Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Ketogenic diets (KDs) are gaining attention as a potential adjuvant therapy for cancer. However, [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-207
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Low Protein Intake Is Associated with Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091334
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 858 | PDF Full-text (1249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: Several factors have been suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of frailty in older adults, and nutrition (especially protein intake) has been attributed fundamental importance in this context. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several factors have been suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of frailty in older adults, and nutrition (especially protein intake) has been attributed fundamental importance in this context. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between protein intake and frailty status in older adults. (2) Methods: A search of scientific studies was conducted in the main databases (Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library), and in the reference lists of selected articles. The search terms included synonyms and Medical Subject Headings and involved the use of Boolean operators which allowed the combination of words and search terms. Observational studies—cross-sectional and longitudinal—that met the eligibility criteria were included in the review. Article selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Meta-analyses with random effects were performed. Publication bias was measured using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology instrument. (3) Results: In the final sample, 10 articles, seven cross-sectional and three longitudinal, were included in the present study. Overall, studies investigated a total of 50,284 older adults from three different continents between 2006 and 2018. Four cross-sectional studies were included in the meta-analyses. The results demonstrated that a high protein intake was negatively associated with frailty status in older adults (odds ratio: 0.67, confidence interval = 0.56 to 0.82, p = 0.0001). (4) Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a high consumption of dietary protein is inversely associated with frailty in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091333
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 956 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed drinks around the world, while depression is considered the major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the investigation on coffee consumption and depression is limited and results may be confounded by the
[...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed drinks around the world, while depression is considered the major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the investigation on coffee consumption and depression is limited and results may be confounded by the overall dietary pattern. We assessed the relationship between coffee intake and the risk of depression, controlling for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We studied 14,413 university graduates of the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) cohort, initially free of depression. We evaluated coffee consumption using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident depression cases were adjudicated only if the participant met two criteria simultaneously: (a) validated physician-diagnosed depression together with (b) new onset of habitual antidepressant use. Both criteria were needed; participants meeting only one of them were not classified as cases. Participants who drank at least four cups of coffee per day showed a significantly lower risk of depression than participants who drank less than one cup of coffee per day (HR: 0.37 (95% CI 0.15–0.95)). However, overall, we did not observe an inverse linear dose–response association between coffee consumption and the incidence of depression (p for trend = 0.22). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Human Milk Casein and Whey Protein and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091332
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 1040 | PDF Full-text (1183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human milk (HM) influences infant feeding patterns and body composition (BC). This small proof-of concept longitudinal study investigated relationships between infant/maternal BC and HM casein, whey and total protein during the first 12 months of lactation. BC of breastfeeding dyads (n =
[...] Read more.
Human milk (HM) influences infant feeding patterns and body composition (BC). This small proof-of concept longitudinal study investigated relationships between infant/maternal BC and HM casein, whey and total protein during the first 12 months of lactation. BC of breastfeeding dyads (n = 20) was measured at 2 (n = 15), 5 (n = 20), 9 (n = 19), and/or 12 (n = 18) months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (infants) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants/mothers). Proteins concentrations and 24-h milk intake were measured and calculated daily intakes (CDI) determined. Higher maternal weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were associated with higher concentration of whey protein (p ≤ 0.034, n = 20). There were no associations between infant BC and concentrations of all proteins, and CDI of whey and total protein. Higher CDI of casein were associated with lower infant fat-free mass (p = 0.003, n = 18) and higher fat mass (p < 0.001), fat mass index (p = 0.001, n = 18), and % fat mass (p < 0.001, n = 18) measured with ultrasound skinfolds. These results show a differential effect of HM casein on development of infant BC during the first year of life, suggesting that there is a potential to improve outcome for the infant through interventions, such as continuation of breastfeeding during the first 12 months of life and beyond, which may facilitate favourable developmental programming that could reduce risk of non-communicable diseases later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Clinical Significance of Phase Angle in Non-Dialysis CKD Stage 5 and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091331
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 446 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Fluid overload and protein-energy wasting (PEW) are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and lead to a poor prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the volume and nutritional status of ESRD patients and to determine the clinical significance of phase angle
[...] Read more.
Background: Fluid overload and protein-energy wasting (PEW) are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and lead to a poor prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the volume and nutritional status of ESRD patients and to determine the clinical significance of phase angle (PhA). Methods: This study was a cross-sectional comparison of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) findings in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 (CKD5-ND, N = 80) and age/sex-matched peritoneal dialysis patients (PD, N = 80). PEW was defined as a PhA less than 4.5°. Results: The PhA was found to be positively associated with a geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI, r = 0.561, p < 0.001), lean tissue index (LTI, r = 0.473, p < 0.001), and albumin (r = 0.565, p < 0.001) while OH/ECW (r = −0.824, p < 0.001) showed an inverse correlation. The CKD5-ND group had more overhydration (p = 0.027). The PD group had significantly higher PhA (p = 0.023), GNRI (p = 0.005), hemoglobin (p < 0.001), and albumin (p = 0.003) than the CKD5-ND group. The cut-off values predicting PEW were found to be 3.55 g/dL for albumin, 94.9 for GNRI, and 12.95 kg/m2 for LTI in PD patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PhA could be used as a marker to reflect nutritional status in patients with ESRD. Since BIS can inform both volume and nutritional status, regular monitoring will provide the basis for active correction of fluid overload and nutritional supplementation, which may improve outcomes in patients with ESRD. Full article
Open AccessReview Relative Protein Intake and Physical Function in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091330
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 893 | PDF Full-text (2528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: The present work aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, in order to investigate the association of relative protein intake and physical function in older adults; (2) Methods: Observational studies, that investigated the association between protein intake
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: The present work aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, in order to investigate the association of relative protein intake and physical function in older adults; (2) Methods: Observational studies, that investigated the association between protein intake and physical function in older adults, were retrieved from MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, AgeLine, EMBASE, and Cochrane-CENTRAL. Two independent researchers conducted study selection and data extraction; (3) Results: Very high protein intake (≥1.2 g/kg/day) and high protein intake (≥1.0 g/kg/day) groups showed better lower limb physical functioning and walking speed (WS) performance, respectively, in comparison to individuals who present relative low protein (<0.80 g/kg/day) intake. On the other hand, relative high protein intake does not seem to propitiate a better performance on isometric handgrip (IHG) and chair rise in comparison to relative low protein intake. In addition, there were no significant differences in the physical functioning of high and middle protein intake groups; (4) Conclusions: In conclusion, findings of the present study indicate that a very high (≥1.2 g/kg/day) and high protein intake (≥1.0 g/kg/day) are associated with better lower-limb physical performance, when compared to low protein (<0.80 g/kg/day) intake, in community-dwelling older adults. These findings act as additional evidence regarding the potential need to increase protein guidelines to above the current recommendations. However, large randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the addictive effects of high-protein diets (≥1.0 g/kg/day) in comparison to the current recommendations on physical functioning. All data are available in the Open ScienceFramework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Overweight Children: Role of Fructose Intake and Dietary Pattern
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091329
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 1043 | PDF Full-text (1308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The role of nutrition and diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not fully understood. In the present study, we determined if dietary pattern and markers of intestinal permeability differ between overweight children with and without NAFLD. In
[...] Read more.
The role of nutrition and diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not fully understood. In the present study, we determined if dietary pattern and markers of intestinal permeability differ between overweight children with and without NAFLD. In addition, in a feasibility study, we assessed the effect of a moderate dietary intervention only focusing on nutrients identified to differ between groups on markers of intestinal barrier function and health status. Anthropometric data, dietary intake, metabolic parameters, and markers of inflammation, as well as of intestinal permeability, were assessed in overweight children (n = 89, aged 5–9) and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 36, aged 5–9). Sixteen children suffered from early signs of NAFLD, e.g., steatosis grade 1 as determined by ultrasound. Twelve children showing early signs of NAFLD were enrolled in the intervention study (n = 6 intervention, n = 6 control). Body mass index (BMI), BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), and waist circumference were significantly higher in NAFLD children than in overweight children without NAFLD. Levels of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and proinflammatory markers like interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were also significantly higher in overweight children with NAFLD compared to those without. Total energy and carbohydrate intake were higher in NAFLD children than in those without. The higher carbohydrate intake mainly resulted from a higher total fructose and glucose intake derived from a significantly higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. When counseling children with NAFLD regarding fructose intake (four times, 30–60 min within 1 year; one one-on-one counseling and three group counselings), neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT) nor aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in serum changed; however, diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and bacterial endotoxin levels (p = 0.06) decreased markedly in the intervention group after one year. Similar changes were not found in uncounseled children. Our results suggest that a sugar-rich diet might contribute to the development of early stages of NAFLD in overweight children, and that moderate dietary counseling might improve the metabolic status of overweight children with NAFLD. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Platycodon grandiflorum Saponins Ameliorate Cisplatin-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity through the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammation and PI3K/Akt/Apoptosis Signaling Pathways
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091328
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 510 | PDF Full-text (5905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against cancers, its clinical application is seriously limited by its severe side effects of nephrotoxicity. Previous studies reported that saponins isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PGS) exerted protective effects in various animal models of
[...] Read more.
Although cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against cancers, its clinical application is seriously limited by its severe side effects of nephrotoxicity. Previous studies reported that saponins isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PGS) exerted protective effects in various animal models of renal injury, with no confirmation on cisplatin-induced injury. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PGS (15 and 30 mg/kg) on cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. The levels of serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and renal histopathology demonstrated the protective effect of PGS against cisplatin-induced kidney injury. PGS exerted anti-inflammation effects via suppressing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and alleviating the cisplatin-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in kidney tissues. The expressions of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B and its downstream apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2 and caspase families were regulated by PGS in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, PGS exerted kidney protection effects against cisplatin-induced kidney injury by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and regulating PI3K/Akt/apoptosis signaling pathways in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Hairless Canaryseed: A Novel Cereal with Health Promoting Potential
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091327
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Viewed by 530 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glabrous canaryseeds were recently approved for human consumption as a novel cereal grain in Canada and the United States. Previously, canaryseeds were exclusively used as birdseed due to the presence of carcinogenic silica fibers; therefore the nutritional value of the seeds has been
[...] Read more.
Glabrous canaryseeds were recently approved for human consumption as a novel cereal grain in Canada and the United States. Previously, canaryseeds were exclusively used as birdseed due to the presence of carcinogenic silica fibers; therefore the nutritional value of the seeds has been seriously overlooked. Two cultivars of glabrous canaryseeds (yellow and brown) were created from the hairy varieties. They are high in protein compared to other cereal grains, and contain high amounts of tryptophan, an amino acid normally lacking in cereals, and are gluten-free. Bioactive peptides of canaryseeds produced by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion have shown antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive activity. The seeds contain other constituents with health promoting effects, including unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and phytochemicals. Anti-nutritional components in the seeds are comparable to other cereal grains. Because of their beneficial health effects, canaryseeds should be regarded as a healthy food and have immense potential as a functional food and ingredient. Further research is required to determine additional bioactive peptide activity and capacity, as well as differences between the yellow and brown cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Soybean Oil-Derived Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Liver Damage in NAFLD Induced by Dietary Cholesterol
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091326
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 761 | PDF Full-text (4856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
While the impact of dietary cholesterol on the progression of atherosclerosis has probably been overestimated, increasing evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol might favor the transition from blunt steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), especially in combination with high fat diets. It is poorly understood
[...] Read more.
While the impact of dietary cholesterol on the progression of atherosclerosis has probably been overestimated, increasing evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol might favor the transition from blunt steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), especially in combination with high fat diets. It is poorly understood how cholesterol alone or in combination with other dietary lipid components contributes to the development of lipotoxicity. The current study demonstrated that liver damage caused by dietary cholesterol in mice was strongly enhanced by a high fat diet containing soybean oil-derived ω6-poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω6-PUFA), but not by a lard-based high fat diet containing mainly saturated fatty acids. In contrast to the lard-based diet the soybean oil-based diet augmented cholesterol accumulation in hepatocytes, presumably by impairing cholesterol-eliminating pathways. The soybean oil-based diet enhanced cholesterol-induced mitochondrial damage and amplified the ensuing oxidative stress, probably by peroxidation of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. This resulted in hepatocyte death, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and fibrosis, and caused a transition from steatosis to NASH, doubling the NASH activity score. Thus, the recommendation to reduce cholesterol intake, in particular in diets rich in ω6-PUFA, although not necessary to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, might be sensible for patients suffering from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Functional Calcium Binding Peptides from Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) Bone: Calcium Bioavailability Enhancing Activity and Anti-Osteoporosis Effects in the Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Rat Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091325
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 536 | PDF Full-text (2771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium binding peptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) bone have attracted attention due to their potential effects on bone health. In this study, calcium binding peptides (CBP) were prepared from Pacific cod bone by trypsin and neutral protease. Ultraviolet spectra, circular
[...] Read more.
Calcium binding peptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) bone have attracted attention due to their potential effects on bone health. In this study, calcium binding peptides (CBP) were prepared from Pacific cod bone by trypsin and neutral protease. Ultraviolet spectra, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that carboxyl and amino groups in CBP could bind to Ca2+, and form the peptide-calcium complex (CBP-Ca). Single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) experiments indicated that the intestinal calcium absorption was significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) in CBP-Ca treated Wistar rats. The anti-osteoporosis activity of CBP-Ca was investigated in the ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rat model. The administration of CBP-Ca significantly (p < 0.01) improved the calcium bioavailability, trabecular bone structure, bone biomechanical properties, bone mineral density, and bone mineralization degree. CBP-Ca notably (p < 0.01) increased serum calcium, however, it remarkably (p < 0.01) reduced the levels of osteocalcin (OCN), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1) in serum. Results suggested that the cod bone derived CBP could bind with calcium, improve the intestinal calcium absorption, calcium bioavailability, and serum calcium, then reduce the bone turnover rate, and thus ameliorate osteoporosis. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Breakfast Consumption in Spain: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Quality. Findings from the ANIBES Study, a Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091324
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 629 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate energy, nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast in Spain and to examine for the first time, their relationship to the overall Diet Quality (DQ). The data used were from the Spanish ANIBES (anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate energy, nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast in Spain and to examine for the first time, their relationship to the overall Diet Quality (DQ). The data used were from the Spanish ANIBES (anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain), a cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). DQ was assessed using the Nutrient Rich Foods Index, adapted to total diets (NRF9.3d). Most (>85%) of the Spanish population were regular breakfast consumers, although one in five adolescents were breakfast skippers. Breakfast provides just 16–19% of the daily intake of energy. Relative to its daily energy contribution, the Spanish breakfast contributed a higher proportion of daily total carbohydrates, added sugars, sodium, thiamin, riboflavin, folates, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and especially in calcium. By contrast, the breakfast is low in water intake, protein, dietary fibre, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-carotene and vitamins E and D. In children and teenagers, the most commonly consumed breakfast food was chocolate (mainly as chocolate-flavoured milk and powder), followed by bakery and pastry, whole milk and semi-skimmed milk. In the older groups, a bigger variety of foods were reported. Consumers in the highest NRF9.3d tertile for diet quality tended to have a higher intake of positive nutrients at breakfast than other tertiles, most notably among adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of White Rice and White Bread as Staple Foods on Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091323
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 700 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two kinds of major Japanese staple foods, white rice and white bread, on gut microbiota against the background in which participants eat common side dishes. Seven healthy subjects completed the dietary intervention
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two kinds of major Japanese staple foods, white rice and white bread, on gut microbiota against the background in which participants eat common side dishes. Seven healthy subjects completed the dietary intervention with two 1-week test periods with a 1-week wash-out period in cross-over design (UMIN registration UMIN000023142). White bread or white rice and 21 frozen prepared side dishes were consumed during the test periods. At baseline and at the end of each period, fasting blood samples, breath samples, and fecal samples were collected. For fecal samples, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota. After the bread period, the abundance of fecal Bifidobacterium genus (19.2 ± 14.5 vs. 6.2 ± 6.6 (%), p = 0.03), fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (13.6 ± 2.0 vs. 10.5 ± 2.9 (pg/mL), p = 0.03), and breath hydrogen (23.4 ± 9.9 vs. 8.2 ± 5.5 (ppm), p = 0.02) were significantly higher than those of after the rice period. Plasma SCFAs also tended to be higher after the bread period. White bread contains more dietary fiber than refined short grain rice. These findings suggest that indigestible carbohydrate intake from short grain rice as a staple food may be smaller than that of white bread. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among School Children and Adolescents Living in Northern Italy and Unhealthy Food Behaviors Associated to Overweight
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091322
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 664 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the differences in Mediterranean diet and its components among primary and secondary school children and adolescents living in northern Italy, and the associations with the weight status. Adherence was assessed by the KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet
[...] Read more.
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the differences in Mediterranean diet and its components among primary and secondary school children and adolescents living in northern Italy, and the associations with the weight status. Adherence was assessed by the KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index) questionnaire on 669 subjects (6–16 years) attending five schools of Novara. The adherence was poor in 16.7%, average in 63.7%, and high in 19.6% of the students. Poor adherence was more frequent in primary than in secondary schools (20.7% vs. 13.7%, p < 0.04). Some unhealthy behaviors were more prevalent in younger children. Children of other ethnic origins had a mixed behavior, choosing both traditional healthy and unhealthy foods. Besides male gender and primary school, in Italian children, the risk of overweight was directly associated with eating at fast-food restaurants (OR: 1.890, CI 95% 1.002–3.563), and inversely with consumption of vegetables more than once a day (OR: 0.588, CI 95% 0.349–0.991), and olive oil at home (OR: 0.382, CI 95% 0.176–0.826). In children of other ethnic origins, this risk was associated with skipping breakfast (OR: 16.046, CI 95% 1.933–133.266), or consuming commercial baked good or pastries for breakfast (OR: 10.255, CI 95% 1.052–99.927). The overall KIDMED score correlated with height (β: 0.108; p < 0.005). Poor food quality is replacing the Mediterranean dietary pattern in children and adolescents, in particular among younger children. Because the risk of overweight was associated with different components of the Mediterranean diet depending on ethnic origins, tailored nutritional programs remain a need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet)
Open AccessReview The Effect of Lutein on Eye and Extra-Eye Health
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091321
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lutein is a carotenoid with reported anti-inflammatory properties. A large body of evidence shows that lutein has several beneficial effects, especially on eye health. In particular, lutein is known to improve or even prevent age-related macular disease which is the leading cause of
[...] Read more.
Lutein is a carotenoid with reported anti-inflammatory properties. A large body of evidence shows that lutein has several beneficial effects, especially on eye health. In particular, lutein is known to improve or even prevent age-related macular disease which is the leading cause of blindness and vision impairment. Furthermore, many studies have reported that lutein may also have positive effects in different clinical conditions, thus ameliorating cognitive function, decreasing the risk of cancer, and improving measures of cardiovascular health. At present, the available data have been obtained from both observational studies investigating lutein intake with food, and a few intervention trials assessing the efficacy of lutein supplementation. In general, sustained lutein consumption, either through diet or supplementation, may contribute to reducing the burden of several chronic diseases. However, there are also conflicting data concerning lutein efficacy in inducing favorable effects on human health and there are no univocal data concerning the most appropriate dosage for daily lutein supplementation. Therefore, based on the most recent findings, this review will focus on lutein properties, dietary sources, usual intake, efficacy in human health, and toxicity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Astaxanthin Inhibits Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Interleukin-8 Expression in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091320
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 553 | PDF Full-text (2098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. H. pylori activates NADPH oxidase and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Dysfunctional mitochondria trigger inflammatory cytokine production. Peroxisome
[...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. H. pylori activates NADPH oxidase and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Dysfunctional mitochondria trigger inflammatory cytokine production. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ (PPAR-γ) regulate inflammatory response. Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at determining whether astaxanthin inhibits H. pylori-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 expression via PPAR-γ activation in gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were treated with astaxanthin, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662, and infected with H. pylori. As a result, H. pylori caused an increase in intracellular and mitochondrial ROS, NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression, but decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level. Astaxanthin inhibited H. pylori-induced alterations (increased ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 expression). Astaxanthin activated PPAR-γ and its target gene catalase in H. pylori-infected cells. Apocynin reduced ROS and inhibited IL-8 expression while astaxanthin did not affect NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on ROS levels and IL-8 expression were suppressed by addition of GW9662. In conclusion, astaxanthin inhibits H. pylori-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS-mediated IL-8 expression by activating PPAR-γ and catalase in gastric epithelial cells. Astaxanthin may be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated gastric inflammation-associated H. pylori infection. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the Primary Prevention of Eczema in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091319
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769 | PDF Full-text (2907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Current guidelines recommend the use of probiotics to reduce the risk of eczema. It remains unclear which strain(s) to use. We systematically evaluated data on the efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) supplementation prenatally and/or postnatally for the primary prevention of eczema. The
[...] Read more.
Current guidelines recommend the use of probiotics to reduce the risk of eczema. It remains unclear which strain(s) to use. We systematically evaluated data on the efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) supplementation prenatally and/or postnatally for the primary prevention of eczema. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched up to August 2018, with no language restrictions, for systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and RCTs published afterwards. The primary outcome was eczema. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A random-effects model was used to pool data. Heterogeneity was explored using the I2 statistics. The GRADE criteria were used to assess the overall quality of evidence supporting the primary outcome. Seven publications reporting 5 RCTs (889 participants) were included. High to moderate certainty in the body of evidence suggests that LGG supplementation (regardless of the timing of administration) did not reduce the risk of eczema. There was also no consistent effect on other allergic outcomes. This meta-analysis shows that LGG was ineffective in reducing eczema. It does not support the general recommendation to use probiotics for preventing eczema, unless specific strains would be indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Repressed Exercise-Induced Hepcidin Levels after Danggui Buxue Tang Supplementation in Male Recreational Runners
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091318
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 1238 | PDF Full-text (2073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was to investigate the protective and recovery effects of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) supplementation on exercise performance, hepcidin, iron status, and other related biochemical parameters after being challenged by a single bout of intense aerobic exercise. A total of 36 recreationally
[...] Read more.
This study was to investigate the protective and recovery effects of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) supplementation on exercise performance, hepcidin, iron status, and other related biochemical parameters after being challenged by a single bout of intense aerobic exercise. A total of 36 recreationally active males were pair-matched and randomly assigned to receive DBT or a placebo for 11 days, while using clusters based on their aerobic capacities. On the eighth day of the supplementation, the participants performed a 13-km run with maximal effort. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed before treatment (Pre-Tre) and immediately after (Post-Ex), 24 h after (24-h Rec), and 72 h after (72-h Rec) the run. DBT supplementation dramatically shortened the finish times by 14.0% (12.3 min) when compared with that in the placebo group. Significant group × time effects were observed in serum hepcidin and iron levels. DBT supplementation repressed hepcidin levels at Post-Ex and 24-h Rec, thereby causing a significant increase in iron levels by 63.3% and 31.4% at Post-Ex and 72-h Rec, respectively. However, DBT supplementation had no significant anti-inflammatory or haemolysis-preventative effects. Short-term DBT supplementation shortened the running time and repressed exercise-induced hepcidin levels, thereby boosting iron levels and accelerating iron homeostasis during recovery. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Long-Term Walnut Supplementation on Body Weight in Free-Living Elderly: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091317
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1182 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts and Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University (LLU)), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns
[...] Read more.
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts and Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University (LLU)), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 year, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/day), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (p = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (p = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, p = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, p = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Senior Secondary School Food Literacy Education: Importance, Challenges, and Ways of Improving
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091316
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Viewed by 592 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Food literacy education at senior secondary school can provide both immediate and long-term benefits for adolescents. The exploration of multiple stakeholder groups’ opinions regarding the importance, roles, and challenges of school food literacy education, and their suggestions for its improvement, will help the
[...] Read more.
Food literacy education at senior secondary school can provide both immediate and long-term benefits for adolescents. The exploration of multiple stakeholder groups’ opinions regarding the importance, roles, and challenges of school food literacy education, and their suggestions for its improvement, will help the design and execution of future food literacy-related curricula and programmes. This study explored a broad range of Australian and international food, health, and education professionals’ opinions regarding senior secondary school food literacy education through an online survey. One hundred and fifty-five food, health, and education professionals completed this survey between April and October 2017. Overall, the respondents strongly supported the need for food literacy education for senior secondary school students. Their suggestions for improving this form of education included: incorporation of relevant and up-to-date content, the presence of strong practical components, offering food literacy as compulsory subjects or the incorporation of food literacy concepts into compulsory core subjects. Moreover, they proposed the active contribution of both internal and external stakeholders in the planning and delivery of this education to upgrade its quality and relevance. Overall, the findings suggest that a wide range of food, health, and education professionals are highly supportive of senior secondary school food literacy education and their constructive suggestions should be considered in school food literacy education enhancement efforts. Education authorities should seek ways of involving different stakeholders, including food-related professionals, in the design and delivery of food literacy education, and future studies should explore the best mechanisms for such involvement. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tocotrienol-Rich Vitamin E from Palm Oil (Tocovid) and Its Effects in Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy: A Pilot Phase II Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091315
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Viewed by 618 | PDF Full-text (1081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E from palm oil (Tocovid) has been shown to ameliorate diabetes through its superior antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and anti-inflammatory properties in diabetic rats. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tocovid on diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline
[...] Read more.
Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E from palm oil (Tocovid) has been shown to ameliorate diabetes through its superior antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and anti-inflammatory properties in diabetic rats. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tocovid on diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline parameters of potential subjects such as HbA1c, blood pressure, Advanced Glycation Endproduct (AGE), soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE), Nε-Carboxymethyllysine (Nε-CML), and Cystatin C were assessed for possible correlation with diabetic nephropathy. Only subjects with diabetic nephropathy or urine microalbuminuria-positive defined as Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio (UACR) >10 mg/mmol were recruited into a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. The intervention group (n = 22) received Tocovid 200 mg twice a day while the control group (n = 23) received placebo twice a day for 8 weeks. Changes in Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, serum biomarkers and renal parameters such as UACR, serum creatinine, and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) were compared between the two groups. It was found that serum Nε-CML significantly correlated to the severity of microalbuminuria. For every 1 ng/mL increase in serum Nε-CML, the odds of diabetic nephropathy increased by 1.476 times. Tocovid, compared to placebo, significantly reduced serum creatinine but not eGFR, UACR, HbA1c, blood pressure, and serum biomarkers. In conclusion, serum Nε-CML is a potential biomarker for diabetic nephropathy. Treatment with Tocovid significantly reduced serum creatinine; therefore Tocovid may be a useful addition to the current treatment for diabetic nephropathy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dissociation of Fatty Liver and Insulin Resistance in I148M PNPLA3 Carriers: Differences in Diacylglycerol (DAG) FA18:1 Lipid Species as a Possible Explanation
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091314
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Viewed by 504 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fatty liver is tightly associated with insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. I148M variant in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene is associated with high liver fat but normal insulin sensitivity. The underlying mechanism of the disassociation between high
[...] Read more.
Fatty liver is tightly associated with insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. I148M variant in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene is associated with high liver fat but normal insulin sensitivity. The underlying mechanism of the disassociation between high liver fat but normal insulin sensitivity remains obscure. We investigated the effect of I148M variant on hepatic lipidome of subjects with or without fatty liver, using the Lipidyzer method. Liver samples of four groups of subjects consisting of normal liver fat with wild-type PNPLA3 allele (group 1); normal liver fat with variant PNPLA3 allele (group 2); high liver fat with wild-type PNPLA3 allele (group 3); high liver fat with variant PNPLA3 allele (group 4); were analyzed. When high liver fat to normal liver fat groups were compared, wild-type carriers (group 3 vs. group 1) showed similar lipid changes compared to I148M PNPLA3 carriers (group 4 vs. group 2). On the other hand, in wild-type carriers, increased liver fat significantly elevated the proportion of specific DAGs (diacylglycerols), mostly DAG (FA18:1) which, however, remained unchanged in I148M PNPLA3 carriers. Since DAG (FA18:1) has been implicated in hepatic insulin resistance, the unaltered proportion of DAG (FA18:1) in I148M PNPLA3 carriers with fatty liver may explain the normal insulin sensitivity in these subjects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate in Patients on Chronic Dialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091313
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Viewed by 603 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may improve autonomic dysfunction, as indicated by an increase in heart rate variability (HRV) and reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of marine n
[...] Read more.
Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may improve autonomic dysfunction, as indicated by an increase in heart rate variability (HRV) and reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of marine n-3 PUFA on 24-h HRV in patients on chronic dialysis, who have a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Between June 2014 and March 2016, 112 patients on chronic dialysis from Denmark were allocated to a daily supplement of 2 g marine n-3 PUFA or control for three months in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. A 48-h Holter monitoring was performed and mean 24-h HRV indices for the two days were available in 85 patients. The mean age was 62.3 years (SD: 14.3) and median dialysis vintage was 1.7 years (IQR: 0.5, 6.4). Within-group and between-group changes in outcome were evaluated by a paired and two sample t-test, respectively. Marine n-3 PUFA did not change the primary endpoint SDNN (SD of all RR-intervals) reflecting overall HRV, but other HRV indices increased and the mean RR-interval increased significantly, corresponding to a decrease in heart rate by 2.5 beats per minute (p = 0.04). In conclusion, marine n-3 PUFA did not change SDNN, but the mean heart rate was significantly reduced and changes in other HRV-indices were also observed, indicating an increase in vagal modulation that might be protective against malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Decreasing Trend in Dietary Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load in Australian Children and Adolescents between 1995 and 2012
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091312
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
Viewed by 714 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to examine whether there were changes between 1995–2012 in the dietary glycaemic index (dGI) and glycaemic load (dGL) in Australian children (<16 years) according to three national surveys in 1995 (1995NS), 2007 (2007NS), and 2011–2012 (2012NS). Glycaemic index (GI) values
[...] Read more.
This study aims to examine whether there were changes between 1995–2012 in the dietary glycaemic index (dGI) and glycaemic load (dGL) in Australian children (<16 years) according to three national surveys in 1995 (1995NS), 2007 (2007NS), and 2011–2012 (2012NS). Glycaemic index (GI) values of foods were assigned using published methodology. Plausible 24-h recall data from the 1995NS, 2007NS and 2012NS (weighted n = 2475, 4373 and 1691 respectively) were compared for differences in dGI and dGL, and the contribution to dGL from different foods using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons and linear regression. Decreasing trends across surveys were found in dGI and dGL (p < 0.001). Between 1995 and 2012, dGI and dGL per Megajoule (MJ) dropped by 2% and 6% respectively. The per capita dGL contribution from breads and bread rolls, fruit and vegetable juices, sweetened beverages and potatoes showed strong decreasing trends (R2 > 0.7). Our findings suggest that dGI and dGL of Australian youths declined between 1995 to 2012, which may be due to increased awareness of the GI concept and healthy diet, widened food choices and immigrants with diverse dietary habits. This may lower the future risks of chronic degenerative diseases in Australian youths. Full article
Open AccessArticle Paediatric Home Artificial Nutrition in Italy: Report from 2016 Survey on Behalf of Artificial Nutrition Network of Italian Society for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP)
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091311
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
Viewed by 643 | PDF Full-text (2259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Home Artificial Nutrition (HAN) is a safe and efficacious technique that insures children’s reintegration into the family, society and school. Epidemiological data on paediatric HAN in Italy are not available. Aim: to detect the prevalence and incidence of Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) and
[...] Read more.
Home Artificial Nutrition (HAN) is a safe and efficacious technique that insures children’s reintegration into the family, society and school. Epidemiological data on paediatric HAN in Italy are not available. Aim: to detect the prevalence and incidence of Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) and Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN), either via tube or mouth, in Italy in 2016. Materials and methods: a specific form was sent to all registered SIGENP members and investigators of local HAN centres, inviting them to provide the requested centre’s data and demographics, underlying diseases and HAN characteristics of the patients. Results: we recorded 3403 Italian patients on HAN aged 0 to 19 years from 22 centres: 2277 HEN, 950 Oral Nutritional Supplements (ONS) and 179 HPN programs. The prevalence of HEN (205 pts/million inhabitants) and HPN (16 pts/million inhabitants) has dramatically increased in Italy in the last 9 years. Neurodisabling conditions were the first indication for HEN by tube or mouth while HPN is mainly requested in digestive disorders. Conclusions: HAN is a widespread and rapidly growing treatment in Italy, as well as in other European countries. Awareness of its extent and characteristics helps improving HAN service and patients’ quality of life. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Positive Effects of Tomato Paste on Vascular Function After a Fat Meal in Male Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091310
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
Viewed by 740 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tomato consumption has been recently associated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to test whether a seven-day period of tomato paste purèe (tomato paste, TP) supplementation could improve some haemodynamic parameters in healthy volunteers before
[...] Read more.
Tomato consumption has been recently associated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to test whether a seven-day period of tomato paste purèe (tomato paste, TP) supplementation could improve some haemodynamic parameters in healthy volunteers before and after a standardized fat meal (FM). Methods and results: Nineteen healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, single-blind (operator) crossover study. Participants maintained low fiber diets (LFD) during the study periods. They were randomized either to a LFD and TP arm (80 g of TP/day) for seven-days, or to a control arm (LFD-only) with a two-week washout period. Flow Mediated Dilatation and other morpho-functional vascular indices were measured by ultrasound. Stiffness Index and Reflection Index were estimated by digital photo-plethysmography. All these parameters were measured one h before and two and 3.5 h after the FM. The difference in Stiffness Index was increased in the LFD and TP + FM-arm, as compared to the LFD-only + FM arm at both two and 3.5 h points. After the FM, in both arms, at two h, we observed a reduction in the Reflection Index and an increase in heart rate. Interestingly, only in the LFD and TP + FM-arm, some haemodynamic changes were detectable at two h; notably, there was an increase in brachial artery diameter and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (BP). Conclusions: TP has no effect on Flow Mediated Dilatation but acutely modifies some haemodynamic parameters triggered by FM, suggesting possible haemodynamic beneficial effects in people consuming tomatoes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Macronutrient Intake in Relation to Migraine and Non-Migraine Headaches
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091309
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
Viewed by 907 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the association of mean daily macronutrient intake with migraine and non-migraine headaches. This cross-sectional study included 8042 men and 23,728 women from the ongoing population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Headache status was assessed via an online self-report questionnaire (2013–2016). Migraine was defined using
[...] Read more.
We investigated the association of mean daily macronutrient intake with migraine and non-migraine headaches. This cross-sectional study included 8042 men and 23,728 women from the ongoing population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Headache status was assessed via an online self-report questionnaire (2013–2016). Migraine was defined using established criteria and dietary macronutrient intake was estimated via ≥3 24 h dietary records. Mean daily intake (g/day) of carbohydrates (simple, complex, and total), protein, and fat (saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and total) were the main exposure variables. Adjusted gender-specific analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were fit. Presence of migraines was noted in 9.2% of men (mean age = 54.3 ± 13.3 years) and 25.7% of women (mean age = 49.6 ± 12.8 years). In adjusted models, we observed (1) somewhat lower protein (p < 0.02) and higher total fat (p < 0.01) intake among male migraineurs compared with males without headaches and those with non-migraine headaches; (2) somewhat higher total fat (p < 0.0001) and total carbohydrate intake (p < 0.05) among female migraineurs compared with females without headaches and those with non-migraine headaches. The findings, which provide preliminary support for modest gender-specific differences in macronutrient intake by migraine status, merit confirmation in different population-based settings, as well as longitudinally, and could help to inform future dietary interventions in headache prevention. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Gastric Emptying and Dynamic In Vitro Digestion of Drinkable Yogurts: Effect of Viscosity and Composition
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091308
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
Viewed by 625 | PDF Full-text (1862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Gastric emptying of food is mainly driven by the caloric concentration, the rheological properties of the chyme, and the physical state (liquid/solid) of food once in the stomach. The present work investigated: (1) The effect of the composition and the viscosity of drinkable
[...] Read more.
Gastric emptying of food is mainly driven by the caloric concentration, the rheological properties of the chyme, and the physical state (liquid/solid) of food once in the stomach. The present work investigated: (1) The effect of the composition and the viscosity of drinkable yogurts on gastric emptying in pigs, and (2) the behavior of yogurts during dynamic in vitro digestion. Three isocaloric liquid yogurts were manufactured: Two enriched in protein and fiber showing either a low (LV) or high (HV) viscosity, one control enriched in sugar and starch (CT). They were labelled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid and given to pigs (n = 11) to determine gastric emptying pattern by gamma scintigraphy. Then dynamic in vitro digestion of the yogurts was done using the parameters of gastric emptying determined in vivo. Gastric emptying half-times were significantly longer for LV than CT, whereas HV exhibited an intermediate behavior. In vitro gastric digestion showed a quick hydrolysis of caseins, whereas whey proteins were more resistant in the stomach particularly for LV and HV. During the intestinal phase, both whey proteins and caseins were almost fully hydrolyzed. Viscosity was shown to affect the behavior of yogurt in the small intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Diet: Cause or Consequence of the Microbial Profile of Cholelithiasis Disease?
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091307
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
Viewed by 830 | PDF Full-text (1847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent dietary habits and lifestyle could explain the shaping of the gut microbiota composition and, in consequence, the increasing prevalence of certain pathologies. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of diet on microbiotas, other than the gut microbiota. This is
[...] Read more.
Recent dietary habits and lifestyle could explain the shaping of the gut microbiota composition and, in consequence, the increasing prevalence of certain pathologies. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of diet on microbiotas, other than the gut microbiota. This is important in cholelithiasis, given that changes in the production of bile acids may affect gallbladder microbial communities. Our aim was to assess the association between regular dietary intake and gallbladder microbial composition. Fourteen adults with cholelithiasis and 14 controls, sex‒age-matched and without gastrointestinal pathology, were included. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and quantification of gallbladder microbiota sequences by Illumina 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. The cholelithiasic patients showed greater intake of potatoes and lower consumption of vegetables, non-alcoholic drinks, and sauces, which resulted in a lower intake of energy, lipids, digestible polysaccharides, folate, calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, and some phenolic compounds. Regarding the altered bile microorganisms in cholelithiasic patients, dairy product intake was negatively associated with the proportions of Bacteroidaceae and Bacteroides, and several types of fiber, phenolics, and fatty acids were linked to the abundance of Bacteroidaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Propionibacteraceae, Bacteroides, and Escherichia‒Shigella. These results support a link between diet, biliary microbiota, and cholelithiasis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Beliefs about Binge Eating: Psychometric Properties of the Eating Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ-18) in Eating Disorder, Obese, and Community Samples
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091306
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 721 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Binge eating is a core diagnostic feature of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type, and is a common feature of “other specified” and “unspecified” feeding and eating disorders. It has been suggested that specific metacognitive beliefs about food, eating, and
[...] Read more.
Binge eating is a core diagnostic feature of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type, and is a common feature of “other specified” and “unspecified” feeding and eating disorders. It has been suggested that specific metacognitive beliefs about food, eating, and binge eating may play a key role in the maintenance of binge eating behaviour. The Eating Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ-18) provides a brief self-report assessment tool measuring three types of metacognitive beliefs: negative, positive, and permissive beliefs about food and eating. This study aimed to build on past research by validating the factor structure and psychometric properties of the EBQ-18 using both a clinical and non-clinical sample. A sample of 688 participants (n = 498 non-clinical participants, n = 161 participants seeking treatment for an eating disorder, and n = 29 participants seeking treatment for obesity) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the EBQ-18 and other measures of eating disorder symptoms and relevant constructs. A subset of 100 non-clinical participants completed the test battery again after an interval of two-weeks, and 38 clinical participants completed the EBQ-18 before and after receiving psychological treatment for their eating disorder. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted and psychometric properties of this measure were assessed. The results of this study provide support for the three-factor model of the EBQ-18. In addition, the EBQ-18 was found to be a valid and reliable measure, with excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability in the non-clinical sample, and also demonstrated evidence of sensitivity to treatment in clinical samples with binge eating pathology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to identify optimal cut-off scores for the EBQ-18. This study provides valuable information about the utility of the EBQ-18 as a measure for use in both clinical and research settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times)
Open AccessArticle Bergamot Polyphenol Fraction Exerts Effects on Bone Biology by Activating ERK 1/2 and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Regulating Bone Biomarkers in Bone Cell Cultures
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091305
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
Viewed by 698 | PDF Full-text (2806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epidemiological studies show that fruit consumption may modulate bone mineral density. However, data regarding the effect of the Citrus bergamia Risso (Bergamot orange), a citrus fruit containing a high concentration of flavonoids, on bone health are still lacking. In this study, we investigated
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies show that fruit consumption may modulate bone mineral density. However, data regarding the effect of the Citrus bergamia Risso (Bergamot orange), a citrus fruit containing a high concentration of flavonoids, on bone health are still lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bergamot polyphenols on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in two distinct bone cell types (Saos-2 and MG63). Findings showed that exposure to 0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL doses upregulate β-catenin expression (p = 0.001), osteoblast differentiation markers (e.g., RUNX2 and COL1A), and downregulate RANKL (p = 0.028), as compared to the control. Our results highlight, for the first time, that Bergamot polyphenols act on bone cells through the β-catenin pathway. In vivo studies are necessary to fully understand Bergamot’s role against bone resorption. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top