Special Issue "Nutrients Intake and Hypertension"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francesco Fantin
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Piazzale Stefani 1, University of Verona, 37126 Verona, Italy
Interests: hypertension; nutrients intake; diet

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide, increasing cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality.

Together with pharmacological treatments, non-pharmacological approaches, such as nutrient intake modifications, play a very important role in optimizing treatment.

A link has been shown between hypertension and body weight, as well as dietary habits.

The aim of this Special Issue is to improve the acknowledgment of the relationships between some nutrients and hypertension, and, moreover, the effects of different dietary approaches on hypertension regulation from different points of view.

Potential topics may include:

  • Weight loss and Hypertension
  • Mediterranean diet and Hypertension
  • Aminoacids and Hypertension
  • Protein Intake and Hypertension in CKD patients
  • Salt Intake and Hypertension

Assoc. Prof. Francesco Fantin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
The Importance of Nutrition in Hypertension
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102542 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Arterial hypertension (AH) is considered to be one of the most relevant cardiovascular risk factors, and its wide prevalence in all age ranges makes it necessary to analyse all the possible causes and treatments [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Amino Acids and Hypertension in Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071459 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Accumulating evidence suggests a potential role of dietary protein among nutritional factors interfering with the regulation of blood pressure. Dietary protein source (plant versus animal protein), and especially, protein composition in terms of amino acids has been postulated to interfere with mechanisms underlying [...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence suggests a potential role of dietary protein among nutritional factors interfering with the regulation of blood pressure. Dietary protein source (plant versus animal protein), and especially, protein composition in terms of amino acids has been postulated to interfere with mechanisms underlying the development of hypertension. Recently, mounting interest has been directed at amino acids in hypertension focusing on habitual dietary intake and their circulating levels regardless of single amino acid dietary supplementation. The aim of the present review was to summarize epidemiological evidence concerning the connection between amino acids and hypertension. Due to the large variability in methodologies used for assessing amino acid levels and heterogeneity in the results obtained, it was not possible to draw robust conclusions. Indeed, some classes of amino acids or individual amino acids showed non-causative association with blood pressure as well as the incidence of hypertension, but the evidence was far from being conclusive. Further research should be prompted for a thorough understanding of amino acid effects and synergistic actions of different amino acid classes on blood pressure regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
A Single Dose of Beetroot Juice Does Not Change Blood Pressure Response Mediated by Acute Aerobic Exercise in Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061327 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Objective: To verify if acute intake of beetroot juice potentiates post-exercise hypotension (PEH) in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods: Thirteen hypertensive postmenopausal women (58.1 ± 4.62 years and 27.4 ± 4.25 kg/m²) were recruited to participate in three experimental sessions, taking three different beverages: [...] Read more.
Objective: To verify if acute intake of beetroot juice potentiates post-exercise hypotension (PEH) in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods: Thirteen hypertensive postmenopausal women (58.1 ± 4.62 years and 27.4 ± 4.25 kg/m²) were recruited to participate in three experimental sessions, taking three different beverages: Beetroot juice (BJ), placebo nitrate-depleted BJ (PLA), and orange flavored non-caloric drink (OFD). The participants performed moderate aerobic exercise training on a treadmill, at 65–70% of heart rate reserve (HRR), for 40 min. After an overnight fast, the protocol started at 07h when the first resting blood pressure (BP) was measured. The beverage was ingested at 07h30 and BP was monitored until the exercise training started, at 09h30. After the end of the exercise session, BP was measured every 15 min over a 90-min period. Saliva samples were collected at rest, immediately before and after exercise, and 90 min after exercise for nitrite (NO2) analysis. Results: There was an increase in salivary NO2 with BJ intake when compared to OFD and PLA. A slight increase in salivary NO2 was observed with PLA when compared to OFD (p < 0.05), however, PLA resulted in lower salivary NO2 when compared to BJ (p < 0.001). There were no changes in salivary NO2 with the OFD. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased (p < 0.001) on all post exercise time points after all interventions, with no difference between the three beverages. Conclusion: Acute BJ intake does not change PEH responses in hypertensive postmenopausal women, even though there is an increase in salivary NO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Mechanisms Involved in the Relationship between Low Calcium Intake and High Blood Pressure
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051112 - 18 May 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
There is increasing epidemiologic and animal evidence that a low calcium diet increases blood pressure. The aim of this review is to compile the information on the link between low calcium intake and blood pressure. Calcium intake may regulate blood pressure by modifying [...] Read more.
There is increasing epidemiologic and animal evidence that a low calcium diet increases blood pressure. The aim of this review is to compile the information on the link between low calcium intake and blood pressure. Calcium intake may regulate blood pressure by modifying intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells and by varying vascular volume through the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. Low calcium intake produces a rise of parathyroid gland activity. The parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscles resulting in vasoconstriction. Parathyroidectomized animals did not show an increase in blood pressure when fed a low calcium diet as did sham-operated animals. Low calcium intake also increases the synthesis of calcitriol in a direct manner or mediated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcitriol increases intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells. Both low calcium intake and PTH may stimulate renin release and consequently angiotensin II and aldosterone synthesis. We are willing with this review to promote discussions and contributions to achieve a better understanding of these mechanisms, and if required, the design of future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Relation between Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, and Anthropometric and Vascular Parameters in Children Attending the Primary School in the Verona South District
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051070 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The aim of this school-based study was to identify the possible association between diet and physical activity, as well as the anthropometric, vascular, and gluco-lipid parameters. We administered two validated questionnaires for diet and physical activity (Food Frequency questionnaire (FFQ), Children-Physical Activity Questionnaire [...] Read more.
The aim of this school-based study was to identify the possible association between diet and physical activity, as well as the anthropometric, vascular, and gluco-lipid parameters. We administered two validated questionnaires for diet and physical activity (Food Frequency questionnaire (FFQ), Children-Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)) to children at four primary schools in Verona South (Verona, Italy). Specific food intake, dietary pattern, and physical activity level expressed in Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) and PAQ-C score were inserted in multivariate linear regression models to assess the association with anthropometric, hemodynamic, and gluco-lipid measures. Out of 309 children included in the study, 300 (age: 8.6 ± 0.7 years, male: 50%; Obese (OB): 13.6%; High blood pressure (HBP): 21.6%) compiled to the FFQ. From this, two dietary patterns were identified: “healthy” and “unhealthy”. Direct associations were found between (i) “fast food” intake, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), and (ii) animal-derived fat and capillary cholesterol, while inverse associations were found between vegetable, fruit, and nut intake and capillary glucose. The high prevalence of OB and HBP and the significant correlations between some categories of food and metabolic and vascular parameters suggest the importance of life-style modification politics at an early age to prevent the onset of overt cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Twelve-Week Protocatechuic Acid Administration Improves Insulin-Induced and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Induced Vasorelaxation and Antioxidant Activities in Aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030699 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a strong antioxidant, has been reported for its cardiovascular-protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PCA administration on vascular endothelial function, mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and antioxidant activities in aging hypertension. Thirty-six-week-old male [...] Read more.
Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a strong antioxidant, has been reported for its cardiovascular-protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PCA administration on vascular endothelial function, mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and antioxidant activities in aging hypertension. Thirty-six-week-old male aging spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into vehicle control (SHR) and PCA (SHR+PCA) groups, while age-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKY) served as the normotensive vehicle control group. The oral PCA (200 mg/kg/day) was administered daily for a total of 12 weeks. When the rats reached the age of 48 weeks, the rat aortas were isolated for the evaluation of vascular reactivity and Western blotting. Also, nitric oxide (NO) production and antioxidant activities were examined among the three groups. The results showed that, when compared with the SHR group, the insulin-induced and IGF-1-induced vasorelaxation were significantly improved in the SHR+PCA group. There was no significant difference in the endothelium-denuded vessels among the three groups. After the pre-incubation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, the vasorelaxation was abolished and comparable among the three groups. The protein levels of insulin receptors, IGF-1 receptors, phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt)/Akt, and phospho-endothelial NOS (p-eNOS)/eNOS in aortic tissues were significantly enhanced in the SHR+PCA group when compared with the SHR group. Moreover, significant improvements of nitrate/nitrite concentration and antioxidant activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total antioxidants, were also found in the SHR+PCA group. In conclusion, the 12 weeks of PCA administration remarkably improved the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by insulin and IGF-1 in aging hypertension through enhancing the PI3K–NOS–NO pathway. Furthermore, the enhanced antioxidant activities partly contributed to the improved vasorelaxation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Hypertension Associated with Fructose and High Salt: Renal and Sympathetic Mechanisms
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030569 - 07 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular and chronic renal disease. Despite multiple important strides that have been made in our understanding of the etiology of hypertension, the mechanisms remain complex due to multiple factors, including the environment, heredity and diet. This review [...] Read more.
Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular and chronic renal disease. Despite multiple important strides that have been made in our understanding of the etiology of hypertension, the mechanisms remain complex due to multiple factors, including the environment, heredity and diet. This review focuses on dietary contributions, providing evidence for the involvement of elevated fructose and salt consumption that parallels the increased incidence of hypertension worldwide. High fructose loads potentiate salt reabsorption by the kidney, leading to elevation in blood pressure. Several transporters, such as NHE3 and PAT1 are modulated in this milieu and play a crucial role in salt-sensitivity. High fructose ingestion also modulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent attention has been shifted towards the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system, as clinical trials demonstrated significant reductions in blood pressure following renal sympathetic nerve ablation. New preclinical data demonstrates the activation of the renal sympathetic nerves in fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension, and reductions of blood pressure after renal nerve ablation. This review further demonstrates the interplay between sodium handling by the kidney, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and activation of the renal sympathetic nerves as important mechanisms in fructose and salt-induced hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Cod Residual Protein Prevented Blood Pressure Increase in Zucker fa/fa Rats, Possibly by Inhibiting Activities of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Renin
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121820 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and prevention of high blood pressure through diet and lifestyle should be a preferred approach. High intake of fish is associated with lower blood pressure, possibly mediated through the proteins since peptides with angiotensin-converting [...] Read more.
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and prevention of high blood pressure through diet and lifestyle should be a preferred approach. High intake of fish is associated with lower blood pressure, possibly mediated through the proteins since peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting capacities have been identified in fish skin, backbone, and fillet. The effects of cod meals made from residual materials and fillet on blood pressure were investigated in obese Zucker fa/fa rats which spontaneously develop high blood pressure. Rats were fed diets containing water-soluble (stickwater) or water-insoluble (presscake) fractions of protein-rich meals from cod residual materials (head, gut, backbone with muscle residuals, skin, trimmings) or fillet. Rats were fed diets containing 25% of total protein from cod meal and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for four weeks. Results show that a diet containing residual presscake meal with high gut content prevented blood pressure increase, and this cod residual meal also showed the strongest in vitro inhibitions of ACE and renin activities. In conclusion, a diet containing water-insoluble proteins (presscake meal) with high gut content prevented increase in blood pressure in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Hesperidin Prevents Nitric Oxide Deficiency-Induced Cardiovascular Remodeling in Rats via Suppressing TGF-β1 and MMPs Protein Expression
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101549 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Hesperidin is a major flavonoid isolated from citrus fruits that exhibits several biological activities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular remodeling induced by n-nitro l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were [...] Read more.
Hesperidin is a major flavonoid isolated from citrus fruits that exhibits several biological activities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular remodeling induced by n-nitro l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg), l-NAME plus hesperidin (15 mg/kg), hesperidin (30 mg/kg), or captopril (2.5 mg/kg) for five weeks (n = 8/group). Hesperidin or captopril significantly prevented the development of hypertension in l-NAME rats. l-NAME-induced cardiac remodeling, i.e., increases in wall thickness, cross-sectional area (CSA), and fibrosis in the left ventricular and vascular remodeling, i.e., increases in wall thickness, CSA, vascular smooth muscle cells, and collagen deposition in the aorta were attenuated by hesperidin or captopril. These were associated with reduced oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), and enhancing plasma nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) in l-NAME treated groups. Furthermore, up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and TGF- β1 protein expression and the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was suppressed in l-NAME rats treated with hesperidin or captopril. These data suggested that hesperidin had cardioprotective effects in l-NAME hypertensive rats. The possible mechanism may involve antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Inhibitory Effect of Ojeoksan on Early and Advanced Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091256 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is closely related to vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Ojeoksan (OJS), originally recorded in an ancient Korean medicinal book named “Donguibogam”, is a well-known, blended herbal formula. This study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of OJS on atherosclerosis in vitro [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is closely related to vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Ojeoksan (OJS), originally recorded in an ancient Korean medicinal book named “Donguibogam”, is a well-known, blended herbal formula. This study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of OJS on atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo. Western-diet-fed apolipoprotein-E gene-deficient mice (ApoE −/−) were used for this study for 16 weeks, and their vascular dysfunction and inflammation were analyzed. OJS-treated ApoE −/− mice showed lowered blood pressure and glucose levels. The levels of metabolic parameters with hyperlipidemia attenuated following OJS administration. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed that treatment with OJS reduced atherosclerotic lesions. OJS also suppressed the expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) compared to Western-diet-fed ApoE −/− mice and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Expression levels of MicroRNAs (miRNA)-10a, -126 3p were increased in OJS-fed ApoE −/− mice. OJS significantly increased the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and protein kinase B (Akt), which are involved in nitric oxide (NO) production. OJS also regulated eNOS coupling by increasing the expression of endothelial GTP Cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH). Taken together, OJS has a protective effect on vascular inflammation via eNOS coupling-mediated NO production and might be a potential therapeutic agent for both early and advanced atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Sodium Intake and Hypertension
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091970 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
The close relationship between hypertension and dietary sodium intake is widely recognized and supported by several studies. A reduction in dietary sodium not only decreases the blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension, but is also associated with a reduction in morbidity and [...] Read more.
The close relationship between hypertension and dietary sodium intake is widely recognized and supported by several studies. A reduction in dietary sodium not only decreases the blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension, but is also associated with a reduction in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Prolonged modest reduction in salt intake induces a relevant fall in blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, irrespective of sex and ethnic group, with larger falls in systolic blood pressure for larger reductions in dietary salt. The high sodium intake and the increase in blood pressure levels are related to water retention, increase in systemic peripheral resistance, alterations in the endothelial function, changes in the structure and function of large elastic arteries, modification in sympathetic activity, and in the autonomic neuronal modulation of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we have focused on the effects of sodium intake on vascular hemodynamics and their implication in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Weight Loss and Hypertension in Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071667 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Arterial hypertension is strongly related to overweight and obesity. In obese subjects, several mechanisms may lead to hypertension such as insulin and leptin resistance, perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction, renal impairment, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system activation and sympathetic nervous system activity. Weight loss (WL) seems to have [...] Read more.
Arterial hypertension is strongly related to overweight and obesity. In obese subjects, several mechanisms may lead to hypertension such as insulin and leptin resistance, perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction, renal impairment, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system activation and sympathetic nervous system activity. Weight loss (WL) seems to have positive effects on blood pressure (BP). The aim of this review was to explain the mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension and to evaluate the main studies assessing the effect of WL on BP. We analysed studies published in the last 10 years (13 studies either interventional or observational) showing the effect of WL on BP. Different WL strategies were taken into account—diet and lifestyle modification, pharmacological intervention and bariatric surgery. Although a positive effect of WL could be identified in each study, the main difference seems to be the magnitude and the durability of BP reduction over time. Nevertheless, further follow-up data are needed: there is still a lack of evidence about long term effects of WL on hypertension. Hence, given the significant results obtained in several recent studies, weight management should always be pursued in obese patients with hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Electrolytes on Blood Pressure: A Brief Summary of Meta-Analyses
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061362 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nutrition is known to exert an undeniable impact on blood pressure with especially salt (sodium chloride), but also potassium, playing a prominent role. The aim of this review was to summarize meta-analyses studying the effect of different electrolytes on blood pressure or risk [...] Read more.
Nutrition is known to exert an undeniable impact on blood pressure with especially salt (sodium chloride), but also potassium, playing a prominent role. The aim of this review was to summarize meta-analyses studying the effect of different electrolytes on blood pressure or risk for hypertension, respectively. Overall, 32 meta-analyses evaluating the effect of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium on human blood pressure or hypertension risk were included after literature search. Most of the meta-analyses showed beneficial blood pressure lowering effects with the extent of systolic blood pressure reduction ranging between −0.7 (95% confidence interval: −2.6 to 1.2) to −8.9 (−14.1 to −3.7) mmHg for sodium/salt reduction, −3.5 (−5.2 to −1.8) to −9.5 (−10.8 to −8.1) mmHg for potassium, and −0.2 (−0.4 to −0.03) to −18.7 (−22.5 to −15.0) mmHg for magnesium. The range for diastolic blood pressure reduction was 0.03 (−0.4 to 0.4) to −5.9 (−9.7 to −2.1) mmHg for sodium/salt reduction, −2 (−3.1 to −0.9) to −6.4 (−7.3 to −5.6) mmHg for potassium, and −0.3 (−0.5 to −0.03) to −10.9 (−13.1 to −8.7) mmHg for magnesium. Moreover, sufficient calcium intake was found to reduce the risk of gestational hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Effects and Mechanisms of Tea Regulating Blood Pressure: Evidences and Promises
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051115 - 18 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases have overtaken cancers as the number one cause of death. Hypertension is the most dangerous factor linked to deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases. Many researchers have reported that tea has anti-hypertensive effects in animals and humans. The aim of this review [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases have overtaken cancers as the number one cause of death. Hypertension is the most dangerous factor linked to deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases. Many researchers have reported that tea has anti-hypertensive effects in animals and humans. The aim of this review is to update the information on the anti-hypertensive effects of tea in human interventions and animal studies, and to summarize the underlying mechanisms, based on ex-vivo tissue and cell culture data. During recent years, an increasing number of human population studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of tea on hypertension. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to differences in the extent of hypertension, and complicated social and genetic backgrounds of populations. Therefore, further large-scale investigations with longer terms of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of hypertensive risk factors, and to determine differences in beneficial effects amongst diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that tea and its secondary metabolites have important roles in relaxing smooth muscle contraction, enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reducing vascular inflammation, inhibiting rennin activity, and anti-vascular oxidative stress. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of these activities remain to be elucidated. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Double-Edged Sword Effects of Maternal Nutrition in the Developmental Programming of Hypertension
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121917 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Hypertension is a growing global epidemic. Developmental programming resulting in hypertension can begin in early life. Maternal nutrition status has important implications as a double-edged sword in the developmental programming of hypertension. Imbalanced maternal nutrition causes offspring’s hypertension, while specific nutritional interventions during [...] Read more.
Hypertension is a growing global epidemic. Developmental programming resulting in hypertension can begin in early life. Maternal nutrition status has important implications as a double-edged sword in the developmental programming of hypertension. Imbalanced maternal nutrition causes offspring’s hypertension, while specific nutritional interventions during pregnancy and lactation may serve as reprogramming strategies to reverse programming processes and prevent the development of hypertension. In this review, we first summarize the human and animal data supporting the link between maternal nutrition and developmental programming of hypertension. This review also presents common mechanisms underlying nutritional programming-induced hypertension. This will be followed by studies documenting nutritional interventions as reprogramming strategies to protect against hypertension from developmental origins. The identification of ideal nutritional interventions for the prevention of hypertension development that begins early in life will have a lifelong impact, with profound savings in the global burden of hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Blood Pressure
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111700 - 07 Nov 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Hypertension is the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Some studies have reported that food typical of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and extra virgin olive oil, have a favorable effect on the [...] Read more.
Hypertension is the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Some studies have reported that food typical of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and extra virgin olive oil, have a favorable effect on the risk of hypertension, whereas food not typical of this dietary pattern such as red meat, processed meat, and poultry has an unfavorable effect. In this review, we have summarized observational and intervention studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews that have evaluated the effects of the MedDiet as a pattern towards blood pressure (BP). However, the number of such studies is small. In general terms, the MedDiet has a favorable effect in reducing BP in hypertensive or healthy people but we do not have enough data to declare how strong this effect is. Many more studies are required to fully understand the BP changes induced by the MedDiet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension) Printed Edition available
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