income, and health status. The attitude towards nutritional supplements by medical students was positive. Students’ knowledge levels about nutritional supplements need to be improved Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessArticle Within-Day Amino Acid Intakes and Nitrogen Balance in Male Collegiate Swimmers during the General Preparation Phase
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111809
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
A higher protein intake is recommended for athletes compared to healthy non-exercising individuals. Additionally, the distribution and quality (i.e., leucine content) of the proteins consumed throughout the day should be optimized. This study aimed to determine the nitrogen balance and distribution of protein
[...] Read more.
A higher protein intake is recommended for athletes compared to healthy non-exercising individuals. Additionally, the distribution and quality (i.e., leucine content) of the proteins consumed throughout the day should be optimized. This study aimed to determine the nitrogen balance and distribution of protein and amino acid intakes in competitive swimmers during the general preparation phase. Thirteen swimmers (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years; VO2max: 63.9 ± 3.7 mL·kg−1·min−1, mean ± standard deviation) participated in a five-day experimental training period. Nutrient intakes were assessed using dietary records. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the daily protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion. The intake amounts of amino acids and protein at seven eating occasions were determined. The average and population-safe intakes for zero nitrogen balance were estimated at 1.43 and 1.92 g·kg−1·day−1, respectively. The intake amounts of protein and leucine at breakfast, lunch, and dinner satisfied current guidelines for the maximization of muscle protein synthesis, but not in the other four occasions. The population-safe protein intake level in competitive swimmers was in the upper range (i.e., 1.2–2.0 g·kg−1·day−1) of the current recommendations for athletes. The protein intake distribution and quality throughout the day may be suboptimal for the maximization of the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Annurca Apple Polyphenols Protect Murine Hair Follicles from Taxane Induced Dystrophy and Hijacks Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism toward β-Oxidation
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111808
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a common side effect of conventional chemotherapy and represents a major problem in clinical oncology. Even months after the end of chemotherapy, many cancer patients complain of hair loss, a condition that is psychologically difficult to manage. CIA disturbs
[...] Read more.
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a common side effect of conventional chemotherapy and represents a major problem in clinical oncology. Even months after the end of chemotherapy, many cancer patients complain of hair loss, a condition that is psychologically difficult to manage. CIA disturbs social and sexual interactions and causes anxiety and depression. Synthetic drugs protecting from CIA and endowed with hair growth stimulatory properties are prescribed with caution by oncologists. Hormones, growth factors, morphogens could unwontedly protect tumour cells or induce cancer cell proliferation and are thus considered incompatible with many chemotherapy regimens. Nutraceuticals, on the contrary, have been shown to be safe and effective treatment options for hair loss. We here show that polyphenols from Malus Pumila Miller cv Annurca are endowed with hair growth promoting activity and can be considered a safe alternative to avoid CIA. In vitro, Annurca Apple Polyphenolic Extract (AAE) protects murine Hair Follicles (HF) from taxanes induced dystrophy. Moreover, in virtue of its mechanism of action, AAE is herein proven to be compatible with chemotherapy regimens. AAE forces HFs to produce ATP using mitochondrial β-oxidation, reducing Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) rate and nucleotides production. As consequence, DNA replication and mitosis are not stimulated, while a pool of free amino acids usually involved in catabolic reactions are spared for keratin production. Moreover, measuring the effect exerted on Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) metabolism, we prove that AAE promotes hair-growth by increasing the intracellular levels of Prostaglandins F2α (PGF2α) and by hijacking PUFA catabolites toward β-oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Withania somnifera on Strength Training Adaptations and Recovery: The STAR Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111807
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an Ayurvedic herb categorized as having “rasayana” (rejuvenator), longevity, and revitalizing properties. Sensoril® is a standardized aqueous extract of the roots and leaves of Withania somnifera. Purpose: To examine the impact of Sensoril® supplementation on strength training
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Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an Ayurvedic herb categorized as having “rasayana” (rejuvenator), longevity, and revitalizing properties. Sensoril® is a standardized aqueous extract of the roots and leaves of Withania somnifera. Purpose: To examine the impact of Sensoril® supplementation on strength training adaptations. Methods: Recreationally active men (26.5 ± 6.4 years, 181 ± 6.8 cm, 86.9 ± 12.5 kg, 24.5 ± 6.6% fat) were randomized in a double-blind fashion to placebo (PLA, n = 19) or 500 mg/d Sensoril® (S500, n = 19). Body composition (DEXA), muscular strength, power, and endurance, 7.5 km cycling time trial, and clinical blood chemistries were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation and training. Subjects were required to maintain their normal dietary habits and to follow a specific, progressive overload resistance-training program (4-day/week, upper body/lower body split). 2 × 2 mixed factorial ANOVA was used for analysis and statistical significance was set a priori at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Gains in 1-RM squat (S500: +19.1 ± 13.0 kg vs. PLA +10.0 ± 6.2 kg, p = 0.009) and bench press (S500: +12.8 ± 8.2 kg vs. PLA: +8.0 ± 6.0 kg, p = 0.048) were significantly greater in S500. Changes in DEXA-derived android/gynoid ratio (S500: +0.0 ± 0.14 vs. PLA: +0.09 ± 0.1, p = 0.03) also favored S500. No other between-group differences were found for body composition, visual analog scales for recovery and affect, or systemic hemodynamics, however, only the S500 group experienced statistically significant improvements in average squat power, peak bench press power, 7.5 km time trial performance, and perceived recovery scores. Clinical chemistry analysis indicated a slight polycythemia effect in PLA, with no other statistical or clinically relevant changes being noted. Conclusions: A 500 mg dose of an aqueous extract of Ashwagandha improves upper and lower-body strength, supports a favorable distribution of body mass, and was well tolerated clinically in recreationally active men over a 12-week resistance training and supplementation period. Full article
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Open AccessReview Feedback-Based Treatments for Eating Disorders and Related Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111806
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
The effectiveness of biofeedback and neurofeedback has been investigated in a range of psychiatric disorders. However, to date, there are few studies on the clinical usefulness of feedback-based techniques for eating disorders (EDs) and EDs-related symptoms (e.g., food craving). A systematic search of
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The effectiveness of biofeedback and neurofeedback has been investigated in a range of psychiatric disorders. However, to date, there are few studies on the clinical usefulness of feedback-based techniques for eating disorders (EDs) and EDs-related symptoms (e.g., food craving). A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and PsychINFO identified 162 articles. Among these, thirteen studies exploring the therapeutic use of biofeedback and neurofeedback in EDs or EDs-related symptoms were included. Biofeedback and neurofeedback were implemented respectively in five and eight of all reviewed articles. No studies incorporated different feedback modalities or both biofeedback and neurofeedback. The considered studies provide preliminary data of the usefulness of feedback-based techniques in the treatment of several dysfunctional eating behaviors (e.g., food craving, rumination). Although no significant effect has been reported for other important EDs-related symptoms (i.e., body image disturbance), feedback-based techniques are also associated with significant modifications of both sympathetic reaction to food-related stimuli and brain activity in several regions of the reward system (e.g., insula). Taken together the results of the present review suggest that feedback-based treatments may be useful in the treatment of several dysfunctional eating behaviors operating both on top-down and bottom-up individual coping strategies. Methodological and clinical issues are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Small Doses of Fructose and Its Epimers on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111805
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Objective: Contrary to the concerns that fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, an emerging literature has shown that small doses (≤10 g/meal) of fructose and its low-caloric epimers (allulose, tagatose, and sorbose) decrease the glycemic response to high glycemic index meals. Whether these
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Objective: Contrary to the concerns that fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, an emerging literature has shown that small doses (≤10 g/meal) of fructose and its low-caloric epimers (allulose, tagatose, and sorbose) decrease the glycemic response to high glycemic index meals. Whether these acute reductions manifest as sustainable improvements in glycemic control is unclear. Our objective was to synthesize the evidence from controlled feeding trials that assessed the effect of small doses of fructose and its low-caloric epimers on glycemic control. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through April 18, 2018. We included controlled feeding trials of ≥1 week that investigated the effect of small doses (≤50 g/day or ≤10% of total energy intake/day) of fructose and its low-caloric epimers on HbA1c, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and quantified using the I2 statistic. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) assessed the certainty of the evidence. Results: We identified 14 trial comparisons (N = 337) of the effect of fructose in individuals with and without diabetes, 3 trial comparisons (N = 138) of the effect of allulose in individuals without diabetes, 3 trial comparisons (N = 376) of the effect of tagatose mainly in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and 0 trial comparisons of the effect of sorbose. Small doses of fructose and tagatose significantly reduced HbA1c (MD = −0.38% (95% CI: −0.64%, −0.13%); MD = −0.20% (95% CI: −0.34%, −0.06%)) and fasting glucose (MD = −0.13 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.24 mmol/L, −0.03 mmol/L)); MD = −0.30 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.57 mmol/L, −0.04 mmol/L)) without affecting fasting insulin (p > 0.05). Small doses of allulose did not have a significant effect on HbA1c and fasting insulin (p > 0.05), while the reduction in fasting glucose was of borderline significance (p = 0.05). The certainty of the evidence of the effect of small doses of fructose and allulose on HbA1c, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin was graded as low. The certainty of the evidence of the effect of tagatose on HbA1c, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin was graded as moderate. Conclusions: Our results indicate that small doses of fructose and tagatose may improve glycemic control over the long term. There is a need for long-term randomized controlled trials for all four sugars to improve our certainty in the estimates. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle In Vitro Anticancer Properties of Table Grape Powder Extract (GPE) in Prostate Cancer
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111804
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Although the link between diet and cancer is complex, epidemiological data confirm that diet is a risk factor for prostate cancer and indicate a reduced prostate cancer incidence associated with a diet rich in vegetables and fruits. Because of the known protective effect
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Although the link between diet and cancer is complex, epidemiological data confirm that diet is a risk factor for prostate cancer and indicate a reduced prostate cancer incidence associated with a diet rich in vegetables and fruits. Because of the known protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer, we evaluated the effects of grape powder extract (GPE) on cell viability, proliferation, and metastatic capability. Importantly, we explored the possible novel mechanism of GPE through metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) downregulation in prostate cancer, since our previous studies indicated resveratrol (Res)- and pterostilbene (Pter)-induced MTA1-mediated anticancer activities in prostate cancer. We found that GPE inhibited the cell viability and growth of prostate cancer cells only at high 100 μg/mL concentrations. However, at low 1.5–15 μg/mL concentrations, GPE significantly reduced the colony formation and wound healing capabilities of both DU145 and PC3M cells. Moreover, we found that GPE inhibited MTA1 in a dose-dependent manner in these cells, albeit with considerably less potency than Res and Pter. These results indicate that stilbenes such as Res and Pter specifically and potently inhibit MTA1 and MTA1-associated proteins compared to GPE, which contains low concentrations of Res and mainly consists of other flavonoids and anthocyanidins. Our findings support continued interest in GPE as a chemopreventive and anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer but also emphasize the unique and specific properties of stilbenes on MTA1-mediated anticancer effects on prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation)
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Open AccessArticle Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Their Polyphenol Content Are Inversely Associated with Sleep Duration: Prospective Associations from the UK Women’s Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111803
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate the prospective associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes and their polyphenol content with subsequent sleep duration in UK women. In this study, 13,958 women with ~4 years of follow-up in the UK Women’s Cohort Study were included
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This study aims to investigate the prospective associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes and their polyphenol content with subsequent sleep duration in UK women. In this study, 13,958 women with ~4 years of follow-up in the UK Women’s Cohort Study were included in the analyses. FV intakes were assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and average hours of sleep per day were self-reported in follow-up. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching FV items from the FFQ with the Phenol-Explorer database. Linear regression models, adjusting for confounders, were used for the analyses. Consuming an additional portion of apples, kiwi, oranges, pineapple, and 100% pure juice were associated with shorter sleep. Similarly, an additional portion of cabbage, celery, aubergine, olives, and peppers were inversely associated with sleep duration. An additional gram of total polyphenols was associated with shorter sleep by 18 min (99% CI −31 to −4, p < 0.001). FV consumption and total polyphenol content were inversely associated with sleep duration; however, effect sizes were small, and polyphenol classes from FV intakes were not associated with sleep duration. Future intervention studies considering the time of FV consumption in relation to sleep are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Ishige okamurae Extract Suppresses Obesity and Hepatic Steatosis in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111802
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is caused by the expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores excess triacylglycerol (TG), this can lead to disorders including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, metabolic diseases. Ishige okamurae extract (IOE) is prepared from a brown alga and has anti-oxidative properties. We
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Obesity is caused by the expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores excess triacylglycerol (TG), this can lead to disorders including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, metabolic diseases. Ishige okamurae extract (IOE) is prepared from a brown alga and has anti-oxidative properties. We investigated the detailed mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of IOE. Treatment with IOE blocked lipid accumulation by reducing expression of key adipogenic transcription factors, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), in 3T3-L1 cells. Administration of IOE to high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice inhibited body and WAT mass gain, attenuated fasting hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The obesity suppression was associated with reductions in expression of adipogenic proteins, such as C/EBPα and PPARγ, increases in expression of lipolytic enzymes, such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in WAT of HFD-fed mice. In addition, IOE-treated mice had lower hepatic TG content, associated with lower protein expression of lipogenic genes, such as diglyceride acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS). IOE treatment also reduced serum free fatty acid concentration, probably through the upregulation of β-oxidation genes, suggested by increases in AMPKα and CPT1 expression in WAT and liver. In summary, IOE ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and its related metabolic disease, hepatic steatosis, by regulating multiple pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Status and Seasonal Variation among Danish Children and Adults: A Descriptive Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111801
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to describe vitamin D status and seasonal variation in the general Danish population. In this study, 3092 persons aged 2 to 69 years (2565 adults, 527 children) had blood drawn twice (spring and autumn) between 2012
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The aim of the present study was to describe vitamin D status and seasonal variation in the general Danish population. In this study, 3092 persons aged 2 to 69 years (2565 adults, 527 children) had blood drawn twice (spring and autumn) between 2012 and 2014. A sub-sample of participants had blood samples taken monthly over a year. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and information on supplement use was assessed from questionnaires. Seasonal variations in 25(OH)D concentrations were evaluated graphically and descriptively, and status according to age, sex, and supplement use was described. It was found that 86% of both adults and children were vitamin D-sufficient in either spring and or/autumn; however, many had a spring concentration below 50 nmol/L. A wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations were found in spring and autumn, with very low and very high values in both seasons. Among adults, women in general had higher median 25(OH)D concentrations than men. Furthermore, vitamin D supplement use was substantial and affected the median concentrations markedly, more so during spring than autumn. Seasonal variation was thus found to be substantial, and bi-seasonal measurements are vital in order to capture the sizable fluctuations in vitamin D status in this Nordic population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Fingerprints of Iron Parameters among a Population-Based Sample
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111800
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
Iron deficiency is the most frequent deficiency disease and parameters of iron metabolism appear to be linked to major metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We screened a large set of small molecules in plasma for associations with iron status among apparently healthy subjects to
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Iron deficiency is the most frequent deficiency disease and parameters of iron metabolism appear to be linked to major metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We screened a large set of small molecules in plasma for associations with iron status among apparently healthy subjects to elucidate subclinical profiles which may provide a link between iron status and onset of diseases. Based on mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we determined 613 plasma metabolites and lipoprotein subfractions among 820 apparently healthy individuals. Associations between ferritin, transferrin, haemoglobin and myoglobin and metabolite levels were tested by sex-specific linear regression analyses controlling for common confounders. Far more significant associations in women (82 out of 102) compared to men became obvious. The majority of the metabolites associated with serum ferritin and haemoglobin in women comprising fatty acid species, branched-chain amino acid catabolites and catabolites of heme. The latter was also obvious among men. Positive associations between serum transferrin and VLDL and IDL particle measures seen in women were observed in men with respect to serum ferritin. We observed a sexual-dimorphic fingerprint of surrogates of iron metabolism which may provide a link for the associations between those parameters and major metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Does Village Chicken-Keeping Contribute to Young Children’s Diets and Growth? A Longitudinal Observational Study in Rural Tanzania
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111799
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
There is substantial current interest in linkages between livestock-keeping and human nutrition in resource-poor settings. These may include benefits of improved diet quality, through animal-source food consumption and nutritious food purchases using livestock-derived income, and hazards of infectious disease or environmental enteric dysfunction
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There is substantial current interest in linkages between livestock-keeping and human nutrition in resource-poor settings. These may include benefits of improved diet quality, through animal-source food consumption and nutritious food purchases using livestock-derived income, and hazards of infectious disease or environmental enteric dysfunction associated with exposure to livestock feces. Particular concerns center on free-roaming chickens, given their proximity to children in rural settings, but findings to date have been inconclusive. This longitudinal study of 503 households with a child under 24 months at enrolment was conducted in villages of Manyoni District, Tanzania between May 2014, and May 2016. Questionnaires encompassed demographic characteristics, assets, livestock ownership, chicken housing practices, maternal education, water and sanitation, and dietary diversity. Twice-monthly household visits provided information on chicken numbers, breastfeeding and child diarrhea, and anthropometry was collected six-monthly. Multivariable mixed model analyses evaluated associations between demographic, socioeconomic and livestock-associated variables and (a) maternal and child diets, (b) children’s height-for-age and (c) children’s diarrhea frequency. Alongside modest contributions of chicken-keeping to some improved dietary outcomes, this study importantly (and of substantial practical significance if confirmed) found no indication of a heightened risk of stunting or greater frequency of diarrhea being associated with chicken-keeping or the practice of keeping chickens within human dwellings overnight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups)
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Open AccessArticle Milk Other Than Breast Milk and the Development of Asthma in Children 3 Years of Age. A Birth Cohort Study (2006–2011)
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111798
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Prevalence of asthma in Australian children is amongst the highest in the world. Although breastfeeding positively influences infant immunity, early introduction of Milk Other than Breast Milk (MOTBM) may also play an important role in the development of Asthma. The aim of this
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Prevalence of asthma in Australian children is amongst the highest in the world. Although breastfeeding positively influences infant immunity, early introduction of Milk Other than Breast Milk (MOTBM) may also play an important role in the development of Asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after birth and the development of reported persistent asthma in 3-year olds. A sample of 1121 children was extracted from the Environments for Healthy Living longitudinal birth cohort study. Introduction of MOTBM during the first six months after birth increased almost two-fold the risk of development of persistent asthma after adjusting for other covariates (Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR): 1.71, 95% CI: 1.03–2.83, p = 0.038). This study indicates that the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months of life is a risk factor for asthma incidence among 3-year old children. This result is important in explaining the benefits of breastfeeding as part of public health interventions to encourage mothers to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration, and avoid the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after childbirth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Role of Synbiotics Containing d-Allulose in the Alteration of Body Fat and Hepatic Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111797
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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The effects of allulose and two probiotic species on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were investigated. Lactobacillus sakei LS03 (109 cfu/day) and Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 (109 cfu/day) were used as probiotics, and allulose (AL) as a prebiotic. The synergistic effect of prebiotics
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The effects of allulose and two probiotic species on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were investigated. Lactobacillus sakei LS03 (109 cfu/day) and Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 (109 cfu/day) were used as probiotics, and allulose (AL) as a prebiotic. The synergistic effect of prebiotics and probiotics in improving obesity was evaluated. Orally fed Lactobacillus sakei LS03 (LS) or Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 (GJ), significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid (FA) compared to the high-fat diet (HFD) control. AL markedly decreased visceral adiposity and pro-inflammatory adipokines (leptin and resistin) and cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β) as well as hepatic TG and FA. In addition, AL exerted synergic effects with probiotics (LS and/or GJ) on the reduction of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), associated with a decreased leptin: adiponectin ratio. There was no significant differences between the AL-SL and AL group, allulose and GJ combination (AL-GJ) was more effective than allulose in improving dyslipidemia, and decreasing WAT weight and hepatic FA, suggesting allulose may act as a favorable prebiotic for GJ supplement than LS. Combination of allulose with LS and GJ supplementation (AL-LSGJ) was the most effective for improving obesity related complications among the synbiotics groups containing allulose. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the synbiotic mixture with allulose was more effective in suppressing diet-induced obese (DIO) and its complications via the regulation of lipid metabolism, than the probiotics or allulose alone, suggesting allulose may act as a prebiotic for the two probiotics tested in the study. This new synbiotic mixture with allulose may help ameliorate the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity and contribute to the growth of the food industry. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease—Forever and for All?
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111796
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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Abstract
The gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment available for celiac disease. However, it is difficult to adhere to and a closer look on the diet’s implementation and indications reveals several ambiguities: Not only is there controversy on the threshold of gluten that
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The gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment available for celiac disease. However, it is difficult to adhere to and a closer look on the diet’s implementation and indications reveals several ambiguities: Not only is there controversy on the threshold of gluten that can be tolerated in the frame of a strict gluten-free diet, but it is also unclear whether the gluten-free diet is an appropriate treatment in patient subgroups with asymptomatic or potential celiac disease. Reports from a number of research groups suggest that a certain proportion of patients may effectively develop tolerance to gluten and thus become suitable for gluten reintroduction over time. In this review, we set out to create an overview about the current state of research as regards the definition of a strict gluten-free diet in terms of the gluten thresholds considered tolerable and the indication for a gluten-free diet in the absence of histological abnormalities or symptoms. Furthermore, we discuss the concept that a gluten-free diet must be followed for life by all patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of High vs. Low Glycemic Index of Post-Exercise Meals on Sleep and Exercise Performance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Counterbalanced Polysomnographic Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111795
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the glycemic index of post-exercise meals on sleep quality and quantity, and assess whether those changes could affect the next day’s exercise performance. Following a baseline/familiarization phase, 10 recreationally trained male
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the glycemic index of post-exercise meals on sleep quality and quantity, and assess whether those changes could affect the next day’s exercise performance. Following a baseline/familiarization phase, 10 recreationally trained male volunteers (23.2 ± 1.8 years) underwent two double-blinded, randomized, counterbalanced crossover trials. In both trials, participants performed sprint interval training (SIT) in the evening. Post-exercise, participants consumed a meal with a high (HGI) or low (LGI) glycemic index. Sleep parameters were assessed by a full night polysomnography (PSG). The following morning, exercise performance was evaluated by the countermovement jump (CMJ) test, a visual reaction time (VRT) test and a 5-km cycling time trial (TT). Total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency were greater in the HGI trial compared to the LGI trial (p < 0.05), while sleep onset latency was shortened by four-fold (p < 0.05) and VRT decreased by 8.9% (p < 0.05) in the HGI trial compared to the LGI trial. The performance in both 5-km TT and CMJ did not differ between trials. A moderate to strong correlation was found between the difference in TST and the VRT between the two trials (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this is the first study to show that a high glycemic index meal, following a single spring interval training session, can improve both sleep duration and sleep efficiency, while reducing in parallel sleep onset latency. Those improvements in sleep did not affect jumping ability and aerobic endurance performance. In contrast, the visual reaction time performance increased proportionally to sleep improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview The Use of Glycomacropeptide in Patients with Phenylketonuria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111794
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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In phenylketonuria (PKU), synthetic protein derived from L-amino acids (AAs) is essential in a low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein, is very low in Phe in its native form. It has been modified and adapted for PKU to provide an alternative
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In phenylketonuria (PKU), synthetic protein derived from L-amino acids (AAs) is essential in a low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein, is very low in Phe in its native form. It has been modified and adapted for PKU to provide an alternative protein source through supplementation with rate-limiting amino acids (GMP-AAs), although it still contains residual Phe. This review aims to systematically evaluate published intervention studies on the use of GMP-AAs in PKU by considering its impact on blood Phe control (primary aim) and changes in tyrosine control, nutritional biomarkers, and patient acceptability or palatability (secondary aims). Four electronic databases were searched for articles published from 2007 to June 2018. Of the 274 studies identified, only eight were included. Bias risk was assessed and a quality appraisal of the body of evidence was completed. A meta-analysis was performed with two studies with adequate comparable methodology which showed no differences between GMP-AAs and AAs for any of the interventions analysed. This work underlines the scarcity and nature of studies with GMP-AAs interventions. All were short-term with small sample sizes. There is a need for better-designed studies to provide the best evidence-based recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessCommunication Gut Permeability Might be Improved by Dietary Fiber in Individuals with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Undergoing Weight Reduction
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111793
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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(1) Introduction: Zonulin (ZO) has been proposed as a marker of intestinal permeability. Only a few studies have analyzed to date how diet influences the serum concentration of ZO among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a six-month dietetic intervention
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(1) Introduction: Zonulin (ZO) has been proposed as a marker of intestinal permeability. Only a few studies have analyzed to date how diet influences the serum concentration of ZO among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a six-month dietetic intervention to evaluate the association between fiber intake and ZO concentration in 32 individuals with NAFLD. (2) Methods: Fiber content in the diet was estimated by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and by analyzing 72-h nutritional diaries. ZO concentrations in serum were measured before and after the intervention by immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). Fatty liver was quantified using the Hamaguchi score before and after the dietetic intervention. (3) Results: During the intervention, the dietary fiber intake increased from 19 g/day to the 29 g/day concomitant with an increase in the frequency of fiber consumption. All patients experienced significant (all p < 0.05) improvements in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGTP) activities. We also detected decreased serum triglycerides (p = 0.036), homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p = 0.041) and insulin content (p = 0.34), and improvement of fatty liver status according to the Hamaguchi score (p = 0.009). ZO concentration in serum decreased by nearly 90% (7.335 ± 13.492 vs. 0.507 ± 0.762 ng/mL, p = 0.001) and correlated with the amount of dietary fiber intake (p = 0.043) as well as the degree of fatty liver (p = 0.037). (4) Conclusion: Increasing nutritional fiber results in reduced serum ZO levels, reduced liver enzymes and improved hepatic steatosis in patients with NAFLD, possibly by altering intestinal permeability. Increased dietary fiber intake should be recommended in patients with NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolated Soy Protein Supplementation and Exercise Improve Fatigue-Related Biomarker Levels and Bone Strength in Ovariectomized Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111792
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Isolated soy protein (ISP) is a well-known supplement and has been reported to improve health, exercise performance, body composition, and energy utilization. ISP exhibits multifunctional bioactivities and also contains branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which have been confirmed to positively affect body weight (BW)
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Isolated soy protein (ISP) is a well-known supplement and has been reported to improve health, exercise performance, body composition, and energy utilization. ISP exhibits multifunctional bioactivities and also contains branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which have been confirmed to positively affect body weight (BW) regulation and muscle protein synthesis. The combined effects of BCAA supplements and exercise in older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity have been inadequately investigated. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the potential beneficial effects of soy protein supplementation and exercise training on postmenopausal mice. Forty mice (14 weeks old) with ovariectomy-induced osteosarcopenic obesity were divided into five groups (n = 8), namely sham ovariectomy (OVX, control), OVX, OVX with ISP supplementation (OVX+ISP), OVX with exercise training (ET, OVX+ET), and OVX with ISP and ET (OVX+ISP+ET). The mice received a vehicle or soy protein (3.8 g/kg BW) by oral gavage for four weeks, and the exercise performance (forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time) was evaluated. In the biochemical profiles, we evaluated the serum glucose level and tissue damage markers, such as lactate, ammonia, glucose, blood urine nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine phosphate kinase (CPK). The body composition was determined by evaluating bone stiffness and muscle mass. All data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The physical performance of the OVX+ISP+ET group did not differ from that of the other groups. The OVX+ISP+ET group exhibited lower levels of serum lactate, ammonia, CPK, and BUN as well as economized glucose metabolism after an acute exercise challenge. The OVX+ISP+ET group also exhibited higher muscle mass and bone strength than the OVX group. Our study demonstrated that a combination of ISP supplementation and exercise reduced fatigue and improved bone function in OVX mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Association Studies of Estimated Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Serum and Adipose Tissue in Elderly Individuals: Associations with Insulin Sensitivity
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111791
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of δ-5-desaturase (D5D),
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Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of δ-5-desaturase (D5D), δ-6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD) activities (estimated by product-to-precursor ratios of fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography) in serum cholesterol esters (n = 1453) and adipose tissue (n = 783, all men) were performed in two Swedish population-based cohorts. Genome-wide significant associated loci were evaluated for associations with IS measured with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n = 554). Variants at the FADS1 were strongly associated with D5D in both cholesterol esters (p = 1.9 × 10−70) and adipose tissue (p = 1.1 × 10−27). Variants in three further loci were associated with D6D in cholesterol esters (FADS2, p = 3.0 × 10−67; PDXDCI, p = 4.8 × 10−8; and near MC4R, p = 3.7 × 10−8) but no associations with D6D in adipose tissue attained genome-wide significance. One locus was associated with SCD in adipose tissue (PKDL1, p = 2.2 × 10−19). Genetic variants near MC4R were associated with IS (p = 3.8 × 10−3). The FADS cluster was the main genetic determinant of estimated FADS activity. However, fatty acid (FA) ratios in adipose tissue and cholesterol esters represent FADS activities in separate tissues and are thus influenced by different genetic factors with potential varying effects on IS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessReview Solid Food Introduction and the Development of Food Allergies
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111790
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Abstract
The rise of food allergy in childhood, particularly among developed countries, has a significant weight on public health and involves serious implications for patients’ quality of life. Even if the mechanisms of food tolerance and the complex interactions between the immune system and
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The rise of food allergy in childhood, particularly among developed countries, has a significant weight on public health and involves serious implications for patients’ quality of life. Even if the mechanisms of food tolerance and the complex interactions between the immune system and environmental factors are still mainly unknown, pediatricians have worldwide implemented preventive measures against allergic diseases. In the last few decades, the prevention of food allergy has tracked various strategies of complementary feeding with a modification of international guidelines from delayed introduction to early weaning. Current evidence shows that complementary foods, including allergenic ones, should be introduced into diet after four months, or even better, following World Health Organization advice, around six months irrespective of risk for allergy of the individual. The introduction of peanut is recommended before 12 months of age among infants affected by severe eczema and/or egg allergy to diminish the occurrence of peanut allergy in countries with high peanut consumption. The introduction of heated egg at 6–8 months of age may reduce egg allergy. Infants at high risk of allergy similarly to healthy children should introduce complementary foods taking into account family and cultural preferences. Full article
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