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Special Issue "Emerging Value of Measuring Blood Fatty Acids in Disease Risk Prediction"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jenifer I. Fenton

Michigan State University, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, East Lansing, United States
Website | E-Mail
Interests: role of nutrition and fatty acids in disease prevention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to introduce this Special Issue of Nutrients focusing on the critical importance of measuring blood fatty (FA) acids when interrogating the role of fatty acids in health and disease. Fatty acids, not only serve as major substrates for energy production, but they are also critical for physiological functions, such as structure and function of cell membranes influencing their fluidity and permeability. Fatty acids are critical for normal growth, neurological and visual development as well as cognitive and immune function. The blood FA composition reflects diet and is strongly correlated with fatty acid intake. Fatty acid deficiency can result from unbalanced diet, malabsorption or maldigestion syndrome and diseases of the liver where chain elongation and desaturation of long chain PUFA are mainly located. Increasingly, studies have reported modified blood fatty acid distribution in various diseases. It is becoming clear that blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids exhibit a relationship to CVD while fixed daily doses may not. Beyond limited bioavailability and metabolism, monitoring of the blood FA becomes increasingly important as a potential risk factor for diseases and a dietary modifiable prevent strategy and maker.

The topics could include, but are not limited to:

  • Palmitic and palmitoleic (SCD, D6D, D5D ratios) vs. risk for diabetes
  • Omega-6 and risk for diabetes
  • Omega-6 and risk for CVD/mortality
  • Omega-3 and risk for CVD/mortality
  • Dairy FAs and disease X
  • Trans FAs and CVD
  • Fatty acids and growth status
  • Mom's omega-3 status/Milk DHA and birth outcomes
  • Long chain saturates and CVD (saw something on that here at the AHA)
  • Omega-3 and Learning/ADHD/mental status in grade school age kids
  • Omega-3 and Dementia
  • Om3 and Om6 blood levels and inflammatory markers; the only one that is not a 'disease' per se.
Dr. Jenifer I. Fenton
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fatty Acids
  • Omega-6
  • Omega-3
  • Blood
  • Plasma
  • Lipidome
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Growth
  • Cognition

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Altered Red Blood Cell Membrane Fatty Acid Profile in Cancer Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121853
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
The fatty acid (FA) composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids of cancer patients can reflect tumor status, dietary intakes, and cancer type or therapy. However, the characteristic membrane profiles have so far not yet defined as a potential biomarker to monitor [...] Read more.
The fatty acid (FA) composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids of cancer patients can reflect tumor status, dietary intakes, and cancer type or therapy. However, the characteristic membrane profiles have so far not yet defined as a potential biomarker to monitor disease evolution. The present work provides the first evidence of cancer metabolic signatures affecting cell membranes that are independent of nutritional habits. From the Oncology Outpatient Unit of the Onkologikoa hospital, two groups of cancer patients (n = 54) and healthy controls (n = 37) were recruited, and mature RBCs membrane phospholipids were analyzed for FA profiling (GC-MS). Dietary habits were evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The adjusted Analysis of Covariance Test (ANCOVA) model revealed cancer patients to have a lower relative percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C16:0 (5.7%); C18:0 (15.9%)), and higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (9c-C18:1 (12.9%) and 11c-C18:1 (54.5%)), compared to controls. In line with this, we observe that the desaturase enzymatic index (delta-9 desaturase (Δ9D), +28.3%) and the membrane saturation index (SI = SFA/MUFA; −27.3%) were similarly modulated. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) families showed an increase of n-6 C18:2 and C20:3 (15.7% and 22.2% respectively), with no differences in n-6 C20:4 and n-3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)). Importantly, these changes were found independent of foods and fat intakes from the diet. The membrane lipid profile in RBC was useful to ascertain the presence of two main metabolic signatures of increased desaturation activity and omega-6 in cancer patients, statistically independent from dietary habits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sex-Dimorphic Association of Plasma Fatty Acids with Cardiovascular Fitness in Young and Middle-Aged General Adults: Subsamples from NHANES 2003–2004
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101558
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
To explore the potential association of plasma fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular fitness level (CVFL), data of 449 subjects from 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Among these 249 men and 200 women, aged 20–50 years (33.4 ± 8.4 [...] Read more.
To explore the potential association of plasma fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular fitness level (CVFL), data of 449 subjects from 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Among these 249 men and 200 women, aged 20–50 years (33.4 ± 8.4 year, mean ± Standard Deviation), 79 low, 166 moderate and 204 high CVFL were categorized by age- and gender- specific percentile, respectively. Twenty-four fatty acids were quantified from fasting plasma. Higher levels of 2 very long-chain saturated FAs (VLSFAs): Arachidic acid (AR1, C20:0) and Docosanoic acid (DA1, C22:0) as well as 2 n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs): Arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) and Docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, C22:4n-6) were observed in the subjects with low CVFL. Notably this association exists only in men. Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the marker for cardiorespiratory fitness, was used for further regression analysis. After the adjustment of potential confounding factors (age, smoking, hypertension status, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance status, and C-reactive protein (CRP), AA was the only FA correlated with low VO2max in women; while in men AR1, DA1, AA, and DTA remain negatively associated with VO2max. This preliminary analysis suggests a sex-dimorphic relationship between these plasma VLSFAs and n-6 PUFAs with CVFL and merits further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aerobic Physical Activity and a Low Glycemic Diet Reduce the AA/EPA Ratio in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Patients with NAFLD
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091299
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), through the eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), are able to modulate the inflammatory processes, whereas omega-3 PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. An unbalanced AA/EPA ratio in favor of AA leads to [...] Read more.
Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), through the eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), are able to modulate the inflammatory processes, whereas omega-3 PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. An unbalanced AA/EPA ratio in favor of AA leads to the development of different metabolic disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different diets, alone and in combination with two physical activity programs, on the AA/EPA ratio value in erythrocyte membranes of patients with NAFLD. One hundred forty-two subjects with NAFLD were enrolled in the study and randomized into six treatment groups. AA/EPA ratio was significantly reduced after 90 days of treatment with only a program of aerobic activity. However, it appears that the combination of physical activity and a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet (LGIMD) was more efficacious in reducing AA/EPA levels, at 45 days of treatment, even if this effect was not maintained over time. The combined effect of diet and physical activity reduced the AA/EPA ratio value improving the score of steatosis. Dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs, in association with a healthy lifestyle, may be used in the prevention protocols for many chronic diseases, including NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association of Whole Blood Fatty Acids and Growth in Southern Ghanaian Children 2–6 Years of Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080954
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
In Ghana, stunting rates in children below 5 years of age vary regionally. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are crucial for linear growth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between blood FAs and growth parameters in southern Ghanaian children 2–6 [...] Read more.
In Ghana, stunting rates in children below 5 years of age vary regionally. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are crucial for linear growth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between blood FAs and growth parameters in southern Ghanaian children 2–6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth were analyzed by linear regressions and factor analysis. Of the 209 subjects, 22% were stunted and 10.6% were essential FA deficient (triene/tetraene ratio > 0.02). Essential FA did not differ between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with height-for-age z-score or weight-for-age z-score. Similarly, no relationships between other blood fatty acids and growth parameters were observed in this population. However, when blood fatty acid levels in these children were compared to previously reported values from northern Ghana, the analysis showed that blood omega-3 FA levels were significantly higher and omega-6 FA levels lower in the southern Ghanaian children (p < 0.001). Fish and seafood consumption in this southern cohort was high and could account for the lower stunting rates observed in these children compared to other regions. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Blood Fatty Acid Status and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis Patients: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101353
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Blood fatty acids (FAs) are derived from endogenous and dietary routes. Metabolic abnormalities from kidney dysfunction, as well as cross-cultural dietary habits, may alter the FA profile of dialysis patients (DP), leading to detrimental clinical outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to (i) summarize FA [...] Read more.
Blood fatty acids (FAs) are derived from endogenous and dietary routes. Metabolic abnormalities from kidney dysfunction, as well as cross-cultural dietary habits, may alter the FA profile of dialysis patients (DP), leading to detrimental clinical outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to (i) summarize FA status of DP from different countries, (ii) compare blood FA composition between healthy controls and DP, and (iii) evaluate FA profile and clinical endpoints in DP. Fifty-three articles from 1980 onwards, reporting FA profile in hemodialysis and peritoneal DP, were identified from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library. Studies on pediatric, predialysis chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, and transplant patients were excluded. Moderate to high levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were reported in Japan, Korea, Denmark, and Sweden. Compared to healthy adults, DP had lower proportions of n-3 and n-6 PUFA, but higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids. Two studies reported inverse associations between n-3 PUFAs and risks of sudden cardiac death, while one reported eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid)/arachidonic acid ratio was inversely associated with cardiovascular events. The relationship between all-cause mortality and blood FA composition in DP remained inconclusive. The current evidence highlights a critical role for essential FA in nutritional management of DP. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessConcept Paper A Prenatal DHA Test to Help Identify Women at Increased Risk for Early Preterm Birth: A Proposal
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121933
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
Fish intake and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a nutrient found in fish, have been favorably linked to several pregnancy outcomes. The risk of early preterm birth (ePT, <34 weeks gestation) is associated with low fish intake and DHA blood levels and can be reduced [...] Read more.
Fish intake and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a nutrient found in fish, have been favorably linked to several pregnancy outcomes. The risk of early preterm birth (ePT, <34 weeks gestation) is associated with low fish intake and DHA blood levels and can be reduced by supplemental DHA. Here, we summarize the evidence linking blood DHA levels with risk for ePT birth, and based on the available studies, propose that women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant aim for a red blood cell (RBC) DHA value of at least 5% (of total RBC fatty acids). In the US, ~70% of women of childbearing age are likely below this cut-point, and dietary intake data suggest that this group, including pregnant women, consumes ~60 mg/day DHA and that >90% of this group do not take an omega-3 supplement. Since the recommendations for women to consume fish and to take a 200 mg DHA supplement during pregnancy are not being heeded generally, there is a need to motivate practitioners and pregnant women to attend to these recommendations. Having an objective prenatal blood DHA test could provide such motivation. More research is needed to test the clinical utility of this proposed target prenatal DHA level. Full article
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