E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Jon Buckley

School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nutrition; exercise; health; physical performance
Guest Editor
Prof. Peter Howe

Strategic Research Projects, University of Southern Queensland, Australia / School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Australia
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: nutrients; cardiometabolic health; cognitive function

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on the impact of nutrition on cardiometabolic health and brain function. Cardiovascular and metabolic disease contribute substantially to the burden of chronic disease across the developed world. In addition, as the populations of the most developed countries age, there is an increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Many of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease and dementia/Alzheimer’s disease are interrelated and can be positively influenced by nutrition. The interrelation of risk factors is in part due to effects on the cerebrovasculature impacting on brain function, but nutrients can also elicit direct effects on neurons.

This Special Issue aims to bring together up-to-date reviews and cutting-edge original research in the field of nutritional effects on cardiometabolic health and brain function, and their interactions. We welcome manuscripts on long-term, short-term and acute human studies, as well as epidemiological research on a wide range of outcomes associated with the impacts of nutrition on cardiometabolic health and brain function. We also invite submissions of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

We invite you to submit your latest research to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Jonathan Buckley
Prof. Dr. Peter Howe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiometabolic risk
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cognitive function
  • cognitive decline
  • dementia
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • cerebral blood flow
  • ageing

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Correlation of Nutritional Indices on Admission to the Coronary Intensive Care Unit with the Development of Delirium
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111712
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
PDF Full-text (713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Delirium is a common occurrence in patients admitted to the intensive care unit and is related to mortality and morbidity. Malnutrition is a predisposing factor for the development of delirium. Nevertheless, whether the nutritional status on admission anticipates the development of delirium [...] Read more.
Background: Delirium is a common occurrence in patients admitted to the intensive care unit and is related to mortality and morbidity. Malnutrition is a predisposing factor for the development of delirium. Nevertheless, whether the nutritional status on admission anticipates the development of delirium in patients with acute cardiovascular diseases remains unknown. Objective: This study aims to assess the correlation between the nutritional status on admission using the nutritional index and the development of delirium in the coronary intensive care unit. Design: We examined 653 consecutive patients (mean age: 70 ± 14 years) admitted to the coronary intensive care unit of Juntendo University Hospital between January 2015 and December 2016. We evaluated three nutritional indices frequently used to assess the nutritional status, i.e., Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), and Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT). We defined delirium as patients with a delirium score >4 using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Results: Delirium was present in 58 patients. All nutritional indices exhibited a tendency for malnutrition in the delirium group compared with the non-delirium group (GNRI, 86.5 ± 9.38 versus 91.6 ± 9.89; PNI, 36.4 ± 6.95 versus 41.6 ± 7.62; CONUT, 5.88 ± 3.00 versus 3.61 ± 2.56; for all, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the maximum delirium score increased progressively from the low- to the high-risk group, as evaluated by each nutritional index (GNRI, PNI, CONUT; for all, p < 0.001). A multivariate analysis revealed that the PNI and CONUT were independent risk factors for the occurrence of delirium. Conclusions: A marked correlation exists between the nutritional index on admission, especially PNI and CONUT, and the development of delirium in patients with acute cardiovascular diseases, suggesting that malnutrition assessment upon admission could help identify patients at high risk of developing delirium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Achacha (Garcinia humilis) Rind Improves Cardiovascular Function in Rats with Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101425
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
PDF Full-text (2846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Garcinia humilis is a fruit known as achachairú. It is native to South American countries such as Bolivia, Peru, and Brazil, but it is also cultivated as achacha in northern Australia. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemicals in achacha [...] Read more.
Garcinia humilis is a fruit known as achachairú. It is native to South American countries such as Bolivia, Peru, and Brazil, but it is also cultivated as achacha in northern Australia. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemicals in achacha rind and pulp and to investigate these components as potential treatments for the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Both rind and pulp contain procyanidins and citric acid rather than hydroxycitric acid. Male Wistar rats (8–9 weeks old) were fed with either high-carbohydrate, high-fat, or corn starch diets for 16 weeks. Intervention groups were fed with either diet supplemented with 1.5% G. humilis rind powder or 2.0% G. humilis pulp for the last 8 weeks of the protocol. Rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet exhibited hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. G. humilis rind decreased systolic blood pressure, diastolic stiffness, left ventricular inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen deposition in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats. However, there was no change in glucose tolerance, body weight, or body composition. Therefore, G. humilis rind, usually a food by-product, but not the edible pulp, showed potential cardioprotection with minimal metabolic changes in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Brain Function in Mildly Hypertensive Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101413
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
PDF Full-text (1497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purported benefits of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3PUFA) for brain function may be attributable, at least in part, to improved cerebral perfusion. A pilot randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate effects of taking a DHA-rich fish oil supplement for 20 [...] Read more.
Purported benefits of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3PUFA) for brain function may be attributable, at least in part, to improved cerebral perfusion. A pilot randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate effects of taking a DHA-rich fish oil supplement for 20 weeks on cerebrovascular function, mood and cognitive performance. Borderline hypertensives aged 40–85 years with low habitual LCn-3PUFA intake took four capsules/day of EPAX (1600 mg DHA + 400 mg EPA) or placebo (corn oil). Cerebrovascular function was assessed at baseline and after 20 weeks in 38 completers (19 on each supplement) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery at rest and whilst performing a battery of cognitive tasks (neurovascular coupling). The primary outcome, cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) to hypercapnia, increased 26% (p = 0.024) in women; there was no change in men. In contrast, neurovascular coupling increased significantly (p = 0.01 for the overall response) in men only; the latter correlated with an increase of EPA in erythrocytes (r = 0.616, p = 0.002). There was no associated improvement of mood or cognition in either men or women. These preliminary observations indicate that LCn-3PUFA supplementation has the potential to enhance blood flow in the brain in response to both hypercapnic and cognitive stimuli. Future studies should examine differential effects of EPA and DHA and take account of the gender differences in responsiveness to supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Properties of Asiatic Acid against 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy in the Hippocampus in an Adult Rat Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081053
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
5-fluorouracil or 5-FU (a chemotherapeutic medication) has been revealed to induce memory deficits in many cancer patients. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpenoid extract from Centella asiatica. This compound can ameliorate intracellular oxidative stress caused by chemotherapy drugs. Recent studies have shown that [...] Read more.
5-fluorouracil or 5-FU (a chemotherapeutic medication) has been revealed to induce memory deficits in many cancer patients. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpenoid extract from Centella asiatica. This compound can ameliorate intracellular oxidative stress caused by chemotherapy drugs. Recent studies have shown that AA is capable of inhibiting neuronal generation and memory deficit produced by 5-FU chemotherapy. This study aimed to assess the molecular mechanisms of AA related to hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in rats receiving 5-FU. Male Sprague Dawley rats were given AA (30 mg/kg) orally and given 5-FU (25 mg/kg) by i.v. injection 5 times. Some rats were given AA for 20 days before and during 15-FU treatment (preventive), some received AA for 20 days after 5-FU treatment (recovery), and some underwent treatment with AA throughout the time of the experiment (throughout) for 40 days. Treatment with 5-FU caused significant reductions in Notch1, sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), nestin, doublecortin (DCX), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) levels within the hippocampus. In addition, 5-FU significantly increased p21 positive cell number in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus. Administration with both AA and 5-FU in prevention and throughout was able to prevent decreases in Notch1 SOX2, nestin, DCX, and Nrf2 caused by 5-FU. Treatment with AA also led to decreases in p21 positive cells and MDA levels in the hippocampus. These findings exhibit that AA has the ability to counteract the down-regulation of neurogenesis within the hippocampus and memory deficits caused by 5-FU via inhibiting oxidative stress and increasing neuroprotective properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Potential Therapeutic Role in Cardiovascular System Disorders—A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101561
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are described as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. Therefore, the importance of cardiovascular diseases prevention is widely reflected in the increasing number of reports on the topic among the key scientific research efforts of the recent [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are described as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. Therefore, the importance of cardiovascular diseases prevention is widely reflected in the increasing number of reports on the topic among the key scientific research efforts of the recent period. The importance of essential fatty acids (EFAs) has been recognized in the fields of cardiac science and cardiac medicine, with the significant effects of various fatty acids having been confirmed by experimental studies. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be important versatile mediators for improving and maintaining human health over the entire lifespan, however, only the cardiac effect has been extensively documented. Recently, it has been shown that omega-3 fatty acids may play a beneficial role in several human pathologies, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and are also associated with a reduced incidence of stroke and atherosclerosis, and decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. A reasonable diet and wise supplementation of omega-3 EFAs are essential in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Lutein Intake and Blood Lutein Concentration Are Positively Associated with Physical Activity in Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091186
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lutein is a carotenoid that reduces the risk of some chronic diseases, possibly by altering physical activity behavior. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies examining the relationship between lutein status (dietary intake/blood concentration) and physical activity. [...] Read more.
Lutein is a carotenoid that reduces the risk of some chronic diseases, possibly by altering physical activity behavior. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies examining the relationship between lutein status (dietary intake/blood concentration) and physical activity. Peer-reviewed studies published in Medline, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and Embase were included if they reported a measure of association between lutein status and physical activity. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Eleven reported positive associations, three reported mixed results, and three reported no association. Two studies used objective measures of lutein status (blood concentration) and physical activity (accelerometry) and reported positive associations, with correlations of ≥0.36 and differences of ≥57% in physical activity between upper and lower tertiles. Studies using self-report measures reported weaker correlations (r = 0.06 to 0.25), but still more physical activity (18% to ≥600% higher) in those with the highest compared with the lowest lutein status. Higher lutein status may be associated with higher levels of physical activity, which may contribute to a reduced risk of chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Resveratrol Counteracts Insulin Resistance—Potential Role of the Circulation
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091160
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pre-clinical data and human trials indicate that resveratrol supplementation may help to counteract diabetes. Several mechanisms of action have been proposed to explain its metabolic benefits, including activation of sirtuins and estrogen receptors (ER) to promote glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT4) translocation and increase [...] Read more.
Pre-clinical data and human trials indicate that resveratrol supplementation may help to counteract diabetes. Several mechanisms of action have been proposed to explain its metabolic benefits, including activation of sirtuins and estrogen receptors (ER) to promote glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT4) translocation and increase glucose uptake. Resveratrol can also enhance vasodilator function, yet the possibility that this action might help to alleviate insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus has received little attention. In this brief review we propose that, by restoring impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in insulin resistant individuals resveratrol increases blood perfusion of skeletal muscle, thereby facilitating glucose delivery and utilization with resultant improvement of insulin sensitivity. Thus, circulatory improvements by vasoactive nutrients such as resveratrol may play a role in preventing or alleviating insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Uric Acid and Cognitive Function in Older Individuals
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080975
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperuricemia has been recognized as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in epidemiological studies. However, uric acid can also exert beneficial functions due to its antioxidant properties, which may be particularly relevant in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we critically revise [...] Read more.
Hyperuricemia has been recognized as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in epidemiological studies. However, uric acid can also exert beneficial functions due to its antioxidant properties, which may be particularly relevant in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we critically revise the evidence on the relationship between serum uric acid levels and cognitive function in older individuals, focusing on the etiology of cognitive impairment (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s dementia, and vascular dementia) and on the interactive connections between uric acid, dementia, and diet. Despite high heterogeneity in the existing studies, due to different characteristics of studied populations and methods of cognitive dysfunction assessment, we conclude that serum uric acid may modulate cognitive function in a different way according to the etiology of dementia. Current studies indeed demonstrate that uric acid may exert neuroprotective actions in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s dementia, with hypouricemia representing a risk factor for a quicker disease progression and a possible marker of malnutrition. Conversely, high serum uric acid may negatively influence the disease course in vascular dementia. Further studies are needed to clarify the physio-pathological role of uric acid in different dementia types, and its clinical-prognostic significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Cerebral Blood Flow Measurements in Adults: A Review on the Effects of Dietary Factors and Exercise
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050530
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improving cerebrovascular function may be a key mechanism whereby a healthy lifestyle, of which a healthy diet combined with increased physical activity levels is a cornerstone, protects against cognitive impairments. In this respect, effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF)—a sensitive physiological marker of [...] Read more.
Improving cerebrovascular function may be a key mechanism whereby a healthy lifestyle, of which a healthy diet combined with increased physical activity levels is a cornerstone, protects against cognitive impairments. In this respect, effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF)—a sensitive physiological marker of cerebrovascular function—are of major interest. This review summarizes the impact of specific dietary determinants and physical exercise on CBF in adults and discusses the relation between these effects with potential changes in cognitive function. A limited number of randomized controlled trials have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of an acute intake of nitrate and polyphenols on CBF, but evidence for a relationship between these effects as well as improvements in cognitive functioning is limited. Moreover, long-term trans-resveratrol supplementation has been shown to increase CBF in populations at increased risk of accelerated cognitive decline. Long-term supplementation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may also increase CBF, but related effects on cognitive performance have not yet been found. Significant decreases in cerebral perfusion were observed by commonly consumed amounts of caffeine, while alcohol intake was shown to increase CBF in a dose-dependent way. However, the long-term effects are not clear. Finally, long-term exercise training may be a promising approach to improve CBF, as increases in perfusion may contribute to the beneficial effects on cognitive functioning observed following increased physical activity levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
Figures

Figure 1

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top