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Remote Sens., Volume 16, Issue 10 (May-2 2024) – 171 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Satellite-acquired short-wave infrared (SWIR) imagery has long been used to identity different types of rocks and minerals, but technological constraints have largely prevented the acquisition of high-resolution imagery required for most archaeological investigations. This experimental study employs a new drone-deployed, hyperspectral SWIR sensor in an effort to locate and characterize archaeological artifacts. Producing imagery at a 4cm spatial resolution across 326 spectral bands in SWIR wavelengths, we employ a supervised classification algorithm to locate and identify different artifact types, including ceramics, lithics, and metals. The results showcase the potential of this emerging technology to transform approaches to the discovery, mapping, and interpretation of the surface archaeological record and broader cultural landscapes. View this paper
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27 pages, 9304 KiB  
Article
KNN Local Linear Regression for Demarcating River Cross-Sections with Point Cloud Data from UAV Photogrammetry URiver-X
by Taesam Lee, Seonghyeon Hwang and Vijay P. Singh
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101820 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Aerial surveying with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been popularly employed in river management and flood monitoring. One of the major processes in UAV aerial surveying for river applications is to demarcate the cross-section of a river. From the photo images of aerial [...] Read more.
Aerial surveying with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been popularly employed in river management and flood monitoring. One of the major processes in UAV aerial surveying for river applications is to demarcate the cross-section of a river. From the photo images of aerial surveying, a point cloud dataset can be abstracted with the structure from the motion technique. To accurately demarcate the cross-section from the cloud points, an appropriate delineation technique is required to reproduce the characteristics of natural and manmade channels, including abrupt changes, bumps and lined shapes. Therefore, a nonparametric estimation technique, called the K-nearest neighbor local linear regression (KLR) model, was tested in the current study to demarcate the cross-section of a river with a point cloud dataset from aerial surveying. The proposed technique was tested with synthetically simulated trapezoidal, U-shape and V-shape channels. In addition, the proposed KLR model was compared with the traditional polynomial regression model and another nonparametric technique, locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS). The experimental study was performed with the river experiment center in Andong, South Korea. Furthermore, the KLR model was applied to two real case studies in the Migok-cheon stream on Hapcheon-gun and Pori-cheon stream on Yecheon-gun and compared to the other models. With the extensive applications to the feasible river channels, the results indicated that the proposed KLR model can be a suitable alternative for demarcating the cross-section of a river with point cloud data from UAV aerial surveying by reproducing the critical characteristics of natural and manmade channels, including abrupt changes and small bumps as well as different shapes. Finally, the limitation of the UAV-driven demarcation approach was also discussed due to the penetrability of RGB sensors to water. Full article
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19 pages, 10961 KiB  
Article
Revealing the Hidden Consequences of Increased Soil Moisture Storage in Greening Drylands
by Yu Wang, Tian Han, Yuze Yang, Yue Hai, Zhi Wen, Ruonan Li and Hua Zheng
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101819 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Vegetation primarily draws water from soil moisture (SM), with restoration in drylands often reducing SM storage (SMS). However, anomalies have been detected in the Beijing–Tianjin Sand Source Region (BTSSR) of China via the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and Gravity Recovery and [...] Read more.
Vegetation primarily draws water from soil moisture (SM), with restoration in drylands often reducing SM storage (SMS). However, anomalies have been detected in the Beijing–Tianjin Sand Source Region (BTSSR) of China via the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). This study quantified the sources of increased SMS in drylands to elucidate the effects of vegetation restoration on SMS. The results indicated the following: (1) In vegetated drylands, 46.2% experienced a significant increase in SMS while 53.8% remained stable; both were positively correlated with the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). (2) The increase in SMS was accompanied by a decrease in groundwater storage (GWS), as indicated by the significant correlation coefficients of −0.710 and −0.569 for SMS and GWS, respectively. Furthermore, GWS served as the primary source of water for vegetation. (3) The results of the redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the initial vegetation, the driver of the observed trend of increased SMS and decreased GWS, accounted for 50.3% of the variability in water storage. Therefore, to sustain dryland ecosystems, we recommend that future vegetation restoration projects give due consideration to the water balance while concurrently strengthening the dynamic monitoring of SMS and GWS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecological Remote Sensing)
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19 pages, 9502 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis of Multi-Year South China Sea Eddies and Exploration of Eddy Classification
by Yang Jin, Meibing Jin, Dongxiao Wang and Changming Dong
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101818 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Mesoscale eddies are structures of seawater motion with horizontal scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers, impact depths of tens to hundreds of meters, and time scales of days to months. This study presents a statistical analysis of mesoscale eddies in the South [...] Read more.
Mesoscale eddies are structures of seawater motion with horizontal scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers, impact depths of tens to hundreds of meters, and time scales of days to months. This study presents a statistical analysis of mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS) from 1993 to 2021 based on eddies extracted from satellite remote sensing data using the vector geometry eddy detection method. On average, about 230 eddies with a wide spatial and temporal distribution are observed each year, and the numbers of CEs (52.2%) and AEs (47.8%) are almost similar, with a significant correlation in spatial distribution. In this article, eddies with a lifetime of at least 28 days (17% of the number of total eddies) are referred to as strong eddies (SEs). The SEs in the SCS that persist for several years in similar months and locations, such as the well-known dipole eddies consisting of CEs and AEs offshore eastern Vietnam, are defined as persistent strong eddies (PSEs). SEs and PSEs affect the thermohaline structure, current field, and material and energy transport in the upper ocean. This paper is important as it names the SEs and PSEs, and the naming of eddies can facilitate research on specific major eddies and improve public understanding of mesoscale eddies as important oceanic phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies II)
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28 pages, 9420 KiB  
Article
Coastline Automatic Extraction from Medium-Resolution Satellite Images Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-Based Approach
by Claudio Parente, Emanuele Alcaras and Francesco Giuseppe Figliomeni
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101817 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 543
Abstract
In recent decades several methods have been developed to extract coastlines from remotely sensed images. In fact, this is one of the principal fields of remote sensing research that continues to receive attention, as testified by the thousands of scientific articles present in [...] Read more.
In recent decades several methods have been developed to extract coastlines from remotely sensed images. In fact, this is one of the principal fields of remote sensing research that continues to receive attention, as testified by the thousands of scientific articles present in the main databases, such as SCOPUS, WoS, etc. The main issue is to automatize the whole process or at least a great part of it, so as to minimize the human error connected to photointerpretation and identification of training sites to support the classification of objects (basically soil and water) present in the observed scene. This article proposes a new fully automatic methodological approach for coastline extraction: it is based on the unsupervised classification of the most decorrelated fictitious band derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to the satellite images. The experiments are carried out on datasets characterized by images with different geometric resolution, i.e., Landsat 9 Operational Land Imager (OLI) multispectral images (pixel size: 30 m), a Sentinel-2 dataset including blue, green, red and Near Infrared (NIR) bands (pixel size: 10 m) and a Sentinel-2 dataset including red edge, narrow NIR and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands (pixel size: 20 m). The results are very encouraging, given that the comparison between each extracted coastline and the corresponding real one generates, in all cases, residues that present a Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) lower than the pixel size of the considered dataset. In addition, the PCA results are better than those achieved with Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Modified NDWI (MNDWI) applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal and Littoral Observation Using Remote Sensing)
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16 pages, 4039 KiB  
Article
A Soil Moisture and Vegetation-Based Susceptibility Mapping Approach to Wildfire Events in Greece
by Kyriakos Chaleplis, Avery Walters, Bin Fang, Venkataraman Lakshmi and Alexandra Gemitzi
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101816 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Wildfires in Mediterranean areas are becoming more frequent, and the fire season is extending toward the spring and autumn months. These alarming findings indicate an urgent need to develop fire susceptibility methods capable of identifying areas vulnerable to wildfires. The present work aims [...] Read more.
Wildfires in Mediterranean areas are becoming more frequent, and the fire season is extending toward the spring and autumn months. These alarming findings indicate an urgent need to develop fire susceptibility methods capable of identifying areas vulnerable to wildfires. The present work aims to uncover possible soil moisture and vegetation condition precursory signals of the largest and most devastating wildfires in Greece that occurred in 2021, 2022, and 2023. Therefore, the time series of two remotely sensed datasets–MAP L4 Soil Moisture (SM) and Landsat 8 NDVI, which represent vegetation and soil moisture conditions—were examined before five destructive wildfires in Greece during the study period. The results of the analysis highlighted specific properties indicative of fire-susceptible areas. NDVI in all fire-affected areas ranged from 0.13 to 0.35, while mean monthly soil moisture showed negative anomalies in the spring periods preceding fires. Accordingly, fire susceptibility maps were developed, verifying the usefulness of remotely sensed information related to soil moisture and NDVI. This information should be used to enhance fire models and identify areas at risk of wildfires in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Soil Moisture Estimation, Assessment, and Applications)
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20 pages, 14379 KiB  
Article
Integrating Climate and Satellite Data for Multi-Temporal Pre-Harvest Prediction of Head Rice Yield in Australia
by Allister Clarke, Darren Yates, Christopher Blanchard, Md. Zahidul Islam, Russell Ford, Sabih-Ur Rehman and Robert Paul Walsh
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101815 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Precise and prompt predictions of crop yields are crucial for optimising farm management, post-harvest operations, and marketing strategies within the agricultural sector. While various machine learning approaches have been employed to forecast crop yield, their application to grain quality, particularly head rice yield [...] Read more.
Precise and prompt predictions of crop yields are crucial for optimising farm management, post-harvest operations, and marketing strategies within the agricultural sector. While various machine learning approaches have been employed to forecast crop yield, their application to grain quality, particularly head rice yield (HRY), is less explored. This research collated crop-level HRY data across four seasons (2017/18–2020/21) from Australia’s rice-growing region. Models were developed using the XGBoost algorithm trained at varying time steps up to 16 weeks pre-harvest. The study compared the accuracy of models trained on datasets with climate data alone or paired with vegetative indices using two- and four-week aggregations. The results suggest that model accuracy increases as the harvest date approaches. The dataset combining climate and vegetative indices aggregated over two weeks surpassed industry benchmarks early in the season, achieving the highest accuracy two weeks before harvest (LCCC = 0.65; RMSE = 6.43). The analysis revealed that HRY correlates strongly with agroclimatic conditions nearer harvest, with the significance of vegetative indices-based features increasing as the season progresses. These features, indicative of crop and grain maturity, could aid growers in determining optimal harvest timing. This investigation offers valuable insights into grain quality forecasting, presenting a model adaptable to other regions with accessible climate and satellite data, consequently enhancing farm- and industry-level decision-making. Full article
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19 pages, 3360 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Satellite Space Environment Risk Prediction and Real-Time Warning System for Satellite Safety Management
by Ning Kang, Liguo Zhang, Weiguo Zong, Pan Huang, Yuqiang Zhang, Chen Zhou, Jian Qiao and Bingsen Xue
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101814 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 394
Abstract
In response to the need for a space security situation assessment during orbit, the multi-satellite space environmental risk prediction and early warning system is based on the detection results of the space weather payload of the Fengyun 4A and 4B satellites, as well [...] Read more.
In response to the need for a space security situation assessment during orbit, the multi-satellite space environmental risk prediction and early warning system is based on the detection results of the space weather payload of the Fengyun 4A and 4B satellites, as well as the prediction results of the National Space Weather Center, for the first time. By comprehensively utilizing some open-source data, it is the first time that we have achieved a 24 h advanced prediction of the space environment high-energy proton, low-energy particle, and high-energy electron risks for the safety of the Fengyun-series high-orbit satellites, and a real-time warning of satellite single-event upset, surface charging, and deep charging risks. The automation system has preliminarily achieved an intelligent space risk assessment for the safety of multiple stationary meteorological satellites, effectively improving the application efficiency of the space environmental data and the products of Fengyun-series satellites. The business status is stable in operation, and the resulting error between the predicted results of various risk indices and the measured data was less than one level. The warning accuracy was better than 90%. This article uses the system for the first time, to use Fengyun satellite data to, accurately and in a timely manner, predict and warn us about the low-energy particles and surface charging high-risk levels of the Fengyun 4A and 4B satellites during the typical space weather event on 21 April 2023, in response to the impact of complex spatial environmental factors on the safety of Fengyun-series high-orbit satellites. The construction and operation of a multi-satellite space environmental risk prediction and early warning system can provide a reference for the safety work of subsequent satellite ground system operations. Full article
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21 pages, 4981 KiB  
Article
A Segmented Sliding Window Reference Signal Reconstruction Method Based on Fuzzy C-Means
by Haobo Liang, Yuan Feng, Yushi Zhang, Xingshuai Qiao, Zhi Wang and Tao Shan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101813 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Reference signal reconstruction serves as a crucial technique for suppressing multipath interference and noise in the reference channel of passive radar. Aiming at the challenge of detecting Low-Slow-Small (LSS) targets using Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) signals, this article proposes a novel segmented [...] Read more.
Reference signal reconstruction serves as a crucial technique for suppressing multipath interference and noise in the reference channel of passive radar. Aiming at the challenge of detecting Low-Slow-Small (LSS) targets using Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) signals, this article proposes a novel segmented sliding window reference signal reconstruction method based on Fuzzy C-Means (FCM). By partitioning the reference signals based on the structure of DTMB signal frames, this approach compensates for frequency offset and sample rate deviation individually for each segment. Additionally, FCM clustering is utilized for symbol mapping reconstruction. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method significantly suppresses constellation diagram divergence and phase rotation, increases the adaptive cancellation gain and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and in the meantime reduces the computation cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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18 pages, 4896 KiB  
Article
Global Inversion of Lunar Surface Oxides by Adding Chang’e-5 Samples
by Shuangshuang Wu, Jianping Chen, Chenli Xue, Yiwen Pan and Cheng Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101812 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 406
Abstract
The chemical distribution on the lunar surface results from the combined effects of both endogenic and exogenic geological processes. Exploring global maps of chemical composition helps to gain insights into the compositional variation among three major geological units, unraveling the geological evolution of [...] Read more.
The chemical distribution on the lunar surface results from the combined effects of both endogenic and exogenic geological processes. Exploring global maps of chemical composition helps to gain insights into the compositional variation among three major geological units, unraveling the geological evolution of the Moon. The existing oxide abundance maps were obtained from spectral images of remote sensing and geochemical data from samples returned by Apollo and Luna, missing the chemical characteristics of the Moon’s late critical period. In this study, by adding geochemical data from Chang’e (CE)-5 lunar samples, we construct inversion models between the Christiansen feature (CF) and oxide abundance of lunar samples using the particle swarm optimization–extreme gradient boosting (PSO-XGBoost) algorithm. Then, new global oxide maps (Al2O3, CaO, FeO, and MgO) and Mg# with the resolution of 32 pixels/degree (ppd) were produced, which reduced the space weathering effect to some extent. The PSO-XGBoost models were compared with partial least square regression (PLSR) models and four previous results, indicating that PSO-XGBoost models possess the capability to effectively describe nonlinear relationships between CF and oxide abundance. Furthermore, the average contents of our results and the Diviner results for 21 major maria demonstrate high correlations, with R2 of 0.95, 0.82, 0.95, and 0.86, respectively. In addition, a new Mg# map was generated, which reveals different magmatic evolutionary processes in the three geologic units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planetary Geologic Mapping and Remote Sensing II)
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17 pages, 6680 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of Low Chl-a Concentration in Hulun Lake Based on Fusion of Remote Sensing Satellite and Ground Observation Data
by Siyuan Zhang, Yinglan A, Libo Wang, Yuntao Wang, Xiaojing Zhang, Yi Zhu and Guangwen Ma
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101811 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 548
Abstract
China’s northern Hulun Lake is a significant body of water internationally. The issue of eutrophication has gained prominence in recent years. The achievement of precise chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) monitoring is crucial for safeguarding Hulun Lake’s ecosystem. The machine learning-based remote sensing inversion method has [...] Read more.
China’s northern Hulun Lake is a significant body of water internationally. The issue of eutrophication has gained prominence in recent years. The achievement of precise chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) monitoring is crucial for safeguarding Hulun Lake’s ecosystem. The machine learning-based remote sensing inversion method has been shown to be effective in capturing the intricate relationship between independent and dependent variables; however, it lacks a priori knowledge and is limited by the quality of remote sensing data sources. The relationship between independent and dependent variables can be more accurately simulated with the use of suitable auxiliary variables. Therefore, three machine learning models—random forest (RF), adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost)—were established in this study using meteorological observation parameters as auxiliary variables combined with Sentinel-2 satellite image remote sensing band combinations as independent variables and measured Chl-a data as dependent variables. The estimation effects before and after the fusion of meteorological ground observation data were compared, and the best model was used to estimate the spatial–temporal variation trend of Chl-a in the regional water body. The results show that (1) the addition of meteorological parameters as auxiliary variables improved the precision of the three machine models; the decision coefficient (R2) rose by 7.25%, 5.71%, and 7.20%, respectively, to 0.76, 0.66, and 0.73. (2) The concentration of Chl-a in the lake region was projected from June to October 2019 to October 2021 using the RF optimal estimating model of meteorological fusion. The northeast, southwest, and south of the lake were where the comparatively high concentration values of Chl-a were located, whereas the lake’s center had a generally low concentration of the substance. Chromatically, Chl-a typically peaked in August after initially increasing and then declining. (3) The three rivers that feed into the river have varying levels of water pollution, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) pollution being the most severe. This is what primarily caused the higher levels of Chl-a in the northeast, southwest, and south. This study is crucial for the preservation and restoration of Hulun Lake’s natural ecosystem and offers some technical support for the monitoring of the lake’s concentration of Chl-a. Full article
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20 pages, 16712 KiB  
Article
Effects of Land Use/Cover Change on Terrestrial Carbon Stocks in the Yellow River Basin of China from 2000 to 2030
by Jiejun Zhang, Jie Yang, Pengfei Liu, Yi Liu, Yiwen Zheng, Xiaoyu Shen, Bingchen Li, Hongquan Song and Zongzheng Liang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101810 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Accurately assessing and predicting the impacts of land use changes on ecosystem carbon stocks in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) and exploring the optimization of land use structure to increase ecosystem carbon stocks are of great practical significance for China to achieve the [...] Read more.
Accurately assessing and predicting the impacts of land use changes on ecosystem carbon stocks in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) and exploring the optimization of land use structure to increase ecosystem carbon stocks are of great practical significance for China to achieve the goal of “double carbon”. In this study, we used multi-year remote sensing data, meteorological data and statistical data to measure the ecosystem carbon stock in the YRB from 2000 to 2020 based on the InVEST model, and then simulated and measured the ecosystem carbon stock under four different land use scenarios coupled with the FLUS model in 2030. The results show that, from 2000 to 2020, urban expansion in the YRB continued, but woodland and grassland grew more slowly. Carbon stock showed an increasing trend during the first 20 years, with an overall increase of 7.2 megatons, or 0.23%. Simulating the four land use scenarios in 2030, carbon stock will decrease the most under the cropland protection scenario, with a decrease of 17.7 megatons compared with 2020. However, carbon stock increases the most under the ecological protection scenario, with a maximum increase of 9.1 megatons. Furthermore, distinct trends in carbon storage were observed across different regions, with significant increases in the upstream under the natural development scenario, in the midstream under the ecological protection scenario and in the downstream under the cropland protection scenario. We suggest that the upstream should maintain the existing development mode, with ecological protection prioritized in the middle reaches and farmland protection prioritized in the lower reaches. This study provides a scientific basis for the carbon balance, land use structure adjustment and land management decision-making in the YRB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Ecosystem Services Based on Satellite Data)
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18 pages, 16994 KiB  
Article
Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Space Targets Using Wideband Pseudo-Noise Signals with Low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
by Simon Anger, Matthias Jirousek, Stephan Dill and Markus Peichl
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101809 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 466
Abstract
With the number of new satellites increasing dramatically, comprehensive space surveillance is becoming increasingly important. Therefore, high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of satellites can provide an in-situ assessment of the satellites. This paper demonstrates that pseudo-noise signals can also be used [...] Read more.
With the number of new satellites increasing dramatically, comprehensive space surveillance is becoming increasingly important. Therefore, high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of satellites can provide an in-situ assessment of the satellites. This paper demonstrates that pseudo-noise signals can also be used for satellite imaging, in addition to classical linear frequency-modulated chirp signals. Pseudo-noise transmission signals offer the advantage of very low cross-correlation values. This, for instance, enables the possibility of a system with multiple channels transmitting instantaneously. Furthermore, it can significantly reduce signal interference with other systems operating in the same frequency spectrum, which is of particular interest for high-bandwidth, high-power systems such as satellite imaging radars. A new routine has been introduced to generate a wideband pseudo-noise signal with a peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) similar to that of a chirp signal. This is essential for applications where the transmit signal power budget is sharply limited by the high-power amplifier. The paper presents both theoretical descriptions and analysis of the generated pseudo-noise signal as well as the results of an imaging measurement of a real space target using the introduced pseudo-noise signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar for Space Observation: Systems, Methods and Applications)
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25 pages, 11676 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning-Based Automatic River Flow Estimation Using RADARSAT Imagery
by Samar Ziadi, Karem Chokmani, Chayma Chaabani and Anas El Alem
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101808 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Estimating river flow is a key parameter for effective water resource management, flood risk prevention, and hydroelectric facilities planning. Yet, traditional gauging methods are not reliable under very high flows or extreme events. Hydrometric network stations are often sparse, and their spatial distribution [...] Read more.
Estimating river flow is a key parameter for effective water resource management, flood risk prevention, and hydroelectric facilities planning. Yet, traditional gauging methods are not reliable under very high flows or extreme events. Hydrometric network stations are often sparse, and their spatial distribution is not optimal. Therefore, many river sections cannot be monitored using traditional flow measurements and observations. In the last few decades, satellite sensors have been considered as complementary observation sources to traditional water level and flow measurements. This kind of approach has provided a way to maintain and expand the hydrometric observation network. Remote sensing data can be used to estimate flow from rating curves that relate instantaneous flow (Q) to channel cross-section geometry (effective width or depth of the water surface). Yet, remote sensing has limitations, notably its dependence on rating curves. Due to their empirical nature, rating curves are limited to specific river sections (reaches) and cannot be applied to other watercourses. Recently, deep-learning techniques have been successfully applied to hydrology. The primary goal of this study is to develop a deep-learning approach for estimating river flow in the Boreal Shield ecozone of Eastern Canada using RADARSAT-1 and -2 imagery and convolutional neural networks (CNN). Data from 39 hydrographic sites in this region were used in modeling. A new CNN architecture was developed to provide a straightforward estimation of the instantaneous river flow rate. Our results yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) and a Nash–Sutcliffe value of 0.91 and a root mean square error of 33 m3/s. Notably, the model performs exceptionally well for rivers wider than 40 m, reflecting its capability to adapt to varied hydrological contexts. These results underscore the potential of integrating advanced satellite imagery with deep learning to enhance hydrological monitoring across vast and remote areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 8250 KiB  
Article
A Geometry-Compensated Sensitivity Study of Polarimetric Bistatic Scattering for Rough Surface Observation
by Yanting Wang and Thomas L. Ainsworth
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101807 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The use of bistatic polarimetric SAR for rough surface observation has attracted increasing interest in recent years, with its acquisition of additional polarimetric information. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of polarimetric variables to soil moisture and surface roughness, with the intention [...] Read more.
The use of bistatic polarimetric SAR for rough surface observation has attracted increasing interest in recent years, with its acquisition of additional polarimetric information. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of polarimetric variables to soil moisture and surface roughness, with the intention of locating favorable bistatic geometries for soil moisture retrieval. However, in the bistatic setting, the expanded imaging geometry is convolved with the polarimetric scattering response along with the in-scene variations in the soil moisture and surface roughness. The probing polarization states continuously evolve with the bistatic geometry, incurring varying polarization orientation angles. In this investigation, we propose to first compensate the bistatic polarimetric observations for the geometry-induced polarization rotation. Simulations based on a two-scale rough surface scattering model are then used to evaluate the optimal imaging geometry for the best sensitivity to the soil moisture content. We show the different sensing geometries associated with a full list of common polarimetric variables, as we seek favorable bistatic geometries in non-specular directions. The influences of both surface roughness scales are evaluated, with the small-scale roughness parameter imposing the greatest limitation on our results. Full article
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14 pages, 13233 KiB  
Communication
Radiometric Calibration of the Near-Infrared Bands of GF-5-02/DPC for Water Vapor Retrieval
by Yanqing Xie, Qingyu Zhu, Sifeng Zhu, Weizhen Hou, Liguo Zhang, Xuefeng Lei, Miaomiao Zhang, Yunduan Li, Zhenhai Liu, Yuan Wen and Zhengqiang Li
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101806 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 410
Abstract
The GaoFen (GF)-5-02 satellite is one of the new generations of hyperspectral observation satellites launched by China in 2021. The directional polarimetric camera (DPC) is an optical sensor onboard the GF-5-02 satellite. The precipitable water vapor (PWV) is a key detection parameter of [...] Read more.
The GaoFen (GF)-5-02 satellite is one of the new generations of hyperspectral observation satellites launched by China in 2021. The directional polarimetric camera (DPC) is an optical sensor onboard the GF-5-02 satellite. The precipitable water vapor (PWV) is a key detection parameter of DPC. However, the existing PWV data developed using DPC data have significant errors due to the lack of the timely calibration of the two bands (865, 910 nm) of DPC used for PWV retrieval. In order to acquire DPC PWV data with smaller errors, a calibration method is developed for these two bands. The method consists of two parts: (1) calibrate the 865 nm band of the DPC using the cross-calibration method, (2) calibrate the 910 nm band of the DPC according to the calibrated 865 nm band of the DPC. This method effectively addresses the issue of the absence of a calibration method for the water vapor absorption band (910 nm) of the DPC. Regardless of whether AERONET PWV data or SuomiNET PWV data are used as the reference data, the accuracy of the DPC PWV data developed using calibrated DPC data is significantly superior to that of the DPC PWV data retrieved using data before recalibration. This means that the calibration method for the NIR bands of the DPC can effectively enhance the quality of DPC PWV data. Full article
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38 pages, 9416 KiB  
Review
Remote Sensing of Forests in Bavaria: A Review
by Kjirsten Coleman, Jörg Müller and Claudia Kuenzer
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101805 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 748
Abstract
In recent decades, climatic pressures have altered the forested landscape of Bavaria. Widespread loss of trees has unevenly impacted the entire state, of which 37% is covered by forests (5% more than the national average). In 2018 and 2019—due in large part to [...] Read more.
In recent decades, climatic pressures have altered the forested landscape of Bavaria. Widespread loss of trees has unevenly impacted the entire state, of which 37% is covered by forests (5% more than the national average). In 2018 and 2019—due in large part to drought and subsequent insect infestations—more tree-covered areas were lost in Bavaria than in any other German state. Moreover, the annual crown condition survey of Bavaria has revealed a decreasing trend in tree vitality since 1998. We conducted a systematic literature review regarding the remote sensing of forests in Bavaria. In total, 146 scientific articles were published between 2008 and 2023. While 88 studies took place in the Bavarian Forest National Park, only five publications covered the whole of Bavaria. Outside of the national park, the remaining 2.5 million hectares of forest in Bavaria are understudied. The most commonly studied topics were related to bark beetle infestations (24 papers); however, few papers focused on the drivers of infestations. The majority of studies utilized airborne data, while publications utilizing spaceborne data focused on multispectral; other data types were under-utilized- particularly thermal, lidar, and hyperspectral. We recommend future studies to both spatially broaden investigations to the state or national scale and to increase temporal data acquisitions together with contemporaneous in situ data. Especially in understudied topics regarding forest response to climate, catastrophic disturbances, regrowth and species composition, phenological timing, and in the sector of forest management. The utilization of remote sensing data in the forestry sector and the uptake of scientific results among stakeholders remains a challenge compared to other heavily forested European countries. An integral part of the Bavarian economy and the tourism sector, forests are also vital for climate regulation via atmospheric carbon reduction and land surface cooling. Therefore, forest monitoring remains centrally important to attaining more resilient and productive forests. Full article
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18 pages, 4549 KiB  
Article
Investigating Dual-Source Satellite Image Data and ALS Data for Estimating Aboveground Biomass
by Wen Fan, Jiaojiao Tian, Thomas Knoke, Bisheng Yang, Fuxun Liang and Zhen Dong
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101804 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Accurate estimation of above-ground biomass (AGB) in forested areas is essential for studying forest ecological functions, surface carbon cycling, and global carbon balance. Over the past decade, models that harness the distinct features of multi-source remote sensing observations for estimating AGB have gained [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of above-ground biomass (AGB) in forested areas is essential for studying forest ecological functions, surface carbon cycling, and global carbon balance. Over the past decade, models that harness the distinct features of multi-source remote sensing observations for estimating AGB have gained significant popularity. It is worth exploring the differences in model performance by using simple and fused data. Additionally, quantitative estimation of the impact of high-cost laser point clouds on satellite imagery of varying costs remains largely unexplored. To address these challenges, model performance and cost must be considered comprehensively. We propose a comprehensive assessment based on three perspectives (i.e., performance, potential and limitations) for four typical AGB-estimation models. First, different variables are extracted from the multi-source and multi-resolution data. Subsequently, the performance of four regression methods is tested for AGB estimation with diverse indicator combinations. Experimental results prove that the combination of multi-source data provides a highly accurate AGB regression model. The proposed regression and variables rating approaches can flexibly integrate other data sources for modeling. Furthermore, the data cost is discussed against the AGB model performance. Our study demonstrates the potential of using low-cost satellite data to provide a rough AGB estimation for larger areas, which can allow different remote sensing data to meet different needs of forest management decisions. Full article
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21 pages, 3243 KiB  
Article
Examining the Impacts of Pre-Fire Forest Conditions on Burn Severity Using Multiple Remote Sensing Platforms
by Kangsan Lee, Willem J. D. van Leeuwen, Jeffrey K. Gillan and Donald A. Falk
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101803 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Pre-fire environmental conditions play a critical role in wildfire severity. This study investigated the impact of pre-fire forest conditions on burn severity as a result of the 2020 Bighorn Fire in the Santa Catalina Mountains in Arizona. Using a stepwise regression model and [...] Read more.
Pre-fire environmental conditions play a critical role in wildfire severity. This study investigated the impact of pre-fire forest conditions on burn severity as a result of the 2020 Bighorn Fire in the Santa Catalina Mountains in Arizona. Using a stepwise regression model and remotely sensed data from Landsat 8 and LiDAR, we analyzed the effects of structural and functional vegetation traits and environmental factors on burn severity. This analysis revealed that the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) was a more reliable indicator of burn severity compared to the relative dNBR (RdNBR). Stepwise regression identified pre-fire normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy cover, and tree density as significant variables across all land cover types that explained burn severity, suggesting that denser areas with higher vegetation greenness experienced more severe burns. Interestingly, residuals between the actual and estimated dNBR were lower in herbaceous zones compared to denser forested areas at similar elevations, suggesting potentially more predictable burn severity in open areas. Spatial analysis using Geary’s C statistics further revealed a strong negative autocorrelation: areas with high burn severity tended to be clustered, with lower severity areas interspersed. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of readily available remote sensing data to predict potential burn severity values before a fire event, providing valuable information for forest managers to develop strategies for mitigating future wildfire damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetation Mapping through Multiscale Remote Sensing)
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25 pages, 18829 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Underwater Single Vector-Acoustic DOA Estimation via Linear Matched Stochastic Resonance Preprocessing
by Haitao Dong, Jian Suo, Zhigang Zhu, Haiyan Wang and Hongbing Ji
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101802 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Underwater acoustic vector sensors (UAVSs) are increasingly utilized for remote passive sonar detection, but the accuracy of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation remains a challenging problem, particularly under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and complex background noise. In this paper, a comprehensive theoretical analysis is [...] Read more.
Underwater acoustic vector sensors (UAVSs) are increasingly utilized for remote passive sonar detection, but the accuracy of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation remains a challenging problem, particularly under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and complex background noise. In this paper, a comprehensive theoretical analysis is conducted on UAVS signal preprocessing subjected to gain-phase uncertainties for average acoustic intensity measurement (AAIM) and complex acoustic intensity measurement (CAIM)-based vector DOA estimation, aiming to explain the theoretical restrictions of intensity-based vector acoustic preprocessing approaches. On this basis, a generalized vector acoustic preprocessing optimization model is established in which the principle can be described as “maximizing the denoising performance under the constraints of an equivalent amplitude-gain response and phase-bias response”. A novel vector acoustic preprocessing method named linear matched stochastic resonance (LMSR) is proposed within the framework of matched stochastic resonance theory, which can naturally guarantee the linear gain-phase restrictions, as well achieving effective denoising performance. Numerical analyses demonstrate the superior vector DOA estimation performance of our proposed LMSR-AAIM and LMSR-CAIM methods in comparison to classical intensity-based AAIM and CAIM methods, especially under low-SNR conditions and non-Gaussian impulsive noise circumstances. Experimental verification conducted in the South China Sea further verifies its the effectiveness for practical application. This work can lay a solid foundation to break through the challenges of underwater remote vector acoustic DOA estimation under low-SNR conditions and complex ocean ambient noise and can provide important guidance for future research work. Full article
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36 pages, 6112 KiB  
Article
Greenness and Actual Evapotranspiration in the Unrestored Riparian Corridor of the Colorado River Delta in Response to In-Channel Water Deliveries in 2021 and 2022
by Pamela L. Nagler, Ibrahima Sall, Martha Gomez-Sapiens, Armando Barreto-Muñoz, Christopher J. Jarchow, Karl Flessa and Kamel Didan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101801 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Natural resource managers may utilize remotely sensed data to monitor vegetation within their decision-making frameworks for improving habitats. Under binational agreements between the United States and Mexico, seven reaches were targeted for riparian habitat enhancement. Monitoring was carried out using Landsat 8 16-day [...] Read more.
Natural resource managers may utilize remotely sensed data to monitor vegetation within their decision-making frameworks for improving habitats. Under binational agreements between the United States and Mexico, seven reaches were targeted for riparian habitat enhancement. Monitoring was carried out using Landsat 8 16-day intervals of the two-band enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) for greenness and actual evapotranspiration (ETa). In-channel water was delivered in 2021 and 2022 at four places in Reach 4. Three reaches (Reaches 4, 5 and 7) showed no discernable difference in EVI2 from reaches that did not receive in-channel water (Reaches 1, 2, 3 and 6). EVI2 in 2021 was higher than 2020 in all reaches except Reach 3, and EVI2 in 2022 was lower than 2021 in all reaches except Reach 7. ET(EVI2) was higher in 2020 than in 2021 and 2022 in all seven reaches; it was highest in Reach 4 (containing restoration sites) in all years. Excluding restoration sites, compared with 2020, unrestored reaches showed that EVI2 minimally increased in 2021 and 2022, while ET(EVI2) minimally decreased despite added water in 2021–2022. Difference maps comparing 2020 (no-flow year) to 2021 and 2022 (in-channel flows) reveal areas in Reaches 5 and 7 where the in-channel flows increased greenness and ET(EVI2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biogeosciences Remote Sensing)
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22 pages, 6272 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Locating the Wind Erosion at the Dry Bottom of the Aral Sea Based on an InSAR Temporal Decorrelation Decomposition Model
by Yubin Song, Xuelian Xun, Hongwei Zheng, Xi Chen, Anming Bao, Ying Liu, Geping Luo, Jiaqiang Lei, Wenqiang Xu, Tie Liu, Olaf Hellwich and Qing Guan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101800 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The dust originating from the extinct lake of the Aral Sea poses a considerable threat to the surrounding communities and ecosystems. The accurate location of these wind erosion areas is an essential prerequisite for controlling sand and dust activity. However, few relevant indicators [...] Read more.
The dust originating from the extinct lake of the Aral Sea poses a considerable threat to the surrounding communities and ecosystems. The accurate location of these wind erosion areas is an essential prerequisite for controlling sand and dust activity. However, few relevant indicators reported in this current study can accurately describe and measure wind erosion intensity. A novel wind erosion intensity (WEI) of a pixel resolution unit was defined in this paper based on deformation due to the wind erosion in this pixel resolution unit. We also derived the relationship between WEI and soil InSAR temporal decorrelation (ITD). ITD is usually caused by the surface change over time, which is very suitable for describing wind erosion. However, within a pixel resolution unit, the ITD signal usually includes soil and vegetation contributions, and extant studies concerning this issue are considerably limited. Therefore, we proposed an ITD decomposition model (ITDDM) to decompose the ITD signal of a pixel resolution unit. The least-square method (LSM) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to estimate the ITD of soil (SITD) within a pixel resolution unit. We verified the results qualitatively by the landscape photos, which can reflect the actual conditions of the soil. At last, the WEI of the Aral Sea from 23 June 2020, to 5 July 2020 was mapped. The results confirmed that (1) based on the ITDDM model, the SITD can be accurately estimated by the LSM; (2) the Aral Sea is experiencing severe wind erosion; and (3) the middle, northeast, and southeast bare areas of the South Aral Sea are where salt dust storms may occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 15th Anniversary)
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21 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Conditional Diffusion Model for Urban Morphology Prediction
by Tiandong Shi, Ling Zhao, Fanfan Liu, Ming Zhang, Mengyao Li, Chengli Peng and Haifeng Li
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101799 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Predicting urban morphology based on local attributes is an important issue in urban science research. The deep generative models represented by generative adversarial network (GAN) models have achieved impressive results in this area. However, in such methods, the urban morphology is assumed to [...] Read more.
Predicting urban morphology based on local attributes is an important issue in urban science research. The deep generative models represented by generative adversarial network (GAN) models have achieved impressive results in this area. However, in such methods, the urban morphology is assumed to follow a specific probability distribution and be able to directly approximate the distribution via GAN models, which is not a realistic strategy. As demonstrated by the score-based model, a better strategy is to learn the gradient of the probability distribution and implicitly approximate the distribution. Therefore, in this paper, an urban morphology prediction method based on the conditional diffusion model is proposed. Implementing this approach results in the decomposition of the attribute-based urban morphology prediction task into two subproblems: estimating the gradient of the conditional distribution, and gradient-based sampling. During the training stage, the gradient of the conditional distribution is approximated by using a conditional diffusion model to predict the noise added to the original urban morphology. In the generation stage, the corresponding conditional distribution is parameterized based on the noise predicted by the conditional diffusion model, and the final prediction result is generated through iterative sampling. The experimental results showed that compared with GAN-based methods, our method demonstrated improvements of 5.5%, 5.9%, and 13.2% in the metrics of low-level pixel features, shallow structural features, and deep structural features, respectively. Full article
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22 pages, 1843 KiB  
Article
Long-Time Coherent Integration for the Spatial-Based Bistatic Radar Based on Dual-Scale Decomposition and Conditioned CPF
by Suqi Li, Yihan Wang, Yanfeng Liang and Bailu Wang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101798 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 480
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of weak maneuvering target detection in the space-based bistatic radar system through long-time coherent integration (LTCI). The space-based bistatic radar is vulnerable to the high-order range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM), since the target, the receiver [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of weak maneuvering target detection in the space-based bistatic radar system through long-time coherent integration (LTCI). The space-based bistatic radar is vulnerable to the high-order range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM), since the target, the receiver and the transmitter all can play fast movement independently. To correct high- order RM and DFM, this usually involves joint high-dimensional parameter searching, incurring a large computational burden. In our previous work, a dual-scale (DS) decomposition of motion parameters was proposed, in which the optimal GRFT is conditionally decoupled into two cascade procedures called the modified generalized inverse Fourier transform (GIFT) and generalized Fourier transform (GFT), resulting in the DS-GRFT detector. However, even if the DS-GRFT detector preserves the superior performance and dramatically decreases the complexity, high-dimensional searching is still required. In this paper, by analyzing the structure of the DS-GRFT detector, we further designed a conditioned cubic phase function (CCPF) tailored to the range–slow-time signal after GIFT, breaking the joint high-dimensional searching into independent one-dimensional searching. Then, by connecting the proposed CCPF with the GIFT, we achieved a new LTCI detector called the DS-GIFT-CCPF detector, which obtained a significant computational cost reduction with acceptable performance loss, as demonstrated in numerical experiments. Full article
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19 pages, 5287 KiB  
Article
GGMNet: Pavement-Crack Detection Based on Global Context Awareness and Multi-Scale Fusion
by Yong Wang, Zhenglong He, Xiangqiang Zeng, Juncheng Zeng, Zongxi Cen, Luyang Qiu, Xiaowei Xu and Qunxiong Zhuo
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101797 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Accurate and comprehensive detection of pavement cracks is important for maintaining road quality and ensuring traffic safety. However, the complexity of road surfaces and the diversity of cracks make it difficult for existing methods to accomplish this challenging task. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
Accurate and comprehensive detection of pavement cracks is important for maintaining road quality and ensuring traffic safety. However, the complexity of road surfaces and the diversity of cracks make it difficult for existing methods to accomplish this challenging task. This paper proposes a novel network named the global graph multiscale network (GGMNet) for automated pixel-level detection of pavement cracks. The GGMNet network has several innovations compared with the mainstream road crack detection network: (1) a global contextual Res-block (GC-Resblock) is proposed to guide the network to emphasize the identities of cracks while suppressing background noises; (2) a graph pyramid pooling module (GPPM) is designed to aggregate the multi-scale features and capture the long-range dependencies of cracks; (3) a multi-scale features fusion module (MFF) is established to efficiently represent and deeply fuse multi-scale features. We carried out extensive experiments on three pavement crack datasets. These were DeepCrack dataset, with complex background noises; the CrackTree260 dataset, with various crack structures; and the Aerial Track Detection dataset, with a drone’s perspective. The experimental results demonstrate that GGMNet has excellent performance, high accuracy, and strong robustness. In conclusion, this paper provides support for accurate and timely road maintenance and has important reference values and enlightening implications for further linear feature extraction research. Full article
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17 pages, 19375 KiB  
Article
Deep Blind Fault Activity—A Fault Model of Strong Mw 5.5 Earthquake Seismogenic Structures in North China
by Guanshen Liu, Renqi Lu, Dengfa He, Lihua Fang, Yang Zhang, Peng Su and Wei Tao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101796 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 434
Abstract
North China is one of the high-risk areas for destructive and strong earthquakes in mainland China and has experienced numerous strong historical earthquakes. An earthquake of magnitude MW 5.5 struck Pingyuan County, Dezhou city, in Shandong Province, China, on 6 August 2023. [...] Read more.
North China is one of the high-risk areas for destructive and strong earthquakes in mainland China and has experienced numerous strong historical earthquakes. An earthquake of magnitude MW 5.5 struck Pingyuan County, Dezhou city, in Shandong Province, China, on 6 August 2023. This earthquake was the strongest in the eastern North China Craton since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Since the earthquake did not produce surface ruptures, the seismogenic structure for fault responsible for the Pingyuan MW 5.5 earthquake is still unclear. To reveal the subsurface geological structure near the earthquake epicenter, this study used high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection profiles and constructed a three-dimensional (3D) geometric model of the Tuqiao Fault by interpreting the faults in the seismic reflection profiles. This study further combined focal mechanism solutions, aftershock clusters, and other seismological data to discuss the seismogenic fault of the Pingyuan MW 5.5 earthquake. The results show that the Tuqiao Fault is not the seismogenic fault of the MW 5.5 earthquake. The actual seismogenic structure may be related to the NE-oriented high-angle strike-slip blind fault developed in the basement. We further propose three possible fault models for the strong seismogenic structure in North China to discuss the potential seismotectonics in this region. Full article
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25 pages, 10663 KiB  
Article
DDFNet-A: Attention-Based Dual-Branch Feature Decomposition Fusion Network for Infrared and Visible Image Fusion
by Qiancheng Wei, Ying Liu, Xiaoping Jiang, Ben Zhang, Qiya Su and Muyao Yu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101795 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The fusion of infrared and visible images aims to leverage the strengths of both modalities, thereby generating fused images with enhanced visible perception and discrimination capabilities. However, current image fusion methods frequently treat common features between modalities (modality-commonality) and unique features from each [...] Read more.
The fusion of infrared and visible images aims to leverage the strengths of both modalities, thereby generating fused images with enhanced visible perception and discrimination capabilities. However, current image fusion methods frequently treat common features between modalities (modality-commonality) and unique features from each modality (modality-distinctiveness) equally during processing, neglecting their distinct characteristics. Therefore, we propose a DDFNet-A for infrared and visible image fusion. DDFNet-A addresses this limitation by decomposing infrared and visible input images into low-frequency features depicting modality-commonality and high-frequency features representing modality-distinctiveness. The extracted low and high features were then fused using distinct methods. In particular, we propose a hybrid attention block (HAB) to improve high-frequency feature extraction ability and a base feature fusion (BFF) module to enhance low-frequency feature fusion ability. Experiments were conducted on public infrared and visible image fusion datasets MSRS, TNO, and VIFB to validate the performance of the proposed network. DDFNet-A achieved competitive results on three datasets, with EN, MI, VIFF, QAB/F, FMI, and Qs metrics reaching the best performance on the TNO dataset, achieving 7.1217, 2.1620, 0.7739, 0.5426, 0.8129, and 0.9079, respectively. These values are 2.06%, 11.95%, 21.04%, 21.52%, 1.04%, and 0.09% higher than those of the second-best methods, respectively. The experimental results confirm that our DDFNet-A achieves better fusion performance than state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing: 15th Anniversary)
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23 pages, 8508 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of Optimization Algorithms for the Optimal Selection of GNSS Satellite Subsets
by Abdulaziz Alluhaybi, Panos Psimoulis and Rasa Remenyte-Prescott
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101794 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Continuous advancements in GNSS systems have led, apart from the broadly used GPS, to the development of other satellite systems (Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS), which have significantly increased the number of available satellites for GNSS positioning applications. However, despite GNSS satellites’ redundancy, a potential [...] Read more.
Continuous advancements in GNSS systems have led, apart from the broadly used GPS, to the development of other satellite systems (Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS), which have significantly increased the number of available satellites for GNSS positioning applications. However, despite GNSS satellites’ redundancy, a potential poor GNSS satellite signal (i.e., low signal-to-noise ratio) can negatively affect the GNSS’s performance and positioning accuracy. On the other hand, selecting high-quality GNSS satellite signals by retaining a sufficient number of GNSS satellites can enhance the GNSS’s positioning performance. Various methods, including optimization algorithms, which are also commonly adopted in artificial intelligence (AI) methods, have been applied for satellite selection. In this study, five optimization algorithms were investigated and assessed in terms of their ability to determine the optimal GNSS satellite constellation, such as Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Simulated Annealing (SA). The assessment of the optimization algorithms was based on two criteria, such as the robustness of the solution for the optimal satellite constellation and the time required to find the solution. The selection of the GNSS satellites was based on the weighted geometric dilution of precision (WGDOP) parameter, where the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) is modified by applying weights based on the quality of the satellites’ signal. The optimization algorithms were tested on the basis of 24 h of tracking data gathered from a permanent GNSS station, for GPS-only and multi-GNSS data (GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo). According to the comparison results, the ABC, ACO, and PSO algorithms were equivalent in terms of selection accuracy and speed. However, ABC was determined to be the most suitable algorithm due it requiring the fewest number of parameters to be set. To further investigate ABC’s performance, the method was applied for the selection of an optimal GNSS satellite subset according to the number of total available tracked GNSS satellites (up to 31 satellites), leading to more than 300 million possible combinations of 15 GNSS satellites. ABC was able to select the optimal satellite subsets with 100% accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Navigation)
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24 pages, 12245 KiB  
Article
How Representative Are European AERONET-OC Sites of European Marine Waters?
by Ilaria Cazzaniga and Frédéric Mélin
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101793 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Data from the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) have been extensively used to assess Ocean Color radiometric products from various satellite sensors. This study, focusing on Ocean Color radiometric operational products from the Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument [...] Read more.
Data from the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) have been extensively used to assess Ocean Color radiometric products from various satellite sensors. This study, focusing on Ocean Color radiometric operational products from the Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI), aims at investigating where in the European seas the results of match-up analyses at the European marine AERONET-OC sites could be applicable. Data clustering is applied to OLCI remote sensing reflectance RRS(λ) from the various sites to define different sets of optical classes, which are later used to identify class-based uncertainties. A set of fifteen classes grants medium-to-high classification levels to most European seas, with exceptions in the South-East Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, or the Gulf of Bothnia. In these areas, RRS(λ) spectra are very often identified as novel with respect to the generated set of classes, suggesting their under-representation in AERONET-OC data. Uncertainties are finally mapped onto European seas according to class membership. The largest uncertainty values are obtained in the blue spectral region for almost all classes. In clear waters, larger values are obtained in the blue bands. Conversely, larger values are shown in the green and red bands in coastal and turbid waters. Full article
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15 pages, 4772 KiB  
Technical Note
Eutrophication and HAB Occurrence Control in Lakes of Different Origins: A Multi-Source Remote Sensing Detection Strategy
by Giovanni Laneve, Alejandro Téllez, Ashish Kallikkattil Kuruvila, Milena Bruno and Valentina Messineo
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101792 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Remote sensing techniques have become pivotal in monitoring algal blooms and population dynamics in freshwater bodies, particularly to assess the ecological risks associated with eutrophication. This study focuses on remote sensing methods for the analysis of 4 Italian lakes with diverse geological origins, [...] Read more.
Remote sensing techniques have become pivotal in monitoring algal blooms and population dynamics in freshwater bodies, particularly to assess the ecological risks associated with eutrophication. This study focuses on remote sensing methods for the analysis of 4 Italian lakes with diverse geological origins, leveraging water quality samples and data from the Sentinel-2 and Landsat 5.7–8 platforms. Chl-a, a well-correlated indicator of phytoplankton biomass abundance and eutrophication, was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression to calibrate surface reflectance with chl-a concentrations. Temporal gaps between sample and image acquisition were considered, and atmospheric correction dedicated to water surfaces was implemented using ACOLITE and those specific to each satellite platform. The developed models achieved determination coefficients higher than 0.69 with mean square errors close to 3 mg/m3 for water bodies with low turbidity. Furthermore, the time series described by the models portray the seasonal variations in the lakes water bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite-Based Climate Change and Sustainability Studies)
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25 pages, 9092 KiB  
Article
Constrained Iterative Adaptive Algorithm for the Detection and Localization of RFI Sources Based on the SMAP L-Band Microwave Radiometer
by Xinxin Wang, Xiang Wang, Lin Wang, Jianchao Fan and Enbo Wei
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(10), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16101791 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 366
Abstract
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite carries an L-band microwave radiometer. This sensor can be used to observe global soil moisture (SM) and sea surface salinity (SSS) within the protected L-band spectrum (1400–1427 MHz). Owing to the complex effects of radio frequency [...] Read more.
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite carries an L-band microwave radiometer. This sensor can be used to observe global soil moisture (SM) and sea surface salinity (SSS) within the protected L-band spectrum (1400–1427 MHz). Owing to the complex effects of radio frequency interference (RFI), the SM and SSS data are missing or have low accuracy. In this paper, a constrained iterative adaptive algorithm for the detection, identification, and localization of RFI sources is designed, named MICA-BEID. The algorithm synthesizes antenna temperatures for the third and fourth Stokes parameters before RFI filtering, creating a new polarization parameter called WSPDA, designed to approximate the level of RFI interference on the L-band microwave radiometer. The algorithm then utilizes the WSPDA intensity and distribution density of RFI detection samples to enhance the identification and classification of RFI sources across various intensity levels. By utilizing statistical methods such as the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the algorithm dynamically adjusts adaptive parameters, including the RFI detection threshold and the maximum effective radius of RFI sources. Through the application of multiple iterative clustering methods, the algorithm can adaptively detect and identify RFI sources at various satellite orbits and intensity levels. Through extensive comparative analysis with other localization results and known RFI sources, the MICA-BEID algorithm can achieve optimal localization accuracy of approximately 1.2 km. The localization of RFI sources provides important guidance for identifying and turning off illegal RFI sources. Moreover, the localization and long-time-series characteristic analysis of RFI sources that cannot be turned off is of significant value for simulating the spatial distribution characteristics of localized RFI source intensity in local areas. Full article
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