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Remote Sens., Volume 16, Issue 1 (January-1 2024) – 210 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Accurate information on land use and land cover (LULC) is crucial for effective regional land and forest management. This study addresses the challenge of obtaining reliable LULC information of an intricate Wunbaik Mangrove Area in Myanmar by employing a U-Net deep learning model with multisource satellite imageries. The models are trained and assessed using labeled images created from ground truth and evaluated for each class. The study will contribute to the optimal utilization of multisource remote sensing data and advanced classification methods for accurate LULC mapping of mangrove ecosystems. The proposed findings on LULC information have practical implications for implementing conservation measures, thereby contributing to the sustainable management of this unique mangrove forest area. View this paper
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22 pages, 11428 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of GSMaP Version 8 Precipitation Products on an Hourly Timescale over Mainland China
by Xiaoyu Lv, Hao Guo, Yunfei Tian, Xiangchen Meng, Anming Bao and Philippe De Maeyer
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010210 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
A thorough evaluation of the recently released Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) is critical for both end-users and algorithm developers. In this study, six products from three versions of GSMaP version 8, including real time (NOW-R and NOW-C), near real time (NRT-R [...] Read more.
A thorough evaluation of the recently released Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) is critical for both end-users and algorithm developers. In this study, six products from three versions of GSMaP version 8, including real time (NOW-R and NOW-C), near real time (NRT-R and NRT-C), and post-real time (MVK-R and MVK-C), are systematically and quantitatively evaluated based on time-by-time observations from 2167 stations in mainland China. Among each version, both products with and without gauge correction are adopted to detect the gauge correction effect. Error quantification is carried out on an hourly timescale. Three common statistical indices (i.e., correlation coefficient (CC), relative bias (RB), and root mean square error (RMSE)) and three event detection capability indices (i.e., probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR), and critical success index (CSI)) were adopted to analyze the inversion errors in precipitation amount and precipitation event frequency across the various products. Additionally, in this study, we examine the dependence of GSMaP errors on rainfall intensity and elevation. The following main results can be concluded: (1) MVK-C exhibits the best ability to retrieve rainfall on the hourly timescale, with higher CC values (0.31 in XJ to 0.47 in SC), smaller RMSE values (0.14 mm/h in XJ to 0.99 mm/h in SC), and lower RB values (−4.78% in XJ to 16.03% in NC). (2) Among these three versions, the gauge correction procedure plays a crucial role in reducing errors, especially in the post-real-time version. After being corrected, MVK-C demonstrates an obvious CC value improvement (>0.3 on the hourly timescale) in various sub-regions, increasing the percentage of sites with CC values above 0.5 from 0.03% (MVK-R) to 28.47% (MVK-C). (3) GSMaP products generally exhibit error dependencies on precipitation intensity and elevation, particularly in areas with drastic elevation changes (such as 1200–1500 m and 3000–3300 m), where the accuracy of satellite precipitation estimates is significantly affected. (4) CC values decreased with an increasing rainfall intensity; RB and RMSE values increased with an increasing rainfall intensity. The results of this study may be helpful for algorithm developers and end-users and provide a scientific reference for different hydrological applications and disaster risk reduction. Full article
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0 pages, 12596 KiB  
Article
Multi-Timescale Characteristics of Southwestern Australia Nearshore Surface Current and Its Response to ENSO Revealed by High-Frequency Radar
by Hongfei Gu and Yadan Mao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010209 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The surface currents in coastal areas are closely related to the ecological environment and human activities, and are influenced by both local and remote factors of different timescales, resulting in complex genesis and multi-timescale characteristics. In this research, 9-year-long, hourly high-frequency radar (HFR) [...] Read more.
The surface currents in coastal areas are closely related to the ecological environment and human activities, and are influenced by both local and remote factors of different timescales, resulting in complex genesis and multi-timescale characteristics. In this research, 9-year-long, hourly high-frequency radar (HFR) surface current observations are utilized together with satellite remote sensing reanalysis products and mooring data, and based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and correlation analysis, we revealed the multi-timescale characteristics of the surface currents in Fremantle Sea (32°S), Southwestern Australia, and explored the corresponding driving factors as well as the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the nearshore currents. Results show that the currents on the slope are dominated by the southward Leeuwin Current (LC), and the currents within the shelf are dominated by winds, which are subject to obvious diurnal and seasonal variations. The strong bathymetry variation there, from a wide shelf in the north to a narrow shelf in this study region, also plays an important role, resulting in the frequent occurrence of nearshore eddies. In addition, the near-zonal winds south of 30°S in winter contribute to the interannual variability of the Leeuwin Current at Fremantle, especially in 2011, when the onshore shelf circulation is particularly strong because of the climatic factors, together with the wind-driven offshore circulation, which results in significant and long-lasting eddies. The southward Leeuwin Current along Southwestern Australia shows a strong response to interannual climatic variability. During La Niña years, the equatorial thermal anomalies generate the westward anomalies in winds and equatorial currents, which in turn strengthen the Leeuwin Current and trigger the cross-shelf current as well as downwelling within the shelf at Fremantle, whereas during El Niño years, the climate anomalies and the response of coastal currents are opposite. This paper provides insights into the multi-timescale nature of coastal surface currents and the relative importance of different driving mechanisms. It also demonstrates the potential of HFR to reveal the response of nearshore currents to climate anomalies when combined with other multivariate data. Meanwhile, the methodology adopted in this research is applicable to other coastal regions with long-term available HFR observations. Full article
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16 pages, 2672 KiB  
Technical Note
Ozone Trend Analysis in Natal (5.4°S, 35.4°W, Brazil) Using Multi-Linear Regression and Empirical Decomposition Methods over 22 Years of Observations
by Hassan Bencherif, Damaris Kirsch Pinheiro, Olivier Delage, Tristan Millet, Lucas Vaz Peres, Nelson Bègue, Gabriela Bittencourt, Maria Paulete Pereira Martins, Francisco Raimundo da Silva, Luiz Angelo Steffenel, Nkanyiso Mbatha and Vagner Anabor
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010208 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Ozone plays an important role in the Earth’s atmosphere. It is mainly formed in the tropical stratosphere and is transported by the Brewer–Dobson Circulation to higher latitudes. In the stratosphere, ozone can filter the incoming solar ultraviolet radiation, thus protecting life at the [...] Read more.
Ozone plays an important role in the Earth’s atmosphere. It is mainly formed in the tropical stratosphere and is transported by the Brewer–Dobson Circulation to higher latitudes. In the stratosphere, ozone can filter the incoming solar ultraviolet radiation, thus protecting life at the surface. Although tropospheric ozone accounts for only ~10%, it is a powerful GHG and pollutant, harmful to the health of the environment and living beings. Several studies have highlighted biomass burning as a major contributor to the tropospheric ozone budget. Our study focuses on the Natal site (5.40°S, 35.40°W, Brazil), one of the oldest ozone-observing stations in Brazil, which is expected to be influenced by fire plumes in Africa and Brazil. Many studies that examined ozone trends used the total atmospheric columns of ozone, but it is important to assess ozone separately in the troposphere and the stratosphere. In this study, we have used radiosonde ozone profiles and daily TCO measurements to evaluate the variability and changes of both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone separately. The dataset in this study comprises daily total columns of colocalized ozone and weekly ozone profiles collected between 1998 and 2019. The tropospheric columns were estimated by integrating ozone profiles measured by ozone sondes up to the tropopause height. The amount of ozone in the stratosphere was then deduced by subtracting the tropospheric ozone amount from the total amount of ozone measured by the Dobson spectrometer. It was assumed that the amount of ozone in the mesosphere is negligible. This produced three distinct time series of ozone: tropospheric and stratospheric columns as well as total columns. The present study aims to apply a new decomposition method named Empirical Adaptive Wavelet Decomposition (EAWD) that is used to identify the different modes of variability present in the analyzed signal. This is achieved by summing up the most significant Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). The Fourier spectrum of the original signal is broken down into spectral bands that frame each IMF obtained by the Empirical Modal Decomposition (EMD). Then, the Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) is applied to each interval. Unlike other methods like EMD and multi-linear regression (MLR), the EAWD technique has an advantage in providing better frequency resolution and thus overcoming the phenomenon of mode-mixing, as well as detecting possible breakpoints in the trend mode. The obtained ozone datasets were analyzed using three methods: MLR, EMD, and EAWD. The EAWD algorithm exhibited the advantage of retrieving ~90% to 95% of ozone variability and detecting possible breakpoints in its trend component. Overall, the MRL and EAWD methods showed almost similar trends, a decrease in the stratosphere ozone (−1.3 ± 0.8%) and an increase in the tropospheric ozone (+4.9 ± 1.3%). This study shows the relevance of combining data to separately analyze tropospheric and stratospheric ozone variability and trends. It highlights the advantage of the EAWD algorithm in detecting modes of variability in a geophysical signal without prior knowledge of the underlying forcings. Full article
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27 pages, 19128 KiB  
Article
Aerosol Optical Properties Retrieved by Polarization Raman Lidar: Methodology and Strategy of a Quality-Assurance Tool
by Song Mao, Zhenping Yin, Longlong Wang, Yubin Wei, Zhichao Bu, Yubao Chen, Yaru Dai, Detlef Müller and Xuan Wang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010207 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Aerosol optical properties retrieved using polarization Raman lidar observations play an increasingly vital role in meteorology and environmental protection. The quality of the data products directly affects the impact of relevant scientific applications. However, the quality of aerosol optical properties retrieved from polarization [...] Read more.
Aerosol optical properties retrieved using polarization Raman lidar observations play an increasingly vital role in meteorology and environmental protection. The quality of the data products directly affects the impact of relevant scientific applications. However, the quality of aerosol optical properties retrieved from polarization Raman lidar signals is difficult to assess. Various factors, such as hardware system performance, retrieval algorithm, and meteorological conditions at the observation site, influence data quality. In this study, we propose a method that allows for assessing the reliability of aerosol optical properties derived from polarization Raman lidar observations. We analyze the factors that affect the reliability of retrieved aerosol optical properties. We use scoring methods combined with a weight-assignment scheme to evaluate the quality of the retrieved aerosol optical properties. The scores and weights of each factor are arranged based on our analysis of a simulation study and the characteristics of each factor. We developed an automatic retrieval algorithm that allows for deriving homogeneous aerosol optical data sets. We also assess with this method the quality of retrieved aerosol optical properties obtained with different polarization Raman lidars under different measurement scenarios. Our results show that the proposed quality assurance method can distinguish the reliability of the retrieved aerosol optical properties. Full article
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2 pages, 20888 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Yang et al. Spatial Diffusion Waves of Human Activities: Evidence from Harmonized Nighttime Light Data during 1992–2018 in 234 Cities of China. Remote Sens. 2023, 15, 1426
by Jianxin Yang, Man Yuan, Shengbing Yang, Danxia Zhang, Yingge Wang, Daiyi Song, Yunze Dai, Yan Gao and Jian Gong
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010206 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 597
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
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14 pages, 4438 KiB  
Technical Note
Typhoon-Induced Extreme Sea Surface Temperature Drops in the Western North Pacific and the Impact of Extra Cooling Due to Precipitation
by Jia-Yi Lin, Hua Ho, Zhe-Wen Zheng, Yung-Cheng Tseng and Da-Guang Lu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010205 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Sea surface temperature (SST) responses have been perceived as crucial to consequential tropical cyclone (TC) intensity development. In addition to regular cooling responses, a few TCs could cause extreme SST drops (ESSTDs) (e.g., SST drops more than 6 °C) during their passage. Given [...] Read more.
Sea surface temperature (SST) responses have been perceived as crucial to consequential tropical cyclone (TC) intensity development. In addition to regular cooling responses, a few TCs could cause extreme SST drops (ESSTDs) (e.g., SST drops more than 6 °C) during their passage. Given the extreme temperature differences and the consequentially marked air–sea flux modulations, ESSTDs are intuitively supposed to play a serious role in modifying TC intensities. Nevertheless, the relationship between ESSTDs and consequential storm intensity changes remains unclear. In this study, satellite-observed microwave SST drops and the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship TC data from 2001 to 2021 were used to elucidate the relationship between ESSTDs and the consequential TC intensity changes in the Western North Pacific typhoon season (July–October). Subsequently, the distributed characteristics of ESSTDs were systematically examined based on statistical analyses. Among them, Typhoon Kilo (2015) triggered an unexpected ESSTD behind its passage, according to existing theories. Numerical experiments based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System were carried out to explore the possible mechanisms that resulted in the ESSTD due to Kilo. The results indicate that heavy rainfall leads to additional SST cooling through the enhanced sensible heat flux leaving the surface layer in addition to the cooling from momentum-driven vertical mixing. This process enhanced the sensible heat flux leaving the sea surface since the temperature of the raindrops could be much colder than the SST in the tropical ocean, specifically under heavy rainfall and relatively less momentum entering the upper ocean during Kilo. Full article
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22 pages, 7088 KiB  
Article
Transboundary Central African Protected Area Complexes Demonstrate Varied Effectiveness in Reducing Predicted Risk of Deforestation Attributed to Small-Scale Agriculture
by Katie P. Bernhard, Aurélie C. Shapiro, Rémi d’Annunzio and Joël Masimo Kabuanga
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010204 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1956
Abstract
The forests of Central Africa constitute the continent’s largest continuous tract of forest, maintained in part by over 200 protected areas across six countries with varying levels of restriction and enforcement. Despite protection, these Central African forests are subject to a multitude of [...] Read more.
The forests of Central Africa constitute the continent’s largest continuous tract of forest, maintained in part by over 200 protected areas across six countries with varying levels of restriction and enforcement. Despite protection, these Central African forests are subject to a multitude of overlapping proximate and underlying drivers of deforestation and degradation, such as conversion to small-scale agriculture. This pilot study explored whether transboundary protected area complexes featuring mixed resource-use restriction categories are effective in reducing the predicted disturbance risk to intact forests attributed to small-scale agriculture. At two transboundary protected area complex sites in Central Africa, we used Google Earth Engine and a suite of earth observation (EO) data, including a dataset derived using a replicable, open-source methodology stemming from a regional collaboration, to predict the increased risk of deforestation and degradation of intact forests caused by small-scale agriculture. For each complex, we then statistically compared the predicted increased risk between protected and unprotected forests for a stratified random sample of 2 km sites (n = 4000). We found varied effectiveness of protected areas for reducing the predicted risk of deforestation and degradation to intact forests attributed to agriculture by both the site and category of protected areas within the complex. Our early results have implications for sustainable agriculture development, forest conservation, and protected areas management and provide a direction for future research into spatial planning. Spatial planning could optimize the configuration of protected area types within transboundary complexes to achieve both forest conservation and sustainable agricultural production outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Earth Observation Data for Sustainable Development)
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30 pages, 12524 KiB  
Article
A Novel ICESat-2 Signal Photon Extraction Method Based on Convolutional Neural Network
by Wenjun Qin, Yan Song, Yarong Zou, Haitian Zhu and Haiyan Guan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010203 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
When it comes to the application of the photon data gathered by the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), accurately removing noise is crucial. In particular, conventional denoising algorithms based on local density are susceptible to missing some signal photons when there [...] Read more.
When it comes to the application of the photon data gathered by the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), accurately removing noise is crucial. In particular, conventional denoising algorithms based on local density are susceptible to missing some signal photons when there is uneven signal density distribution, as well as being susceptible to misclassifying noise photons near the signal photons; the application of deep learning remains untapped in this domain as well. To solve these problems, a method for extracting signal photons based on a GoogLeNet model fused with a Convolutional Block Attention Module (CBAM) is proposed. The network model can make good use of the distribution information of each photon’s neighborhood, and simultaneously extract signal photons with different photon densities to avoid misclassification of noise photons. The CBAM enhances the network to focus more on learning the crucial features and improves its discriminative ability. In the experiments, simulation photon data in different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) levels are utilized to demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of the proposed method. The results from signal extraction using the proposed method in four experimental areas outperform the conventional methods, with overall accuracy exceeding 98%. In the real validation experiments, reference data from four experimental areas are collected, and the elevation of signal photons extracted by the proposed method is proven to be consistent with the reference elevation, with R2 exceeding 0.87. Both simulation and real validation experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and accurate for extracting signal photons. Full article
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20 pages, 7252 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Variability of Arctic Mid-Level Clouds and the Relationships with Sea Ice from 2003 to 2022: A Satellite Perspective
by Xi Wang, Jian Liu and Hui Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010202 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Mid-level clouds play a crucial role in the Arctic. Due to observational limitations, there is scarce research on the long-term evolution of Arctic mid-level clouds. From a satellite perspective, this study attempts to analyze the seasonal variations in Arctic mid-level clouds and explore [...] Read more.
Mid-level clouds play a crucial role in the Arctic. Due to observational limitations, there is scarce research on the long-term evolution of Arctic mid-level clouds. From a satellite perspective, this study attempts to analyze the seasonal variations in Arctic mid-level clouds and explore the possible relationships with sea ice changes using observations from the hyperspectral Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over the past two decades. For mid-level clouds of three layers (648, 548, and 447 hPa) involved in AIRS, high values of effective cloud fraction (ECF) occur in summer, and low values primarily occur in early spring, while the seasonal variations are different. The ECF anomalies are notably larger at 648 hPa than those at 548 and 447 hPa. Meanwhile, the ECF values at 648 hPa show a clear reduced seasonal variability for the regions north of 80°N, which has its minimum coefficient of variation (CV) during 2019 to 2020. The seasonal CV is relatively lower in the regions dominated by Greenland and sea areas with less sea ice coverage. Analysis indicates that the decline in mid-level ECF’s seasonal mean CV is closely correlated to the retreat of Arctic sea ice during September. Singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis reveals a reverse spatial pattern in the seasonal CV anomaly of mid-level clouds and leads anomaly. However, it is worth noting that this pattern varies by region. In the Greenland Sea and areas near the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, both CV and leads demonstrate negative (positive) anomalies, probably attributed to the stronger influence of atmospheric and oceanic circulations or the presence of land on the sea ice in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Remote Sensing)
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14 pages, 7477 KiB  
Technical Note
Elevation-Dependent Contribution of the Response and Sensitivity of Vegetation Greenness to Hydrothermal Conditions on the Grasslands of Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2021
by Yatang Wu, Changliang Shao, Jing Zhang, Yiliang Liu, Han Li, Leichao Ma, Ming Li, Beibei Shen, Lulu Hou, Shiyang Chen, Dawei Xu, Xiaoping Xin and Xiaoni Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010201 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
The interrelation between grassland vegetation greenness and hydrothermal conditions on the Tibetan Plateau demonstrates a significant correlation. However, understanding the spatial patterns and the degree of this correlation, especially in relation to minimum and maximum air temperatures across various vertical gradient zones of [...] Read more.
The interrelation between grassland vegetation greenness and hydrothermal conditions on the Tibetan Plateau demonstrates a significant correlation. However, understanding the spatial patterns and the degree of this correlation, especially in relation to minimum and maximum air temperatures across various vertical gradient zones of the Plateau, necessitates further examination. Utilizing the normalized difference phenology index (NDPI) and considering four distinct hydrothermal conditions (minimum, maximum, mean temperature, and precipitation) during the growing season, an analysis was conducted on the correlation of NDPI with hydrothermal conditions across plateau elevations from 2000 to 2021. Results indicate that the correlation between vegetation greenness and hydrothermal conditions on the Tibetan Plateau grasslands is spatially varied. There is a pronounced negative correlation of greenness to maximum temperature and precipitation in the northeastern plateau, while areas exhibit stronger positive correlations to mean temperature. Additionally, as elevation increases, the positive correlation and sensitivity of alpine grassland vegetation greenness to minimum temperature significantly intensify, contrary to the effects observed with maximum temperature. The correlations between greenness and mean temperature in relation to elevational changes primarily exhibit a unimodal pattern across the Tibetan Plateau. These findings emphasize that the correlation and sensitivity of grassland vegetation greenness to hydrothermal conditions are both elevation-dependent and spatially distinct. Full article
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24 pages, 13401 KiB  
Article
A Spatial Downscaling Framework for SMAP Soil Moisture Based on Stacking Strategy
by Jiaxin Xu, Qiaomei Su, Xiaotao Li, Jianwei Ma, Wenlong Song, Lei Zhang and Xiaoye Su
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010200 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Soil moisture (SM) data can provide guidance for decision-makers in fields such as drought monitoring and irrigation management. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite offers sufficient spatial resolution for global-scale applications, but its utility is limited in regional areas due to its lower [...] Read more.
Soil moisture (SM) data can provide guidance for decision-makers in fields such as drought monitoring and irrigation management. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite offers sufficient spatial resolution for global-scale applications, but its utility is limited in regional areas due to its lower spatial resolution. To address this issue, this study proposed a downscaling framework based on the Stacking strategy. The framework integrated extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM), and categorical boosting (CatBoost) to generate 1 km resolution SM data using 15 high-resolution factors derived from multi-source datasets. In particular, to test the influence of terrain partitioning on downscaling results, Anhui Province, which has diverse terrain features, was selected as the study area. The results indicated that the performance of the three base models varied, and the developed Stacking strategy maximized the potential of each model with encouraging downscaling results. Specifically, we found that: (1) The Stacking model achieved the highest accuracy in all regions, and the performance order of the base models was: XGBoost > CatBoost > LightGBM. (2) Compared with the measured SM at 87 sites, the downscaled SM outperformed other 1 km SM products as well as the downscaled SM without partitioning, with an average ubRMSE of 0.040 m3/m3. (3) The downscaled SM responded positively to rainfall events and mitigated the systematic bias of SMAP. It also preserved the spatial trend of the original SMAP, with higher levels in the humid region and relatively lower levels in the semi-humid region. Overall, this study provided a new strategy for soil moisture downscaling and revealed some interesting findings related to the effectiveness of the Stacking model and the impact of terrain partitioning on downscaling accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Soil Moisture Estimation, Assessment, and Applications)
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15 pages, 12461 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of Deep-Sea AUV Based on Multi-Sensor Integrated Navigation and Positioning
by Yixu Liu, Yongfu Sun, Baogang Li, Xiangxin Wang and Lei Yang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010199 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
The operation of underwater vehicles in deep waters is a very challenging task. The use of AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles) is the preferred option for underwater exploration activities. They can be autonomously navigated and controlled in real time underwater, which is only possible [...] Read more.
The operation of underwater vehicles in deep waters is a very challenging task. The use of AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles) is the preferred option for underwater exploration activities. They can be autonomously navigated and controlled in real time underwater, which is only possible with precise spatio-temporal information. Navigation and positioning systems based on LBL (Long-Baseline) or USBL (Ultra-Short-Baseline) systems have their own characteristics, so the choice of system is based on the specific application scenario. However, comparative experiments on AUV navigation and positioning under both systems are rarely conducted, especially in the deep sea. This study describes navigation and positioning experiments on AUVs in deep-sea scenarios and compares the accuracy of the USBL and LBL/SINS (Strap-Down Inertial Navigation System)/DVL (Doppler Velocity Log) modes. In practice, the accuracy of the USBL positioning mode is higher when the AUV is within a 60° observation range below the ship; when the AUV is far away from the ship, the positioning accuracy decreases with increasing range and observation angle, i.e., the positioning error reaches 80 m at 4000 m depth. The navigational accuracy inside and outside the datum array is high when using the LBL/SINS/DVL mode; if the AUV is far from the datum array when climbing to the surface, the LBL cannot provide accurate position calibration while the DVL fails, resulting in large deviations in the SINS results. In summary, the use of multi-sensor combination navigation schemes is beneficial, and accurate position information acquisition should be based on the demand and cost, while other factors should also be comprehensively considered; this paper proposes the use of the LBL/SINS/DVL system scheme. Full article
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18 pages, 5783 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of a High-Frequency Radar Network for Detecting Surface Currents in the Pearl River Estuary
by Langfeng Zhu, Tianyi Lu, Fan Yang, Chunlei Wei and Jun Wei
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010198 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
The performance of a high-frequency (HF) radar network situated within the Pearl River Estuary from 17 July to 13 August 2022 is described via a comparison with seven acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The radar network consists of six OSMAR-S100 compact HF radars, [...] Read more.
The performance of a high-frequency (HF) radar network situated within the Pearl River Estuary from 17 July to 13 August 2022 is described via a comparison with seven acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The radar network consists of six OSMAR-S100 compact HF radars, with a transmitting frequency of 13–16 MHz and a direction-finding technique. Both the radial currents and vector velocities showed good agreement with the ADCP results (coefficient of determination r2: 0.42–0.78; RMS difference of radials: 11–21.6 cm s1; bearing offset Δθ: 4.8°16.1°; complex correlation coefficient γ: 0.62–0.96; and phase angle α: −24.3°17.8°). For these radars, the Δθ values are not constant but vary with azimuthal angles. The relative positions between the HF radar and ADCPs, as well as factors such as the presence of island terrain obstructing the signal, significantly influence the errors. The results of spectral analysis also demonstrate a high level of consistency and the capability of HF radar to capture diurnal and semidiurnal tidal frequencies. The tidal characteristics and the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) results measured by the HF radars also resemble the ADCPs and align with the characteristics of the estuarine current field. Full article
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30 pages, 23312 KiB  
Article
A Multisensory Analysis of the Moisture Course of the Cave of Altamira (Spain): Implications for Its Conservation
by Vicente Bayarri, Alfredo Prada, Francisco García, Carmen De Las Heras and Pilar Fatás
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010197 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
This paper addresses the conservation problems of the cave of Altamira, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Santillana del Mar, Cantabria, Spain, due to the effects of moisture and water inside the cave. The study focuses on the description of methods for estimating [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the conservation problems of the cave of Altamira, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Santillana del Mar, Cantabria, Spain, due to the effects of moisture and water inside the cave. The study focuses on the description of methods for estimating the trajectory and zones of humidity from the external environment to its eventual dripping on valuable cave paintings. To achieve this objective, several multisensor remote sensing techniques, both aerial and terrestrial, such as 3D laser scanning, a 2D ground penetrating radar, photogrammetry with unmanned aerial vehicles, and high-resolution terrestrial techniques are employed. These tools allow a detailed spatial analysis of the moisture and water in the cave. The paper highlights the importance of the dolomitic layer in the cave and how it influences the preservation of the ceiling, which varies according to its position, whether it is sealed with calcium carbonate, actively dripping, or not dripping. In addition, the crucial role of the central fracture and the areas of direct water infiltration in this process is examined. This research aids in understanding and conserving the site. It offers a novel approach to water-induced deterioration in rock art for professionals and researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Remote Sensing in Cultural Heritage Research II)
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20 pages, 4338 KiB  
Article
Cross-Modal Retrieval and Semantic Refinement for Remote Sensing Image Captioning
by Zhengxin Li, Wenzhe Zhao, Xuanyi Du, Guangyao Zhou and Songlin Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010196 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Two-stage remote sensing image captioning (RSIC) methods have achieved promising results by incorporating additional pre-trained remote sensing tasks to extract supplementary information and improve caption quality. However, these methods face limitations in semantic comprehension, as pre-trained detectors/classifiers are constrained by predefined labels, leading [...] Read more.
Two-stage remote sensing image captioning (RSIC) methods have achieved promising results by incorporating additional pre-trained remote sensing tasks to extract supplementary information and improve caption quality. However, these methods face limitations in semantic comprehension, as pre-trained detectors/classifiers are constrained by predefined labels, leading to an oversight of the intricate and diverse details present in remote sensing images (RSIs). Additionally, the handling of auxiliary remote sensing tasks separately can introduce challenges in ensuring seamless integration and alignment with the captioning process. To address these problems, we propose a novel cross-modal retrieval and semantic refinement (CRSR) RSIC method. Specifically, we employ a cross-modal retrieval model to retrieve relevant sentences of each image. The words in these retrieved sentences are then considered as primary semantic information, providing valuable supplementary information for the captioning process. To further enhance the quality of the captions, we introduce a semantic refinement module that refines the primary semantic information, which helps to filter out misleading information and emphasize visually salient semantic information. A Transformer Mapper network is introduced to expand the representation of image features beyond the retrieved supplementary information with learnable queries. Both the refined semantic tokens and visual features are integrated and fed into a cross-modal decoder for caption generation. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the superiority of our CRSR method over existing state-of-the-art approaches on the RSICD, the UCM-Captions, and the Sydney-Captions datasets Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning in Optical Satellite Images)
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20 pages, 9487 KiB  
Article
Compound-Gaussian Model with Nakagami-Distributed Textures for High-Resolution Sea Clutter at Medium/High Grazing Angles
by Guanbao Yang, Xiaojun Zhang, Pengjia Zou and Penglang Shui
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010195 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 928
Abstract
In this paper, a compound-Gaussian model (CGM) with the Nakagami-distributed textures (CGNG) is proposed to model sea clutter at medium/high grazing angles. The corresponding amplitude distributions are referred to as the CGNG distributions. The analysis of measured data shows that the CGNG distributions [...] Read more.
In this paper, a compound-Gaussian model (CGM) with the Nakagami-distributed textures (CGNG) is proposed to model sea clutter at medium/high grazing angles. The corresponding amplitude distributions are referred to as the CGNG distributions. The analysis of measured data shows that the CGNG distributions can provide better goodness-of-the-fit to sea clutter at medium/high grazing angles than the four types of commonly used biparametric distributions. As a new type of amplitude distribution, its parameter estimation is important for modelling sea clutter. The estimators from the method of moments (MoM) and the [zlog(z)] estimator from the method of generalized moments are first given for the CGNG distributions. However, these estimators are sensitive to sporadic outliers of large amplitude in the data. As the second contribution of the paper, outlier-robust tri-percentile estimators of the CGNG distributions are proposed. Moreover, experimental results using simulated and measured sea clutter data are reported to show the suitability of the CGNG amplitude distributions and outlier-robustness of the proposed tri-percentile estimators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Signal Processing and Imaging for Ocean Remote Sensing)
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17 pages, 1469 KiB  
Article
Multi-Satellite Imaging Task Planning for Large Regional Coverage: A Heuristic Algorithm Based on Triple Grids Method
by Feng Li, Qiuhua Wan, Feifei Wen, Yongkui Zou, Qien He, Da Li and Xing Zhong
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010194 - 2 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Over the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of Earth observation satellites, and the area of ground targets requiring observation has also been expanding. To effectively utilize the capabilities of these satellites and capture larger areas of [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of Earth observation satellites, and the area of ground targets requiring observation has also been expanding. To effectively utilize the capabilities of these satellites and capture larger areas of ground targets, it has become essential to plan imaging tasks for large regional coverage using multiple satellites. First, we establish a 0-1 integer programming model to accurately describe the problem and analyze the challenges associated with solving the model. Second, we propose a heuristic algorithm based on the triple grids method. This approach utilizes a generated grid to create fewer candidate strips, a calculation grid to determine the effective coverage area more accurately, and a refined grid to solve the issue of repeated coverage of strips. Furthermore, we employ an approximation algorithm to further improve the solutions obtained from the heuristic algorithm. By comparing the proposed method to the traditional greedy heuristic algorithm and three evolutionary algorithms, the results show that our method has better performance in terms of coverage and efficiency. Full article
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20 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Spectral–Spatial Double-Branch Attention Mechanism
by Jianfang Kang, Yaonan Zhang, Xinchao Liu and Zhongxin Cheng
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010193 - 2 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
In recent years, deep learning methods utilizing convolutional neural networks have been extensively employed in hyperspectral image classification (HSI) applications. Nevertheless, while a substantial number of stacked 3D convolutions can indeed achieve high classification accuracy, they also introduce a significant number of parameters [...] Read more.
In recent years, deep learning methods utilizing convolutional neural networks have been extensively employed in hyperspectral image classification (HSI) applications. Nevertheless, while a substantial number of stacked 3D convolutions can indeed achieve high classification accuracy, they also introduce a significant number of parameters to the model, resulting in inefficiency. Furthermore, such intricate models often exhibit limited classification accuracy when confronted with restricted sample data, i.e., small sample problems. Therefore, we propose a spectral–spatial double-branch network (SSDBN) with an attention mechanism for HSI classification. The SSDBN is designed with two independent branches to extract spectral and spatial features, respectively, incorporating multi-scale 2D convolution modules, long short-term memory (LSTM), and an attention mechanism. The flexible use of 2D convolution, instead of 3D convolution, significantly reduces the model’s parameter count, while the effective spectral–spatial double-branch feature extraction method allows SSDBN to perform exceptionally well in handling small sample problems. When tested on 5%, 0.5%, and 5% of the Indian Pines, Pavia University, and Kennedy Space Center datasets, SSDBN achieved classification accuracies of 97.56%, 96.85%, and 98.68%, respectively. Additionally, we conducted a comparison of training and testing times, with results demonstrating the remarkable efficiency of SSDBN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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22 pages, 12365 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of a Cloud-Gap-Filled MODIS Normalized Difference Snow Index Product over High Mountain Asia
by Gang Deng, Zhiguang Tang, Chunyu Dong, Donghang Shao and Xin Wang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010192 - 2 Jan 2024
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Accurate snow cover data are critical for understanding the Earth’s climate system, and exploring hydrological processes and regional water resource management over High Mountain Asia (HMA). However, satellite-based remote sensing observations of snow cover have inevitable data gaps originating from cloud cover, sensor, [...] Read more.
Accurate snow cover data are critical for understanding the Earth’s climate system, and exploring hydrological processes and regional water resource management over High Mountain Asia (HMA). However, satellite-based remote sensing observations of snow cover have inevitable data gaps originating from cloud cover, sensor, orbital limitations and other factors. Here an effective cloud-gap-filled (CGF) method was developed to fully fill the data gaps in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference snow index (NDSI) product. The CGF method combines the respective strengths of the cubic spline interpolation method and the spatio-temporal weighted method for generating the CGF Terra-Aqua MODIS NDSI product over HMA from 2000 to 2021. Based on the validation results of in situ snow-depth observations, the CGF NDSI product achieves a high range overall accuracy (OA) of 93.54–98.08%, a low range underestimation error (MU) of 0.15–3.49% and an acceptable range overestimation error (MO) of 0.84–5.77%. Based on the validation results of high-resolution Landsat images, this product achieves the OA of 88.52–92.40%, the omission error (OE) of 1.42–10.28% and the commission error (CE) of 5.97–17.58%. The CGF MODIS NDSI product can provide scientific support for eco-environment sustainable management in the high mountain region. Full article
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20 pages, 8019 KiB  
Article
An Embedded-GPU-Based Scheme for Real-Time Imaging Processing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Borne Video Synthetic Aperture Radar
by Tao Yang, Xinyu Zhang, Qingbo Xu, Shuangxi Zhang and Tong Wang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010191 - 2 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The UAV-borne video SAR (ViSAR) imaging system requires miniaturization, low power consumption, high frame rates, and high-resolution real-time imaging. In order to satisfy the requirements of real-time imaging processing for the UAV-borne ViSAR under limited memory and parallel computing resources, this paper proposes [...] Read more.
The UAV-borne video SAR (ViSAR) imaging system requires miniaturization, low power consumption, high frame rates, and high-resolution real-time imaging. In order to satisfy the requirements of real-time imaging processing for the UAV-borne ViSAR under limited memory and parallel computing resources, this paper proposes a method of embedded GPU-based real-time imaging processing for the UAV-borne ViSAR. Based on a parallel programming model of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA), this paper designed a parallel computing method for range-Doppler (RD) and map drift (MD) algorithms. By utilizing the advantages of the embedded GPU characterized with parallel computing, we improved the processing speed of real-time ViSAR imaging. This paper also adopted a unified memory management method, which greatly reduces data replication and communication latency between the CPU and the GPU. The data processing of 2048 × 2048 points took only 1.215 s on the Jetson AGX Orin platform to form a nine-consecutive-frame image with a resolution of 0.15 m, with each frame taking only 0.135 s, enabling real-time imaging at a high frame rate of 5 Hz. In actual testing, continuous mapping can be achieved without losing the scenes, intuitively obtaining the dynamic observation effects of the area. The processing results of the measured data have verified the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme, satisfying the processing requirements for real-time ViSAR imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Microwave Sensor Systems: Technology and Applications)
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23 pages, 11832 KiB  
Article
Extraction of Building Roof Contours from Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds Based on Multidirectional Bands
by Jingxue Wang, Dongdong Zang, Jinzheng Yu and Xiao Xie
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010190 - 2 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Because of the complex structure and different shapes of building contours, the uneven density distribution of airborne LiDAR point clouds, and occlusion, existing building contour extraction algorithms are subject to such problems as poor robustness, difficulty with setting parameters, and low extraction efficiency. [...] Read more.
Because of the complex structure and different shapes of building contours, the uneven density distribution of airborne LiDAR point clouds, and occlusion, existing building contour extraction algorithms are subject to such problems as poor robustness, difficulty with setting parameters, and low extraction efficiency. To solve these problems, a building contour extraction algorithm based on multidirectional bands was proposed in this study. Firstly, the point clouds were divided into bands with the same width in one direction, the points within each band were vertically projected on the central axis in the band, the two projection points with the farthest distance were determined, and their corresponding original points were regarded as the roof contour points; given that the contour points obtained based on single-direction bands were sparse and discontinuous, different banding directions were selected to repeat the above contour point marking process, and the contour points extracted from the different banding directions were integrated as the initial contour points. Then, the initial contour points were sorted and connected according to the principle of joining the nearest points in the forward direction, and the edges with lengths greater than a given threshold were recognized as long edges, which remained to be further densified. Finally, each long edge was densified by selecting the noninitial contour point closest to the midpoint of the long edge, and the densification process was repeated for the updated long edge. In the end, a building roof contour line with complete details and topological relationships was obtained. In this study, three point cloud datasets of representative building roofs were chosen for experiments. The results show that the proposed algorithm can extract high-quality outer contours from point clouds with various boundary structures, accompanied by strong robustness for point clouds differing in density and density change. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is characterized by easily setting parameters and high efficiency for extracting outer contours. Specific to the experimental data selected for this study, the PoLiS values in the outer contour extraction results were always smaller than 0.2 m, and the RAE values were smaller than 7%. Hence, the proposed algorithm can provide high-precision outer contour information on buildings for applications such as 3D building model reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on 3D Point Cloud II)
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22 pages, 1848 KiB  
Review
GNSS Carrier-Phase Multipath Modeling and Correction: A Review and Prospect of Data Processing Methods
by Qiuzhao Zhang, Longqiang Zhang, Ao Sun, Xiaolin Meng, Dongsheng Zhao and Craig Hancock
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010189 - 2 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
A multipath error is one of the main sources of GNSS positioning errors. It cannot be eliminated by forming double-difference and other methods, and it has become an issue in GNSS positioning error processing, because it is mainly related to the surrounding environment [...] Read more.
A multipath error is one of the main sources of GNSS positioning errors. It cannot be eliminated by forming double-difference and other methods, and it has become an issue in GNSS positioning error processing, because it is mainly related to the surrounding environment of the station. To address multipath errors, three main mitigation strategies are employed: site selection, hardware enhancements, and data processing. Among these, data processing methods have been a focal point of research due to their cost-effectiveness, impressive performance, and widespread applicability. This paper focuses on the review of data processing mitigation methods for GNSS carrier-phase multipath errors. The paper begins by elucidating the origins and mitigation strategies of multipath errors. Subsequently, it reviews the current research status pertaining to data processing methods using stochastic and functional models to counter multipath errors. The paper also provides an overview of filtering techniques for extracting multipath error models from coordinate sequences or observations. Additionally, it introduces the evolution and algorithmic workflow of sidereal filtering (SF) and multipath hemispherical mapping (MHM), from both coordinate and observation domain perspectives. Furthermore, the paper emphasizes the practical significance and research relevance of multipath error processing. It concludes by delineating future research directions in the realm of multipath error mitigation. Full article
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19 pages, 10172 KiB  
Article
Reconstructing Snow Cover under Clouds and Cloud Shadows by Combining Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 Images in a Mountainous Region
by Yanli Zhang, Changqing Ye, Ruirui Yang and Kegong Li
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010188 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of global climate change, and optical images are an important means for monitoring its spatiotemporal changes. Due to the high reflectivity, rapid change, and intense spatial heterogeneity of mountainous snow cover, Sentinel-2 (S2) and Landsat 8 (L8) [...] Read more.
Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of global climate change, and optical images are an important means for monitoring its spatiotemporal changes. Due to the high reflectivity, rapid change, and intense spatial heterogeneity of mountainous snow cover, Sentinel-2 (S2) and Landsat 8 (L8) satellite imagery with both high spatial resolution and spectral resolution have become major data sources. However, optical sensors are more susceptible to cloud cover, and the two satellite images have significant spectral differences, making it challenging to obtain snow cover beneath clouds and cloud shadows (CCSs). Based on our previously published approach for snow reconstruction on S2 images using the Google Earth Engine (GEE), this study introduces two main innovations to reconstruct snow cover: (1) combining S2 and L8 images and choosing different CCS detection methods, and (2) improving the cloud shadow detection algorithm by considering land cover types, thus further improving the mountainous-snow-monitoring ability. The Babao River Basin of the Qilian Mountains in China is chosen as the study area; 399 scenes of S2 and 35 scenes of L8 are selected to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of snow cover from September 2019 to August 2022 in GEE. The results indicate that the snow reconstruction accuracies of both images are relatively high, and the overall accuracies for S2 and L8 are 80.74% and 88.81%, respectively. According to the time-series analysis of three hydrological years, it is found that there is a marked difference in the spatial distribution of snow cover in different hydrological years within the basin, with fluctuations observed overall. Full article
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21 pages, 6182 KiB  
Article
Noninvasive Early Detection of Nutrient Deficiencies in Greenhouse-Grown Industrial Hemp Using Hyperspectral Imaging
by Alireza Sanaeifar, Ce Yang, An Min, Colin R. Jones, Thomas E. Michaels, Quinton J. Krueger, Robert Barnes and Toby J. Velte
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010187 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging non-invasive technology with potential for early nutrient stress detection in plants prior to visible symptoms. This study evaluated hyperspectral imaging for early identification of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) deficiencies across three greenhouse-grown industrial hemp plant cultivars ( [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging non-invasive technology with potential for early nutrient stress detection in plants prior to visible symptoms. This study evaluated hyperspectral imaging for early identification of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) deficiencies across three greenhouse-grown industrial hemp plant cultivars (Cannabis sativa L.). Visible and near-infrared spectral data (380–1022 nm) were acquired from hemp samples subjected to controlled NPK stresses at multiple developmental timepoints using a benchtop hyperspectral camera. Robust principal component analysis was developed for effective screening of spectral outliers. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machines (SVM) were developed and optimized to classify nutrient deficiencies using key wavelengths selected by variable importance in projection (VIP) and interval partial least squares (iPLS). The 16-wavelength iPLS-C-SVM model achieved the highest precision of 0.75 to 1 on the test dataset. Key wavelengths for effective nutrient deficiency detection spanned the visible range, underscoring the hyperspectral imaging sensitivity to early changes in leaf pigment levels prior to any visible symptom development. The emergence of wavelengths related to chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin absorption as optimal for classification, highlights the technology’s capacity to detect subtle impending biochemical perturbations linked to emerging deficiencies. Identifying stress at this pre-visual stage could provide hemp producers with timely corrective action to mitigate losses in crop quality and yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proximal and Remote Sensing for Precision Crop Management II)
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17 pages, 11300 KiB  
Technical Note
Three-Dimensional Resistivity and Chargeability Tomography with Expanding Gradient and Pole–Dipole Arrays in a Polymetallic Mine, China
by Meng Wang, Junlu Wang, Pinrong Lin and Xiaohong Meng
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010186 - 1 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Three-dimensional resistivity/chargeability tomography based on distributed data acquisition technology is likely to provide abundant information for mineral exploration. To realize true 3D tomography, establishing transmitter sources with different injection directions and collecting vector signals at receiver points is necessary. We implemented 3D resistivity/ [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional resistivity/chargeability tomography based on distributed data acquisition technology is likely to provide abundant information for mineral exploration. To realize true 3D tomography, establishing transmitter sources with different injection directions and collecting vector signals at receiver points is necessary. We implemented 3D resistivity/ chargeability tomography to search for new ore bodies in the deep and peripheral areas of Huaniushan, China. A distributed data acquisition system was used to form a vector receiver array in the survey area. First, by using the expanding gradient array composed of 11 pairs of transmitter electrodes, we quickly obtained the 3D distributions of the resistivity and chargeability of the whole area. Based on the electrical structure and geological setting, a NE-striking potential area for mineral exploration was determined. Next, a pole–dipole array was employed to depict the locations and shapes of the potential ore bodies in detail. The results showed that the inversion data for the two arrays corresponded well with the known geological setting and that the ore veins controlled by boreholes were located in the low-resistivity and high-chargeability zone. These results provided data for future mineral evaluation. Further research showed that true 3D tomography has obvious advantages over quasi-3D tomography. The expanding gradient array, characterized by a good signal strength and field efficiency, was suitable for the target determination in the early exploration stage. The pole–dipole array with high spatial resolution can be used for detailed investigations. Choosing a reasonable data acquisition scheme is helpful to improve the spatial resolution and economic efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Green Mining)
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21 pages, 5571 KiB  
Article
Coastline Monitoring and Prediction Based on Long-Term Remote Sensing Data—A Case Study of the Eastern Coast of Laizhou Bay, China
by Ke Mu, Cheng Tang, Luigi Tosi, Yanfang Li, Xiangyang Zheng, Sandra Donnici, Jixiang Sun, Jun Liu and Xuelu Gao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010185 - 1 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Monitoring shoreline movements is essential for understanding the impact of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the coastal zone dynamics. The use of remote sensing allows for large-scale spatial and temporal studies to better comprehend current trends. This study used Landsat 5 (TM), [...] Read more.
Monitoring shoreline movements is essential for understanding the impact of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the coastal zone dynamics. The use of remote sensing allows for large-scale spatial and temporal studies to better comprehend current trends. This study used Landsat 5 (TM), Landsat 8 (OLI), and Sentinel-2 (MSI) remote sensing images, together with the Otsu algorithm, marching squares algorithm, and tidal correction algorithm, to extract and correct the coastline positions of the east coast of Laizhou Bay in China from 1984 to 2022. The results indicate that 89.63% of the extracted shoreline segments have an error less than 30 m compared to the manually drawn coastline. The total length of the coastline increased from 166.90 km to 364.20 km, throughout the observation period, with a length change intensity (LCI) of 3.11% due to the development of coastal protection and engineering structures for human activities. The anthropization led to a decrease in the natural coastline from 83.33% to 13.89% and a continuous increase in the diversity and human use of the coastline. In particular, the index of coastline diversity (ICTD) and the index of coastline utilization degree (ICUD) increased from 0.39 to 0.79, and from 153.30 to 390.37, respectively. Over 70% of the sandy beaches experienced erosional processes. The shoreline erosion calculated using the end point rate (EPR) and the linear regression rate (LRR) is 79.54% and 85.58%, respectively. The fractal dimension of the coastline shows an increasing trend and is positively correlated with human activities. Coastline changes are primarily attributed to interventions such as land reclamation, aquaculture development, and port construction resulting in the creation of 10,000.20 hectares of new coastal areas. Finally, the use of Kalman filtering for the first time made it possible to predict that approximately 84.58% of the sandy coastline will be eroded to varying degrees by 2032. The research results can provide valuable reference for the scientific planning and rational utilization of resources on the eastern coast of Laizhou Bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Remote Sensing)
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19 pages, 59754 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Active Riverbed Spatiotemporal Dynamics through the Definition of a Framework for Remote Sensing Procedures
by Marta Crivellaro, Alfonso Vitti, Guido Zolezzi and Walter Bertoldi
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010184 - 1 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
The increasing availability and quality of remote sensing data are changing the methods used in fluvial geomorphology applications, allowing the observation of hydro-morpho-biodynamics processes and their spatial and temporal variations at broader and more refined scales. With the advent of cloud-based computing, it [...] Read more.
The increasing availability and quality of remote sensing data are changing the methods used in fluvial geomorphology applications, allowing the observation of hydro-morpho-biodynamics processes and their spatial and temporal variations at broader and more refined scales. With the advent of cloud-based computing, it is nowadays possible to reduce data processing time and increase code sharing, facilitating the development of reproducible analyses at regional and global scales. The consolidation of Earth Observation mission data into a single repository such as Google Earth Engine (GEE) offers the opportunity to standardize various methods found in literature, in particular those related to the identification of key geomorphological parameters. This work investigates different computational techniques and timeframes (e.g., seasonal, annual) for the automatic detection of the active river channel and its multi-temporal aggregation, proposing a rational integration of remote sensing tools into river monitoring and management. In particular, we propose a quantitative analysis of different approaches to obtain a synthetic representative image of river corridors, where each pixel is computed as a percentile of the bands (or a combination of bands) of all available images in a given time span. Synthetic images have the advantage of limiting the variability of individual images, thus providing more robust results in terms of the classification of the main components of the riverine ecosystem (sediments, water, and riparian vegetation). We apply the analysis to a set of rivers with analogous bioclimatic conditions and different levels of anthropic pressure, using a combination of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data. The results show that synthetic images derived from multispectral indexes (such as NDVI and MDWI) are more accurate than synthetic images derived from single bands. In addition, different temporal reduction statistics affect the detection of the active channel, and we suggest using the 90th percentile instead of the median to improve the detection of vegetated areas. Individual representative images are then aggregated into multitemporal maps to define a systematic and easily replicable approach for extracting active river corridors and their inherent spatial and temporal dynamics. Finally, the proposed procedure has the potential to be easily implemented and automated as a tool to provide relevant data to river managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and GIS in Freshwater Environments)
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19 pages, 14918 KiB  
Article
Ocean Colour Atmospheric Correction for Optically Complex Waters under High Solar Zenith Angles: Facilitating Frequent Diurnal Monitoring and Management
by Yongquan Wang, Huizeng Liu, Zhengxin Zhang, Yanru Wang, Demei Zhao, Yu Zhang, Qingquan Li and Guofeng Wu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010183 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Accurate atmospheric correction (AC) is one fundamental and essential step for successful ocean colour remote-sensing applications. Currently, most ACs and the associated ocean colour remote-sensing applications are restricted to solar zenith angles (SZAs) lower than 70°. The ACs under high SZAs present degraded [...] Read more.
Accurate atmospheric correction (AC) is one fundamental and essential step for successful ocean colour remote-sensing applications. Currently, most ACs and the associated ocean colour remote-sensing applications are restricted to solar zenith angles (SZAs) lower than 70°. The ACs under high SZAs present degraded accuracy or even failure problems, rendering the satellite retrievals of water quality parameters more challenging. Additionally, the complexity of the bio-optical properties of the coastal waters and the presence of complex aerosols add to the difficulty of AC. To address this challenge, this study proposed an AC algorithm based on extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) for optically complex waters under high SZAs. The algorithm presented in this research has been developed using pairs of Geostationary Ocean Colour Imager (GOCI) high-quality noontime remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (ρrc) derived from the Ocean Colour–Simultaneous Marine and Aerosol Retrieval Tool (OC-SMART) in the morning (08:55 LT) and at dusk (15:55 LT). The algorithm was further examined using the daily GOCI images acquired in the morning and at dusk, and the hourly (total suspended sediment) TSS concentration was also obtained based on the atmospherically corrected GOCI data. The results showed that: (i) the model produced an accurate fitting performance (R2 ≥ 0.90, RMSD ≤ 0.0034 sr−1); (ii) the model had a high validation accuracy with an independent dataset (R2 = 0.92–0.97, MAPD = 8.2–26.81% and quality assurance (QA) score = 0.9–1); and (iii) the model successfully retrieved more valid Rrs for GOCI images under high SZAs and enhanced the accuracy and coverage of TSS mapping. This algorithm has great potential to be applied to AC for optically complex waters under high SZAs, thus increasing the frequency of available observations in a day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS and Remote Sensing in Ocean and Coastal Ecology)
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36 pages, 57413 KiB  
Article
BD-SKUNet: Selective-Kernel UNets for Building Damage Assessment in High-Resolution Satellite Images
by Seyed Ali Ahmadi, Ali Mohammadzadeh, Naoto Yokoya and Arsalan Ghorbanian
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010182 - 31 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
When natural disasters occur, timely and accurate building damage assessment maps are vital for disaster management responders to organize their resources efficiently. Pairs of pre- and post-disaster remote sensing imagery have been recognized as invaluable data sources that provide useful information for building [...] Read more.
When natural disasters occur, timely and accurate building damage assessment maps are vital for disaster management responders to organize their resources efficiently. Pairs of pre- and post-disaster remote sensing imagery have been recognized as invaluable data sources that provide useful information for building damage identification. Recently, deep learning-based semantic segmentation models have been widely and successfully applied to remote sensing imagery for building damage assessment tasks. In this study, a two-stage, dual-branch, UNet architecture, with shared weights between two branches, is proposed to address the inaccuracies in building footprint localization and per-building damage level classification. A newly introduced selective kernel module improves the performance of the model by enhancing the extracted features and applying adaptive receptive field variations. The xBD dataset is used to train, validate, and test the proposed model based on widely used evaluation metrics such as F1-score and Intersection over Union (IoU). Overall, the experiments and comparisons demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed model. In addition, the results are further confirmed by evaluating the geographical transferability of the proposed model on a completely unseen dataset from a new region (Bam city earthquake in 2003). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence for Natural Hazards (AI4NH))
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22 pages, 6263 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Environment-Adaptive GNSS/INS Integrated Positioning with Factor Graph Optimization
by Zhengdao Li, Pin-Hsun Lee, Tsz Hin Marcus Hung, Guohao Zhang and Li-Ta Hsu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010181 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) applied to intelligent transport systems in urban areas suffer from multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) effects due to the signal reflections from high-rise buildings, which seriously degrade the accuracy and reliability of vehicles in real-time applications. Accordingly, the integration [...] Read more.
Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) applied to intelligent transport systems in urban areas suffer from multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) effects due to the signal reflections from high-rise buildings, which seriously degrade the accuracy and reliability of vehicles in real-time applications. Accordingly, the integration between GNSS and inertial navigation systems (INSs) could be utilized to improve positioning performance. However, the fixed GNSS solution uncertainty of the conventional integration method cannot determine the fluctuating GNSS reliability in fast-changing urban environments. This weakness becomes solvable using a deep learning model for sensing the ambient environment intelligently, and it can be further mitigated using factor graph optimization (FGO), which is capable of generating robust solutions based on historical data. This paper mainly develops the adaptive GNSS/INS loosely coupled system on FGO, along with the fixed-gain Kalman filter (KF) and adaptive KF (AKF) being taken as comparisons. The adaptation is aided by a convolutional neural network (CNN), and the feasibility is verified using data from different grades of receivers. Compared with the integration using fixed-gain KF, the proposed adaptive FGO (AFGO) maintains the 100% positioning availability and reduces the overall 2D positioning error by up to 70% in the aspects of both root mean square error (RMSE) and standard deviation (STD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Urban Positioning and Navigation)
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