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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101533

Carotenoid Intake and Serum Concentration in Young Finnish Children and Their Relation with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

1
Nutrition Unit, Department of Public Health Solutions, The National Institute for Health and Welfare, PO Box 30, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
2
Faculty of Social Sciences/Health Sciences, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland
3
Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
4
Science Center, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland
5
Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku and Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland
6
Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
7
Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
8
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
9
Research Program Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Hospital, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
10
Folkhälsan Research Center, University of Helsinki, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
11
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
12
Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, 33014 Tampere, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract

Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. These foods are the main dietary source of carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary intake and serum concentrations of α- and β-carotene in a sample of young Finnish children from the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study. The current analysis comprised 3-day food records and serum samples from 207 children aged 1, 2 and 3 years. Spearman and partial correlations, as well as a cross-classification analyses, were used to assess the relationship between dietary intake and the corresponding biomarkers. Serum concentrations of α- and β-carotene were significantly higher among the 1-year-old compared to the 3-year-old children. Dietary intakes of α- and β-carotene correlated significantly with their respective serum concentrations in all age groups, the association being highest at the age of 1 year (α-carotene r = 0.48; p < 0.001 and β-carotene r = 0.47; p < 0.001), and lowest at the age of 3 years (α-carotene r = 0.44; p < 0.001 and β-carotene r = 0.30; p < 0.001). A cross-classification showed that 72–81% of the participants were correctly classified to the same or adjacent quartile, when comparing the reported dietary intakes and the concentrations of the corresponding carotenoid in serum. The 3-day food record seems to be reasonably valid in the assessment of root vegetable consumption among young Finnish children. Root vegetables were the main dietary source of both carotenoids in all age groups. The high consumption of commercial baby foods among the 1-year-old children was reflected in the relatively high dietary intake and serum concentration of both carotenoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: serum carotenoids; dietary carotenoids; children’s diet; biomarkers serum carotenoids; dietary carotenoids; children’s diet; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Prasad, M.; Takkinen, H.-M.; Uusitalo, L.; Tapanainen, H.; Ovaskainen, M.-L.; Alfthan, G.; Erlund, I.; Ahonen, S.; Åkerlund, M.; Toppari, J.; Ilonen, J.; Knip, M.; Veijola, R.; Virtanen, S.M. Carotenoid Intake and Serum Concentration in Young Finnish Children and Their Relation with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1533.

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