Special Issue "Dietary Patterns and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kentaro Murakami
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
Interests: nutritional epidemiology; dietary assessment methodology; eating patterns; dietary patterns; diet quality; carbohydrate nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is growing recognition of the importance of investigating overall diet or dietary patterns, rather than focusing on single foods or nutrients, because dietary pattern analysis can summarize the potentially synergistic effects of foods and nutrients. This approach is also useful for the development of dietary guidelines, given that people eat foods (and thus nutrients) in combination. This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Dietary Patterns and Human Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing the scientific literature on this topic. Studies based on dietary patterns based on both a priori and a posteriori approaches are welcome. Studies focusing on methodological aspects are also encouraged.

Dr. Kentaro Murakami
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Diet quality
  • Dietary patterns
  • Meal patterns
  • Eating patterns

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship of the Atlantic Diet with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Adults without Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040742 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Background: Studying the adherence of the population to the Atlantic Diet (AD) could be simplified by an easy and quickly applied dietary index. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship of an index measuring compliance with recommendations regarding the Atlantic [...] Read more.
Background: Studying the adherence of the population to the Atlantic Diet (AD) could be simplified by an easy and quickly applied dietary index. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship of an index measuring compliance with recommendations regarding the Atlantic diet and physical activity with cardiovascular disease risk factors, cardiovascular risk factors, obesity indexes and arterial stiffness markers. Methods: We included 791 individuals from the EVIDENT study (lifestyles and arterial ageing), (52.3 ± 12 years, 61.7% women) without cardiovascular disease. Compliance with recommendations on AD was collected through the responses to a food frequency questionnaire, while physical activity was measured by accelerometer. The number of recommendations being met was estimated using a global scale between 0 and 14 points (a higher score representing greater adherence). Blood pressure, plasma lipid and glucose values and obesity rates were measured. Cardiovascular risk was estimated with the Framingham equation. Results: In the overall sample, 184 individuals (23.3%) scored between 0–3 on the 14-point index we created, 308 (38.9%) between 4 and 5 points, and 299 (37.8%) 6 or more points. The results of multivariate analysis yield a common tendency in which the group with an adherence score of at least 6 points shows lower figures for total cholesterol (p = 0.007) and triglycerides (p = 0.002). Similarly, overall cardiovascular risk in this group is the lowest (p < 0.001), as is pulse wave velocity (p = 0.050) and the mean values of the obesity indexes studied (p < 0.05 in all cases). Conclusion: The rate of compliance with the Atlantic diet and physical activity shows that greater adherence to these recommendations is linked to lower cardiovascular risk, lower total cholesterol and triglycerides, lower rates of obesity and lower pulse wave velocity values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
What Can Dietary Patterns Tell Us about the Nutrition Transition and Environmental Sustainability of Diets in Uganda?
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020342 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Uganda is undergoing dietary transition, with possible environmental sustainability and health implications, particularly for women. To explore evidence for dietary transitions and identify how environmentally sustainable women’s dietary patterns are, principal component analysis was performed on dietary data collected using a 24 h [...] Read more.
Uganda is undergoing dietary transition, with possible environmental sustainability and health implications, particularly for women. To explore evidence for dietary transitions and identify how environmentally sustainable women’s dietary patterns are, principal component analysis was performed on dietary data collected using a 24 h recall during the Uganda Food Consumption Survey (n = 957). Four dietary patterns explained 23.6% of the variance. The “traditional, high-fat, medium environmental impact” pattern was characterized by high intakes of nuts/seeds, fats, oils and spreads, fish and boiled vegetables. High intakes of bread and buns, rice and pasta, tea and sugar characterized the “transitioning, processed, low environmental impact’ pattern. The ‘plant-based, low environmental impact” pattern was associated with high intakes of legumes, boiled roots/tubers, boiled traditional vegetables, fresh fruit and fried traditional cereals. High intakes of red/organ meats, chicken, and soups characterized the “animal-based high environmental impact” pattern. Urban residence was positively associated with “transitioning, processed, low environmental impact” (β = 1.19; 1.06, 1.32) and “animal-based high environmental impact” (β = 0.45; 0.28, 0.61) patterns; but negatively associated with the “plant-based low environmental impact” pattern (β= −0.49; −0.62, −0.37). A traditional, high-fat dietary pattern with medium environmental impact persists in both contexts. These findings provide some evidence that urban women’s diets are transitioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Breakfast in Japan: Findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101551 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
We assessed breakfast in Japan using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary data were obtained from 1444 children (aged 6–11 years), 1134 adolescents (aged 12–17 years), 6531 younger adults (aged 18–49 years), and 13,343 older adults (aged ≥ 50 [...] Read more.
We assessed breakfast in Japan using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary data were obtained from 1444 children (aged 6–11 years), 1134 adolescents (aged 12–17 years), 6531 younger adults (aged 18–49 years), and 13,343 older adults (aged ≥ 50 years), using a one-day weighed dietary record. Overall, 97% of participants reported consuming breakfast. Compared with breakfast skippers, breakfast consumers had a higher daily diet quality score assessed by the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). For those who consumed breakfast, breakfast accounted for 20–25% of daily energy intake. In comparison with the contribution to energy, breakfast accounted for higher proportions of carbohydrate and riboflavin, and lower proportions of MUFA, n-3 PUFA, thiamin, and niacin, as well as vitamins B-6 and C. The overall diet quality (NRF9.3 score) was positively associated with breakfast intake of protein, n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and almost all micronutrients examined, and inversely with that of added sugar. For foods, the NRF9.3 score was positively associated with breakfast intake of rice, potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and eggs and inversely with that of bread, sugar, and soft drinks. The findings will be useful in developing dietary recommendations for a balanced breakfast among Japanese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Adequacy of Usual Intake of Japanese Children Aged 3–5 Years: A Nationwide Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091150 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
We assessed the adequacy of nutrient intakes of Japanese children aged 3–5 years. Dietary information was collected using a 3-nonconsective-day weighed dietary record among 143 boys and 143 girls. Estimates of usual nutrient intakes from foods and beverages were obtained using the best-power [...] Read more.
We assessed the adequacy of nutrient intakes of Japanese children aged 3–5 years. Dietary information was collected using a 3-nonconsective-day weighed dietary record among 143 boys and 143 girls. Estimates of usual nutrient intakes from foods and beverages were obtained using the best-power method. The proportions of children with intakes below and above the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) were estimated. The estimated usual intakes of boys and girls were adequate for most nutrients, given the low proportion (≤2%) of children consuming diets that fell below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or the mean usual intakes higher than the Adequate Intake. However, a high percentage of boys and girls had usual intakes below the EAR for calcium (64% and 54%, respectively), vitamin A (20% and 11%, respectively), thiamin (15% and 41%, respectively), and iron (27% and 10%, respectively). Additionally, 62% of boys and 66% of girls had diets that exceeded the recommended range for total fat (20%–30% energy). Further, 92% for boys and 85% for girls consumed diets that exceeded the recommended limit for sodium (4.0 and 4.5 g NaCl equivalent/day, respectively). In conclusion, the estimated usual intakes were adequate for most nutrients in this sample of 3–5-year-old Japanese children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Long Sleep Duration and Social Jetlag Are Associated Inversely with a Healthy Dietary Pattern in Adults: Results from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Y1–4
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091131 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration on weekdays or social jetlag and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19–64 years [...] Read more.
Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration on weekdays or social jetlag and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19–64 years old, participating in the 2008–2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration on weekdays was categorized into tertiles to reflect short, normal, and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration on weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed by regressing diet on sleep, whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average a 0.45 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) −0.78, −0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score, compared to middle tertile (p = 0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and the healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep on weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1 h 45 min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p = 0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration on weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Thirteen-Year Trends in Dietary Patterns among Japanese Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2003–2015: Continuous Westernization of the Japanese Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080994 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
We examined 13-year trends in dietary patterns, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan 2003–2015. In repeated, independent cross-sectional studies, dietary intake was assessed with a one-day weighed dietary record in 88,527 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Using principal component [...] Read more.
We examined 13-year trends in dietary patterns, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan 2003–2015. In repeated, independent cross-sectional studies, dietary intake was assessed with a one-day weighed dietary record in 88,527 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Using principal component analysis based on the daily consumption of 31 food groups, we identified three dietary patterns, the “plant food and fish”, “bread and dairy”, and “animal food and oil” patterns. In the whole sample, the “plant food and fish” pattern score decreased while the “bread and dairy” and “animal food and oil” pattern scores increased. The decreasing trends in the “plant food and fish” pattern were observed in all subgroups considered. The increasing trends in the “bread and dairy” pattern were similar across sexes and by current smoking status. However, in terms of age, occupation, and weight status, the increasing trends were only evident in particular subgroups (i.e., age 50–64 and ≥65 years; security/transportation/labor occupation and nonworker; and normal weight and overweight participants). For the “animal food and oil” pattern, the increasing trends were observed in all subgroups, except for the youngest age group (20–34 years old). This study suggests continuous Westernization of the Japanese diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Patterns, Skeletal Muscle Health, and Sarcopenia in Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040745 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
In recent decades, the significance of diet and dietary patterns (DPs) for skeletal muscle health has been gaining attention in ageing and nutritional research. Sarcopenia, a muscle disease characterised by low muscle strength, mass, and function is associated with an increased risk of [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the significance of diet and dietary patterns (DPs) for skeletal muscle health has been gaining attention in ageing and nutritional research. Sarcopenia, a muscle disease characterised by low muscle strength, mass, and function is associated with an increased risk of functional decline, frailty, hospitalization, and death. The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age and leads to high personal, social, and economic costs. Finding adequate nutritional measures to maintain muscle health, preserve function, and independence for the growing population of older adults would have important scientific and societal implications. Two main approaches have been employed to study the role of diet/DPs as a modifiable lifestyle factor in sarcopenia. An a priori or hypothesis-driven approach examines the adherence to pre-defined dietary indices such as the Mediterranean diet (MED) and Healthy Eating Index (HEI)—measures of diet quality—in relation to muscle health outcomes. A posteriori or data-driven approaches have used statistical tools—dimension reduction methods or clustering—to study DP-muscle health relationships. Both approaches recognise the importance of the whole diet and potential cumulative, synergistic, and antagonistic effects of foods and nutrients on ageing muscle. In this review, we have aimed to (i) summarise nutritional epidemiology evidence from four recent systematic reviews with updates from new primary studies about the role of DPs in muscle health, sarcopenia, and its components; (ii) hypothesise about the potential mechanisms of ‘myoprotective’ diets, with the MED as an example, and (iii) discuss the challenges facing nutritional epidemiology to produce the higher level evidence needed to understand the relationships between whole diets and healthy muscle ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Impact of Low-FODMAPs, Gluten-Free, and Ketogenic Diets on Gut Microbiota Modulation in Pathological Conditions
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020373 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
The gut microbiota performs several essential protective, structural, and metabolic functions for host health. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and between the microorganisms and the host. The gut microbiota composition may be affected by external [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota performs several essential protective, structural, and metabolic functions for host health. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and between the microorganisms and the host. The gut microbiota composition may be affected by external factors, among them diet habits may be considered most important. In some pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease (CD), or neurological disorders (ND), specific dietary regimens as low-fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), ketogenic (KD), and gluten-free (GFD) diets are considered therapeutic. These kinds of diets are characterized by a reduction or exclusion of a specific nutrient from the entire dietary pattern. Despite these alimentary regimens showing beneficial effects on disease symptoms, they can affect microbiota composition, especially if they are protracted for a long time. To date, only a few studies have reported the effects of these diets on gut microbiota. In this review, we discuss the effects of low-FODMAPs, KD, and GFD on gut microbiota modulation in pathological conditions, advancing the possibility of depicting a balanced diet and developing personalized dietary intervention protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
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