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Remote Sens., Volume 15, Issue 24 (December-2 2023) – 164 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study introduces a groundbreaking method for environmental monitoring in polar regions, transcending the limitations of traditional approaches under extreme conditions. By utilising unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), combined hyperspectral and multispectral imaging (HSI/MSI), and enhanced GNSS with real-time kinematics (RTK), this research presents a robust workflow for precise vegetation mapping. The incorporation of novel spectral indices and the optimization of XGBoost models enable the accurate classification of moss and lichens with a 95% average accuracy. Validated in the challenging terrain of East Antarctica's Windmill Islands, this method represents a substantial leap in remote sensing capabilities, offering a versatile tool for Antarctic vegetation studies and climate change impact assessments across polar environments. View this paper
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20 pages, 51647 KiB  
Article
Antenna Pattern Calibration Method for Phased Array of High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar Based on First-Order Sea Clutter
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5789; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245789 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 620
Abstract
The problem of accurate source localization has been an area of focus in high-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) applications. However, antenna pattern distortion (APD) decreases the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation performance of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. Up to now, limited studies have [...] Read more.
The problem of accurate source localization has been an area of focus in high-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) applications. However, antenna pattern distortion (APD) decreases the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation performance of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. Up to now, limited studies have been conducted on the calibration of antenna pattern distortion for phased arrays in HFSWR. In this paper, we first analyze the effect of APD on the performance of the MUSIC algorithm through estimation of accuracy and angular resolution. We demonstrate that using the actual pattern (or say APD) can improve DOA estimation performance. Based on this proposition, we propose a novel iterative calibration method that employs the first-order sea clutter data and can jointly estimate DOA and APD in an iterative way. To obtain available calibration points, we introduce the extraction methods of the first-order sea clutter spectrum and single-DOA spectrum points. Meanwhile, in each iteration, the Beamspace MUSIC algorithm and artificial hummingbird algorithm (AHA) are utilized to estimate the DOA and APD, respectively. Numerical results reveal a good coincidence between the actual pattern and the estimated APD. We also apply this method to process the experimental data of HFSWR. We obtain the APD vector of the real phased array and improve the direction-finding performance of several real ship targets using this vector. Both numerical and experimental results prove the correctness of our proposed calibration method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Applications of HF Radar)
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23 pages, 7243 KiB  
Article
Oil Well Detection under Occlusion in Remote Sensing Images Using the Improved YOLOv5 Model
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5788; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245788 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Oil wells play an important role in the extraction of oil and gas, and their future potential extends beyond oil and gas exploitation to include the development of geothermal resources for sustainable power generation. Identifying and detecting oil wells are of paramount importance [...] Read more.
Oil wells play an important role in the extraction of oil and gas, and their future potential extends beyond oil and gas exploitation to include the development of geothermal resources for sustainable power generation. Identifying and detecting oil wells are of paramount importance given the crucial role of oil well distribution in energy planning. In recent years, significant progress has been made in detecting single oil well objects, with recognition accuracy exceeding 90%. However, there are still remaining challenges, particularly with regard to small-scale objects, varying viewing angles, and complex occlusions within the domain of oil well detection. In this work, we created our own dataset, which included 722 images containing 3749 oil well objects in Daqing, Huatugou, Changqing oil field areas in China, and California in the USA. Within this dataset, 2165 objects were unoccluded, 617 were moderately occluded, and 967 objects were severely occluded. To address the challenges in detecting oil wells in complex occlusion scenarios, we propose the YOLOv5s-seg CAM NWD network for object detection and instance segmentation. The experimental results show that our proposed model outperforms YOLOv5 with F1 improvements of 5.4%, 11.6%, and 23.1% observed for unoccluded, moderately occluded, and severely occluded scenarios, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
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29 pages, 14878 KiB  
Article
A Feasibility Study of Thermal Infrared Imaging for Monitoring Natural Terrain—A Case Study in Hong Kong
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5787; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245787 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The use of infrared thermography (IRT) technique combining other remoting sensing techniques such as photogrammetry and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms to perform geotechnical studies has been attempted by several previous researchers and encouraging results were obtained. However, studies using time-lapse IRT survey [...] Read more.
The use of infrared thermography (IRT) technique combining other remoting sensing techniques such as photogrammetry and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms to perform geotechnical studies has been attempted by several previous researchers and encouraging results were obtained. However, studies using time-lapse IRT survey via a UAV equipped with a thermal camera are limited. Given the unique setting of Hong Kong, which has a high population living in largely hilly terrain with little natural flat land, steep man-made slopes and natural hillsides have caused significant geotechnical problems which pose hazards to life and facilities. This paper presents the adoption of a time-lapse IRT survey using a UAV in such challenging geotechnical conditions. Snapshot and time-lapse IRT studies of a selected site in Hong Kong, where landslides had occurred were carried out, and visual inspection, photogrammetry, and IRT techniques were also conducted. 3D terrain models of the selected sites were created by using data collected from the photogrammetry and single (snapshot) and continuous monitoring (time-lapse) infrared imaging methods applied in this study. The results have successfully identified various thermal infrared signatures attributed to the existence of moisture patches, seepage, cracks/discontinuities, vegetation, and man-made structures. Open cracks/discontinuities, moisture, vegetation, and rock surfaces with staining can be identified in snapshot thermal image, while the gradient of temperature decay plotted in ln(T) vs. ln(t) enables quantifiable identifications of the above materials via time-lapse thermography and analysis. Full article
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20 pages, 43110 KiB  
Article
Feature Scalar Field Grid-Guided Optical-Flow Image Matching for Multi-View Images of Asteroid
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5786; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245786 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Images captured by deep space probes exhibit large-scale variations, irregular overlap, and remarkable differences in field of view. These issues present considerable challenges for the registration of multi-view asteroid sensor images. To obtain accurate, dense, and reliable matching results of homonymous points in [...] Read more.
Images captured by deep space probes exhibit large-scale variations, irregular overlap, and remarkable differences in field of view. These issues present considerable challenges for the registration of multi-view asteroid sensor images. To obtain accurate, dense, and reliable matching results of homonymous points in asteroid images, this paper proposes a new scale-invariant feature matching and displacement scalar field-guided optical-flow-tracking method. The method initially uses scale-invariant feature matching to obtain the geometric correspondence between two images. Subsequently, scalar fields of coordinate differences in the x and y directions are constructed based on this correspondence. Next, interim images are generated using the scalar field grid. Finally, optical-flow tracking is performed based on these interim images. Additionally, to ensure the reliability of the matching results, this paper introduces three methods for eliminating mismatched points: bidirectional optical-flow tracking, vector field consensus, and epipolar geometry constraints. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a 98% matching correctness rate and a root mean square error of 0.25 pixels. By combining the advantages of feature matching and optical-flow field methods, this approach achieves image homonymous point matching results with precision and density. The matching method exhibits robustness and strong applicability for asteroid images with cross-scale, large displacement, and large rotation angles. Full article
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17 pages, 47978 KiB  
Article
A Cross-Domain Change Detection Network Based on Instance Normalization
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5785; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245785 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Change detection is a crucial task in remote sensing that finds broad application in land resource planning, forest resource monitoring, natural disaster monitoring, and evaluation. In this paper, we propose a change detection model for cross-domain recognition, which we call CrossCDNet. Our model [...] Read more.
Change detection is a crucial task in remote sensing that finds broad application in land resource planning, forest resource monitoring, natural disaster monitoring, and evaluation. In this paper, we propose a change detection model for cross-domain recognition, which we call CrossCDNet. Our model significantly improves the modeling ability of the change detection on one dataset and demonstrates good generalization on another dataset without any additional operations. To achieve this, we employ a Siamese neural network for change detection and design an IBNM (Instance Normalization and Batch Normalization Module) that utilizes instance normalization and batch normalization in order to serve as the encoder backbone in the Siamese neural network. The IBNM extracts feature maps for each layer, and the Siamese neural network fuses the feature maps of the two branches using a unique operation. Finally, a simple MLP decoder is used for end-to-end change detection. We train our model on the LEVIR-CD dataset and achieve competitive performance on the test set. In cross-domain dataset testing, CrossCDNet outperforms all the other compared models. Specifically, our model achieves an F1-score of 91.69% on the LEVIR-CD dataset and an F1-score of 77.09% on the WHU-CD dataset, where the training set was LEVIR-CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Artificial Intelligence for Environmental Remote Sensing)
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25 pages, 6902 KiB  
Article
Algorithm–Hardware Co-Optimization and Deployment Method for Field-Programmable Gate-Array-Based Convolutional Neural Network Remote Sensing Image Processing
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5784; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245784 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 704
Abstract
In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have gained widespread adoption in remote sensing image processing. Deploying CNN-based algorithms on satellite edge devices can alleviate the strain on data downlinks. However, CNN algorithms present challenges due to their large parameter count and high [...] Read more.
In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have gained widespread adoption in remote sensing image processing. Deploying CNN-based algorithms on satellite edge devices can alleviate the strain on data downlinks. However, CNN algorithms present challenges due to their large parameter count and high computational requirements, which conflict with the satellite platforms’ low power consumption and high real-time requirements. Moreover, remote sensing image processing tasks are diverse, requiring the platform to accommodate various network structures. To address these issues, this paper proposes an algorithm–hardware co-optimization and deployment method for FPGA-based CNN remote sensing image processing. Firstly, a series of hardware-centric model optimization techniques are proposed, including operator fusion and depth-first mapping technology, to minimize the resource overhead of CNN models. Furthermore, a versatile hardware accelerator is proposed to accelerate a wide range of commonly used CNN models after optimization. The accelerator architecture mainly consists of a parallel configurable network processing unit and a multi-level storage structure, enabling the processing of optimized networks with high throughput and low power consumption. To verify the superiority of our method, the introduced accelerator was deployed on an AMD-Xilinx VC709 evaluation board, on which the improved YOLOv2, VGG-16, and ResNet-34 networks were deployed. Experiments show that the power consumption of the accelerator is 14.97 W, and the throughput of the three networks reaches 386.74 giga operations per second (GOPS), 344.44 GOPS, and 182.34 GOPS, respectively. Comparison with related work demonstrates that the co-optimization and deployment method can accelerate remote sensing image processing CNN models and is suitable for applications in satellite edge devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section AI Remote Sensing)
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24 pages, 7092 KiB  
Article
A Robust Index Based on Phenological Features to Extract Sugarcane from Multisource Remote Sensing Data
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5783; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245783 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Sugarcane is a major crop for sugar and biofuel production. Historically, mapping large sugarcane fields meticulously depended heavily on gathering comprehensive and representative training samples. This process was time-consuming and inefficient. Addressing this drawback, this study proposed a novel index, the Normalized Difference [...] Read more.
Sugarcane is a major crop for sugar and biofuel production. Historically, mapping large sugarcane fields meticulously depended heavily on gathering comprehensive and representative training samples. This process was time-consuming and inefficient. Addressing this drawback, this study proposed a novel index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-Based Sugarcane Index (NBSI). NBSI analyzed the temporal variation of sugarcane’s NDVI over a year. Leveraging the distinct growth phases of sugarcane (transplantation, tillering, rapid growth and maturity) four measurement methodologies, f(W1), f(W2), f(V) and f(D), were developed to characterize the features of the sugarcane growth period. Utilizing imagery from Landsat-8, Sentinel-2, and MODIS, this study employed the enhanced gap-filling (EGF) method to reconstruct NDVI time-series data for seven counties in Chongzuo, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, during 2021, subsequently testing NBSI’s ability to extract sugarcane. The results demonstrate the efficiency of NBSI with simple threshold settings: it was able to map sugarcane cultivation areas, exhibiting higher accuracy when compared to traditional classifiers like support vector machines (SVM) and random forests (RF), with an overall accuracy (OA) of 95.24% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.93, significantly surpassing RF (OA = 85.31%, Kappa = 0.84) and SVM (OA = 85.87%, Kappa = 0.86). This confirms the outstanding generalizability and robustness of the proposed method in Chongzuo. Therefore, the NBSI methodology, recognized for its flexibility and practicality, shows potential in enabling the extensive mapping of sugarcane cultivation. This heralds a new paradigm of thought in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cropland Phenology Monitoring Based on Cloud-Computing Platforms)
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32 pages, 76555 KiB  
Article
Fast UAV Image Mosaicking by a Triangulated Irregular Network of Bucketed Tiepoints
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5782; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245782 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 569
Abstract
To take full advantage of rapidly deployable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is essential to effectively compose many UAV images into one observation image over a region of interest. In this paper, we propose fast image mosaicking using a triangulated irregular network (TIN) [...] Read more.
To take full advantage of rapidly deployable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is essential to effectively compose many UAV images into one observation image over a region of interest. In this paper, we propose fast image mosaicking using a triangulated irregular network (TIN) constructed from tiepoints. We conduct pairwise tiepoint extraction and rigorous bundle adjustment to generate rigorous tiepoints. We apply a bucketing algorithm to the tiepoints and generate evenly distributed tiepoints. We then construct a TIN from the bucketed tiepoints and extract seamlines for image stitching based on the TIN. Image mosaicking is completed by mapping UAV images along the seamlines onto a reference plane. The experimental results showed that the image mosaicking based on a TIN of bucketed tiepoints could produce image mosaics with stable and fast performance. We expect that our method could be used for rapid image mosaicking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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19 pages, 9862 KiB  
Article
Segment Anything Model (SAM) Assisted Remote Sensing Supervision for Mariculture—Using Liaoning Province, China as an Example
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5781; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245781 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Obtaining spatial distribution information on mariculture in a low-cost, fast, and efficient manner is crucial for the sustainable development and regulatory planning of coastal zones and mariculture industries. This study, based on the Segment Anything Model (SAM) and high-resolution remote sensing imagery, rapidly [...] Read more.
Obtaining spatial distribution information on mariculture in a low-cost, fast, and efficient manner is crucial for the sustainable development and regulatory planning of coastal zones and mariculture industries. This study, based on the Segment Anything Model (SAM) and high-resolution remote sensing imagery, rapidly extracted mariculture areas in Liaoning Province, a typical northern province in China with significant mariculture activity. Additionally, it explored the actual marine ownership data to investigate the marine use status of Liaoning Province’s mariculture. The total area of mariculture we extracted in Liaoning Province is 1052.89 km2. Among this, the area of cage mariculture is 27.1 km2, while raft mariculture covers 1025.79 km2. Through field investigations, it was determined that in the western part of Liaodong Bay, cage mariculture predominantly involves sea cucumbers. In the southern end of Dalian, the raft mariculture focuses on cultivating kelp. On the other hand, around the islands in the eastern region, the primary crop in raft mariculture is scallops, showing a significant geographical differentiation pattern. In the planned mariculture areas within Liaoning Province’s waters, the proportion of actual development and utilization is 11.2%, while the proportion approved for actual mariculture is 90.2%. This indicates a suspicion that 9.8% of mariculture is possibly in violation of sea occupation rights, which could be due to the untimely updating of marine ownership data. Based on SAM, efficient and accurate extraction of cage mariculture can be achieved. However, the extraction performance for raft mariculture is challenging and remains unsatisfactory. Manual interpretation is still required for satisfactory results in this context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing and Geo-Spatial Science)
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20 pages, 7008 KiB  
Article
A New Deep Neural Network Based on SwinT-FRM-ShipNet for SAR Ship Detection in Complex Near-Shore and Offshore Environments
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5780; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245780 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 529
Abstract
The advent of deep learning has significantly propelled the utilization of neural networks for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ship detection in recent years. However, there are two main obstacles in SAR detection. Challenge 1: The multiscale nature of SAR ships. Challenge 2: The [...] Read more.
The advent of deep learning has significantly propelled the utilization of neural networks for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ship detection in recent years. However, there are two main obstacles in SAR detection. Challenge 1: The multiscale nature of SAR ships. Challenge 2: The influence of intricate near-shore environments and the interference of clutter noise in offshore areas, especially affecting small-ship detection. Existing neural network-based approaches attempt to tackle these challenges, yet they often fall short in effectively addressing small-ship detection across multiple scales and complex backgrounds simultaneously. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel network called SwinT-FRM-ShipNet. Our method introduces an integrated feature extractor, Swin-T-YOLOv5l, which combines Swin Transformer and YOLOv5l. The extractor is designed to highlight the differences between the complex background and the target by encoding both local and global information. Additionally, a feature pyramid IEFR-FPN, consisting of the Information Enhancement Module (IEM) and the Feature Refinement Module (FRM), is proposed to enrich the flow of spatial contextual information, fuse multiresolution features, and refine representations of small and multiscale ships. Furthermore, we introduce recursive gated convolutional prediction heads (GCPH) to explore the potential of high-order spatial interactions and add a larger-sized prediction head to focus on small ships. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our method compared to mainstream approaches on the SSDD and SAR-Ship-Dataset. Our method achieves an F1 score, mAP0.5, and mAP0.5:0.95 of 96.5% (+0.9), 98.2% (+1.0%), and 75.4% (+3.3%), respectively, surpassing the most competitive algorithms. Full article
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26 pages, 57984 KiB  
Article
Quantifying the Impact of Hurricane Harvey on Beach−Dune Systems of the Central Texas Coast and Monitoring Their Changes Using UAV Photogrammetry
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5779; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245779 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Historically, the Texas Gulf Coast has been affected by many tropical storms and hurricanes. The most recent severe impact was caused by Hurricane Harvey, which made landfall in August 2017 on the central Texas coast. We evaluated the impact of Hurricane Harvey on [...] Read more.
Historically, the Texas Gulf Coast has been affected by many tropical storms and hurricanes. The most recent severe impact was caused by Hurricane Harvey, which made landfall in August 2017 on the central Texas coast. We evaluated the impact of Hurricane Harvey on the barrier islands of the central Texas coast, including San Jose Island, Mustang Island, and North Padre Island. We used public data sets, including 1 m resolution bare-earth digital elevation models (DEMs), derived from airborne lidar acquisitions before (2016) and after (2018) Hurricane Harvey, and sub-meter scale aerial imagery pre- and post-Harvey to evaluate changes at a regional scale. Shoreline proxies were extracted to quantify shoreline retreat and/or advance, and DEM differencing was performed to quantify net sediment erosion and accretion or deposition. Unmanned aerial vehicle surveys were conducted at each island to produce high-resolution (cm scale) imagery and topographic data used for morphological and change analyses of beaches and dunes at the local scale. The results show that Hurricane Harvey caused drastic local shoreline retreat, reaching 59 m, and significant erosion levels of beach−dune elements immediately after its landfall. Erosion and recovery processes and their levels were influenced by the local geomorphology of the beach−foredune complexes. It is also observed that local depositional events contributed to their post-storm rebuilding. This study aims to enhance the understanding of major storm impacts on coastal areas and help in future protection planning of the Texas coast. It also has broader implications for coastlines on Earth affected by major storms. Full article
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24 pages, 8423 KiB  
Article
Future Land Use and Flood Risk Assessment in the Guanzhong Plain, China: Scenario Analysis and the Impact of Climate Change
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5778; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245778 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
Continuously global warming and landscape change have aggravated the damage of flood disasters to ecological safety and sustainable development. If the risk of flood disasters under climate and land-use changes can be predicted and evaluated, it will be conducive to flood control, disaster [...] Read more.
Continuously global warming and landscape change have aggravated the damage of flood disasters to ecological safety and sustainable development. If the risk of flood disasters under climate and land-use changes can be predicted and evaluated, it will be conducive to flood control, disaster reduction, and global sustainable development. This study uses bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD), patch-generating land-use simulation (PLUS) coupled with multi-objective optimization (MOP), and entropy weighting to construct a 1 km resolution flood risk assessment framework for the Guanzhong Plain under multiple future scenarios. The results of this study show that BCSD can process the 6th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) data well, with a correlation coefficient of up to 0.98, and that the Kappa coefficient is 0.85. Under the SSP126 scenario, the change in land use from cultivated land to forest land, urban land, and water bodies remained unchanged. In 2030, the proportion of high-risk and medium-risk flood disasters in Guanzhong Plain will be 41.5% and 43.5% respectively. From 2030 to 2040, the largest changes in risk areas were in medium- and high-risk areas. The medium-risk area decreased by 1256.448 km2 (6.4%), and the high-risk area increased by 1197.552 km2 (6.1%). The increase mainly came from the transition from the medium-risk area to the high-risk area. The most significant change in the risk area from 2040 to 2050 is the higher-risk area, which increased by 337 km2 (5.7%), while the medium- and high-risk areas decreased by 726.384 km2 (3.7%) and 667.488 km2 (3.4%), respectively. Under the SSP245 scenario, land use changes from other land use to urban land use; the spatial distribution of the overall flood risk and the overall flood risk of the SSP126 and SSP245 scenarios are similar. The central and western regions of the Guanzhong Plain are prone to future floods, and the high-wind areas are mainly distributed along the Weihe River. In general, the flood risk in the Guanzhong Plain increases, and the research results have guiding significance for flood control in Guanzhong and global plain areas. Full article
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24 pages, 35052 KiB  
Article
Using Keyhole Images to Map Soil Liquefaction Induced by the 1966 Xingtai Ms 6.8 and 7.2 Earthquakes, North China
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5777; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245777 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 607
Abstract
In March 1966, Ms 6.8 and 7.2 earthquakes occurred in Xingtai, North China, resulting in widespread soil liquefaction that caused severe infrastructure damage and economic losses. Using Keyhole satellite imagery combined with aerial images and fieldwork records, we interpreted and identified 66,442 [...] Read more.
In March 1966, Ms 6.8 and 7.2 earthquakes occurred in Xingtai, North China, resulting in widespread soil liquefaction that caused severe infrastructure damage and economic losses. Using Keyhole satellite imagery combined with aerial images and fieldwork records, we interpreted and identified 66,442 liquefaction points and analyzed the coseismic liquefaction distribution characteristics and possible factors that influenced the Xingtai earthquakes. The interpreted coseismic liquefaction was mainly concentrated above the IX-degree zone, accounting for 80% of all liquefaction points. High-density liquefaction zones (point density > 75 pieces/km2) accounted for 22% of the total liquefaction points. Most of the interpreted liquefaction points were located at the region with a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of >0.46 g. The liquefaction area on 22 March was significantly larger than that on 8 March. The region of liquefaction was mainly limited by sandy soil conditions, water system conditions, and seismic geological conditions and distributed in areas with loose fine sand and silt deposits, a high water table (groundwater level increases before both mainshocks corresponding to the liquefaction intensive regions), rivers, and ancient river channels. Liquefaction exhibited a repeating characteristic in the same region. Further understanding of the liquefaction characteristics of Xingtai can provide a reference for the prevention of liquefaction in northern China. Full article
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25 pages, 12860 KiB  
Technical Note
Usage of Airborne LiDAR Data and High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images in Implementing the Smart City Concept
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5776; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245776 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 690
Abstract
The cities of the future should not only be smart, but also smart green, for the well-being of their inhabitants, the biodiversity of their ecosystems and for greater resilience to climate change. In a smart green city, the location of urban green spaces [...] Read more.
The cities of the future should not only be smart, but also smart green, for the well-being of their inhabitants, the biodiversity of their ecosystems and for greater resilience to climate change. In a smart green city, the location of urban green spaces should be based on an analysis of the ecosystem services they provide. Therefore, it is necessary to develop appropriate information technology tools that process data from different sources to support the decision-making process by analysing ecosystem services. This article presents the methodology used to develop an urban green space planning tool, including its main challenges and solutions. Based on the integration of data from ALS, CLMS, topographic data, and orthoimagery, an urban green cover model and a 3D tree model were generated to complement a smart-city model with comprehensive statistics. The applied computational algorithms allow for reports on canopy volume, CO2 reduction, air pollutants, the effect of greenery on average temperature, interception, precipitation absorption, and changes in biomass. Furthermore, the tool can be used to analyse potential opportunities to modify the location of urban green spaces and their impact on ecosystem services. It can also assist urban planners in their decision-making process. Full article
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26 pages, 10327 KiB  
Technical Note
Spectrum Extension of a Real-Aperture Microwave Radiometer Using a Spectrum Extension Convolutional Neural Network for Spatial Resolution Enhancement
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5775; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245775 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Enhancing the spatial resolution of real-aperture microwave radiometers is an essential research topic. The accuracy of the numerical values of brightness temperatures (BTs) observed using microwave radiometers directly affects the precision of the retrieval of marine environmental parameters. Hence, ensuring the accuracy of [...] Read more.
Enhancing the spatial resolution of real-aperture microwave radiometers is an essential research topic. The accuracy of the numerical values of brightness temperatures (BTs) observed using microwave radiometers directly affects the precision of the retrieval of marine environmental parameters. Hence, ensuring the accuracy of the enhanced brightness temperature values is of paramount importance when striving to enhance spatial resolution. A spectrum extension (SE) method is proposed in this paper, which restores the suppressed high-frequency components in the scene BT spectrum through frequency domain transformation and calculations, specifically, dividing the observed BT spectrum by the conjugate of the antenna pattern spectrum and applying a Taylor approximation to suppress error amplification, thereby extending the observed BT spectrum. By using a convolutional neural network to correct errors in the calculated spectrum and then reconstructing the BT through inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT), the enhanced BTs are obtained. Since the extended BT spectrum contains more high-frequency components, namely, the spectrum is closer to that of the original scene BT, the reconstructed BT not only achieves an enhancement in spatial resolution, but also an improvement in the accuracy of BT values. Both the results from simulated data and satellite-measured data processing illustrate that the SE method is able to enhance the spatial resolution of real-aperture microwave radiometers and concurrently improve the accuracy of BT values. Full article
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20 pages, 20493 KiB  
Article
Hydrological Response Assessment of Land Cover Change in a Peruvian Amazonian Basin Impacted by Deforestation Using the SWAT Model
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5774; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245774 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 911
Abstract
The watershed hydrologic conditions in the Madre de Dios (MDD) Basin in the Peruvian Amazon have been irreversibly impacted by deforestation and changes in land cover. These changes have also had detrimental effects on the geomorphology, water quality, and aquatic habitat within the [...] Read more.
The watershed hydrologic conditions in the Madre de Dios (MDD) Basin in the Peruvian Amazon have been irreversibly impacted by deforestation and changes in land cover. These changes have also had detrimental effects on the geomorphology, water quality, and aquatic habitat within the basin. However, there is a scarcity of hydrological modeling studies in this area, primarily due to the limited availability of hydrometeorological data. The primary objective of this study was to examine how deforestation impacts the hydrological conditions in the MDD Basin. By implementing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, this study determined that replacing 12% of the evergreen broadleaf forest area with bare land resulted in a significant increase in surface runoff, by 38% monthly, a 1% annual reduction of evapotranspiration, and an average monthly streamflow increase of 12%. Changes in spatial patterns reveal that the primary impacted watershed is the Inambari River subbasin, a significant tributary of the Madre de Dios River. This area experiences an annual average surge of 187% in surface runoff generation while witnessing an annual average reduction of 8% in evapotranspiration. These findings have important implications, as they can contribute to instances of flooding and extreme inundation events, which have already occurred in the MDD region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Water Resources Vulnerability)
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20 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
Multi-Source T-S Target Recognition via an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Method
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5773; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245773 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 421
Abstract
To realize aerial target recognition in a complex environment, we propose a multi-source Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) intuitionistic fuzzy rules method (MTS-IFRM). In the proposed method, to improve the robustness of the training process of the model, the features of the aerial targets are classified [...] Read more.
To realize aerial target recognition in a complex environment, we propose a multi-source Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) intuitionistic fuzzy rules method (MTS-IFRM). In the proposed method, to improve the robustness of the training process of the model, the features of the aerial targets are classified as the input results of the corresponding T-S target recognition model. The intuitionistic fuzzy approach and ridge regression method are used in the consequent identification, which constructs a regression model. To train the premise parameter and reduce the influence of data noise, novel intuitionistic fuzzy C-regression clustering based on dynamic optimization is proposed. Moreover, a modified adaptive weight algorithm is presented to obtain the final outputs, which improves the classification accuracy of the corresponding model. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recognize the typical aerial targets in error-free and error-prone environments, and that its performance is better than other methods proposed for aerial target recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Sensor Systems and Data Fusion in Remote Sensing II)
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17 pages, 18298 KiB  
Article
All-Weather Monitoring of Ulva prolifera in the Yellow Sea Based on Sentinel-1, Sentinel-3, and NPP Satellite Data
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5772; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245772 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Ulva prolifera (U. prolifera), a global eco-environmental issue, has been recurring annually in the Yellow Sea of China since 2007, leading to significant impacts on the coastal ecosystem and the economies of coastal cities. To enhance the frequency of daily monitoring [...] Read more.
Ulva prolifera (U. prolifera), a global eco-environmental issue, has been recurring annually in the Yellow Sea of China since 2007, leading to significant impacts on the coastal ecosystem and the economies of coastal cities. To enhance the frequency of daily monitoring for U. prolifera and to advance the multi-source remote sensing monitoring system, a combination of the Sentinel-1 SAR remote sensing satellite and the Sentinel-3 OLCI and NPP VIIRS optical remote sensing satellites was employed. This comprehensive analysis encompassed the examination of Sentinel-1 C band characteristics, the range of influence of U. prolifera, and the migration trajectory of its enrichment zones. On 6 June 2021, three satellite images depicted the northwest drift of U. prolifera, followed by a southward movement after making contact with the coast of Qingdao, China, on 12 June. The most extensive impact area caused by U. prolifera was observed on 18 June. Subsequently, the images revealed a contraction and enrichment of U. prolifera in an eas–-west direction. The amalgamation of radar and optical remote sensing satellites in a multi-frequency monitoring approach allows for a continuous all-weather surveillance mechanism for U. prolifera. This mechanism serves to provide timely alerts for the prevention and management of U. prolifera outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Ecosystem Services Based on Satellite Data)
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18 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Early Detection of Dicamba and 2,4-D Herbicide Drifting Injuries on Soybean with a New Spatial–Spectral Algorithm Based on LeafSpec, an Accurate Touch-Based Hyperspectral Leaf Scanner
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5771; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245771 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 937
Abstract
In soybeans, off-target damage from the use of dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides for broadleaf weed control can significantly impact sensitive vegetation and crops. The early detection and assessment of such damage are critical for plant diagnostic labs and regulatory agencies to inform regulated [...] Read more.
In soybeans, off-target damage from the use of dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides for broadleaf weed control can significantly impact sensitive vegetation and crops. The early detection and assessment of such damage are critical for plant diagnostic labs and regulatory agencies to inform regulated usage policies. However, the existing technologies that calculate the average spectrum often struggle to detect and differentiate the damage caused by these herbicides, as they share a similar mode-of-action. In this study, a high-precision spatial and spectral imaging solution was tested for the early detection of dicamba and 2,4-D-induced damage in soybeans. A 2021 study was conducted using LeafSpec, a touch-based hyperspectral leaf scanner, to detect damage on soybean leaves. VIS-NIR (visible–near infrared) hyperspectral images were captured from 180 soybean plants exposed to nine different herbicide treatments at different intervals after spraying. Leaf damage was distinguished as early as 2 h after treatment (HAT) using pairwise partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on spectral data. Leaf color distribution, texture, and morphological features were analyzed to separate herbicide dosages. By fully exploiting the spatial and spectral information from high-resolution hyperspectral images, classification accuracy was improved from 57.4% to over 80% for all evaluation dates. This work demonstrates the potential and advantages of using spectral and spatial features of LeafSpec hyperspectral images for the early and accurate detection of herbicide damage in soybean plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Applications Using Hyperspectral Data)
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28 pages, 11459 KiB  
Article
GIS-Based Progress Monitoring of SDGs towards Achieving Saudi Vision 2030
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5770; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245770 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) serve as a blueprint for securing a sustainable, healthy, and just future for people and the environment. Through the implementation of various policies and initiatives for Vision 2030, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has significantly [...] Read more.
The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) serve as a blueprint for securing a sustainable, healthy, and just future for people and the environment. Through the implementation of various policies and initiatives for Vision 2030, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has significantly advanced its SDGs. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies can play vital roles in tracking and assessing the progress of various government measures. This study investigated the potential of satellite-based RS and GIS technologies for planning, evaluating, and monitoring the status of SDGs. The significance of GIS in Saudi Vision 2030 was examined through a comprehensive literature review and expert interviews. In addition, we reviewed a case study to discuss the role and challenges of utilizing GIS big data for achieving SDGs in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, we explored the use of large datasets from community scientists and satellite monitoring of SDGs. Overall, we aimed to provide insightful recommendations regarding the utilization of GIS in the effective monitoring of the progress of the SDGs in achieving Saudi Vision 2030. This can aid decision-makers and country leaders in developing assessment frameworks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Earth Observation Data for Sustainable Development)
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22 pages, 22245 KiB  
Article
Multi-Sensor Observations Reveal Large-Amplitude Nonlinear Internal Waves in the Kara Gates, Arctic Ocean
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5769; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245769 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
We present multi-sensor measurements from satellites, unmanned aerial vehicle, marine radar, thermal profilers, and repeated conductivity–temperature–depth casts made in the Kara Gates strait connecting the Barents and the Kara Seas during spring tide in August 2021. Analysis of the field data during an [...] Read more.
We present multi-sensor measurements from satellites, unmanned aerial vehicle, marine radar, thermal profilers, and repeated conductivity–temperature–depth casts made in the Kara Gates strait connecting the Barents and the Kara Seas during spring tide in August 2021. Analysis of the field data during an 18-h period from four stations provides evidence that a complex sill in the Kara Gates is the site of regular production of intense large-amplitude nonlinear internal waves. Satellite data show a presence of a relatively warm northeastward surface current from the Barents Sea toward the Kara Sea attaining 0.8–0.9 m/s. Triangle-shaped measurements using three thermal profilers revealed pronounced vertical thermocline oscillations up to 40 m associated with propagation of short-period nonlinear internal waves of depression generated by stratified flow passing a system of shallow sills in the strait. The most intense waves were recorded during the ebb tide slackening and reversal when the background flow was predominantly supercritical. Observed internal waves had wavelengths of ~100 m and traveled northeastward with phase speeds of 0.8–0.9 m/s. The total internal wave energy per unit crest length for the largest waves was estimated to be equal to 1.0–1.8 MJ/m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Polar Ocean, Sea Ice and Atmosphere Dynamics)
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18 pages, 4849 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Soil Moisture Variability and Its Driving Factor
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5768; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245768 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Soil moisture (SM), as a crucial input variable of land surface processes, plays a pivotal role in the global hydrological cycle. The aim of this paper is to examine the spatiotemporal variability in SM in the Heihe River Basin using all-weather land surface [...] Read more.
Soil moisture (SM), as a crucial input variable of land surface processes, plays a pivotal role in the global hydrological cycle. The aim of this paper is to examine the spatiotemporal variability in SM in the Heihe River Basin using all-weather land surface temperature (LST) and reanalysis land surface data. Initially, we downscaled and generated daily 1 km all-weather SM data (2020) for the Heihe River Basin. Subsequently, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of SM using geostatistical and time stability methods. The driving forces of the monthly SM were studied using the optimal parameter-based geographical detector (OPGD) model. The results indicate that the monthly mean values of the downscaled SM data range from 0.115 to 0.146, with a consistently lower SM content and suitable temporal stability throughout the year. Geostatistical analysis revealed that months with a higher SM level exhibit larger random errors and higher variability. Driving analysis based on the factor detector demonstrated that in months with a lower SM level, the q values of each driving factor are relatively small, and the primary driving factors are land cover and elevation. Conversely, in months with a higher SM level, the q values for each driving factor are larger, and the primary driving factors are the normalized difference vegetation index and LST. Furthermore, interaction detector analysis suggested that the spatiotemporal variation in SM is not influenced by a single driving factor but is the result of the interaction among multiple driving factors, with most interactions enhancing the combined effect of two factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
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23 pages, 12597 KiB  
Article
Estimating the SPAD of Litchi in the Growth Period and Autumn Shoot Period Based on UAV Multi-Spectrum
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5767; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245767 (registering DOI) - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 619
Abstract
The relative content of chlorophyll, assessed through the soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD), serves as a reliable indicator reflecting crop photosynthesis and the nutritional status during crop growth and development. In this study, we employed machine learning methods utilizing unmanned aerial vehicle [...] Read more.
The relative content of chlorophyll, assessed through the soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD), serves as a reliable indicator reflecting crop photosynthesis and the nutritional status during crop growth and development. In this study, we employed machine learning methods utilizing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) multi-spectrum remote sensing to predict the SPAD value of litchi fruit. Input features consisted of various vegetation indices and texture features during distinct growth periods, and to streamline the feature set, the full subset regression algorithm was applied for dimensionality reduction. Our findings revealed the superiority of stacking models over individual models. During the litchi fruit development period, the stacking model, incorporating vegetation indices and texture features, demonstrated a validation set coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.94, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.4, and a relative percent deviation (RPD) of 3.0. Similarly, in the combined litchi growing period and autumn shoot period, the optimal model for estimating litchi SPAD was the stacking model based on vegetation indices and texture features, yielding a validation set R2, RMSE, and RPD of 0.84, 3.9, and 1.9, respectively. This study furnishes data support for the precise estimation of litchi SPAD across different periods through varied combinations of independent variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensing and Image Processing in Agricultural Applications)
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40 pages, 19162 KiB  
Review
An Overview of GIS-RS Applications for Archaeological and Cultural Heritage under the DBAR-Heritage Mission
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5766; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245766 (registering DOI) - 17 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
In recent decades, the application of GIS and RS in archaeological and cultural heritage (ACH) has witnessed a notable surge both in terms of quantity and scope. During the initial implementation period (2016–2021) of the Digital Belt and Road Heritage (DBAR-Heritage) working group, [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the application of GIS and RS in archaeological and cultural heritage (ACH) has witnessed a notable surge both in terms of quantity and scope. During the initial implementation period (2016–2021) of the Digital Belt and Road Heritage (DBAR-Heritage) working group, several instances of GIS-RS-based applications in support of cultural heritage conservation have merged. In this paper, in order to discuss the great potential of GIS and RS on the Silk Road, an overview of GIS- and RS-based applications in ACH is first presented. In a substantial portion of the published scientific literature, the identification and comprehension of archaeological sites, the monitoring and risk assessment of cultural heritage, and the management and visualization of cultural heritage data are highlighted. Following this, five illustrative case studies from the DBAR-Heritage working group are presented to exemplify how the integration of GIS and RS serves as key approaches in recognizing and appreciating cultural heritage. These selected case studies showcase the utilization of multi-source data for the identification of linear sites; detailed, refined monitoring and assessment of the Angkor Wat heritage; and the reconstruction of the Silk Road routes. These instances serve as the cornerstone for highlighting current trends in GIS and RS applications in ACH along the Silk Road. These methodologies efficiently integrate multi-source geospatial data and employ multidisciplinary approaches, ultimately furnishing sophisticated and intelligent tools for the exploration and management of archaeological and cultural heritage in the era of Big Earth Data. Subsequently, a comprehensive discussion on the merits and challenges of GIS and RS applications in ACH is presented, followed by an exploration of the current application trends. Finally, the prospects for the widespread application of GIS and RS in ACH along the Silk Road are outlined in accordance with the operational plan of DBAR-Heritage during its second implementation phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and GIS for Archaeology)
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19 pages, 14718 KiB  
Article
The Variability of Snow Cover and Its Contribution to Water Resources in the Chinese Altai Mountains from 2000 to 2022
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5765; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245765 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 577
Abstract
As one of the major water supply systems for inland rivers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, snow cover strongly affects hydrological cycles. In this study, remote sensing datasets combined with in-situ observation data from a route survey of snow cover were used [...] Read more.
As one of the major water supply systems for inland rivers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, snow cover strongly affects hydrological cycles. In this study, remote sensing datasets combined with in-situ observation data from a route survey of snow cover were used to investigate the changes in snow cover parameters on the Chinese Altai Mountains from 2000 to 2022, and the responses of snow cover to climate and hydrology were also discussed. The annual snow cover frequency (SCF), snow cover area, snow depth (SD), and snow density were 45.03%, 2.27 × 104 km2, 23.4 cm, and ~0.21 g·cm−3, respectively. The snow water equivalent ranged from 0.58 km3 to 1.49 km3, with an average of 1.12 km3. Higher and lower SCF were mainly distributed at high elevations and on both sides of the Irtysh river. The maximum and minimum snow cover parameters occurred in the Burqin River Basin and the Lhaster River Basin. In years with high SCF, abnormal westerly airflow was favorable for water vapor transport to the Chinese Altai Mountains, resulting in strong snowfall, and vice versa in years with low SCF. There were significant seasonal differences in the impact of temperature and precipitation on regional SCF changes. The snowmelt runoff ratios were 11.2%, 25.30%, 8.04%, 30.22%, and 11.56% in the Irtysh, Kayit, Haba, Kelan, and Burqin River Basins. Snow meltwater has made a significant contribution to the hydrology of the Chinese Altai Mountains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing in Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology)
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19 pages, 26173 KiB  
Article
Multi-Modal Image Registration Based on Phase Exponent Differences of the Gaussian Pyramid
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5764; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245764 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
In multi-modal images (MMI), the differences in their imaging mechanisms lead to large signal-to-noise ratio differences, which means that the matching of geometric invariance and the matching accuracy of the matching algorithms often cannot be balanced. Therefore, how to weaken the signal-to-noise interference [...] Read more.
In multi-modal images (MMI), the differences in their imaging mechanisms lead to large signal-to-noise ratio differences, which means that the matching of geometric invariance and the matching accuracy of the matching algorithms often cannot be balanced. Therefore, how to weaken the signal-to-noise interference of MMI, maintain good scale and rotation invariance, and obtain high-precision matching correspondences becomes a challenge for multimodal remote sensing image matching. Based on this, a lightweight MMI alignment of the phase exponent of the differences in the Gaussian pyramid (PEDoG) is proposed, which takes into account the phase exponent differences of the Gaussian pyramid with normalized filtration, i.e., it achieves the high-precision identification of matching correspondences points while maintaining the geometric invariance of multi-modal matching. The proposed PEDoG method consists of three main parts, introducing the phase consistency model into the differential Gaussian pyramid to construct a new phase index. Then, three types of MMI (multi-temporal image, infrared–optical image, and map–optical image) are selected as the experimental datasets and compared with the advanced matching methods, and the results show that the NCM (number of correct matches) of the PEDoG method displays a minimum improvement of 3.3 times compared with the other methods, and the average RMSE (root mean square error) is 1.69 pixels, which is the lowest value among all the matching methods. Finally, the alignment results of the image are shown in the tessellated mosaic mode, which shows that the feature edges of the image are connected consistently without interlacing and artifacts. It can be seen that the proposed PEDoG method can realize high-precision alignment while taking geometric invariance into account. Full article
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25 pages, 19795 KiB  
Article
Digitization of the Built Cultural Heritage: An Integrated Methodology for Preservation and Accessibilization of an Art Nouveau Museum
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5763; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245763 - 17 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
The emergence of new technologies has dynamized the way in which cultural heritage is documented, preserved, and passed on to new generations; something that determines a paradigm shift in terms of research in this field. Most operations now also have access to the [...] Read more.
The emergence of new technologies has dynamized the way in which cultural heritage is documented, preserved, and passed on to new generations; something that determines a paradigm shift in terms of research in this field. Most operations now also have access to the virtual component. In this context, the current study aimed to make accessible through virtual and augmented reality one of the most interesting objectives belonging to the Jewish cultural heritage built in Art Nouveau style in the municipality of Oradea (Romania), which currently functions as a La Belle Epoque Museum. In the study, the techniques of terrestrial, aerial photogrammetry, and terrestrial laser scanning were used to remodel, in a three-dimensional format, as faithful as possible and usable in different applications, the special architecture of the exterior of the monument. This information was doubled by making the interior of the monument accessible through a complete and complex series of panoramic images interconnected within a virtual tour that will be made available to tourists interested in discovering the Darvas-La Roche House. The virtual tour, which includes both graphic, textual, and audio information, represents an innovative approach for the buildings built in Art Nouveau style in the municipality of Oradea, representing a virtual bridge for better promotion of the tourist destination and for the awareness of the local people regarding the importance of preserving and appreciating the local cultural heritage. This is all the more important as this is the first initiative to make the Art Nouveau buildings in Oradea Municipality accessible to the general public in an innovative way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling and GIS for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage)
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28 pages, 5213 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Ionospheric Irregularities Caused by the September 2017 Geomagnetic Storm Using Ground-Based GNSS, Swarm, and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Data near the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly in East Africa
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5762; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245762 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Geomagnetic storms are one of the leading causes of ionospheric irregularities, depending on their intensity. The 6–10 September 2017 geomagnetic storm, the most severe geomagnetic event of the year, resulted from an X9 solar flare and a subsequent coronal mass ejection (CME), with [...] Read more.
Geomagnetic storms are one of the leading causes of ionospheric irregularities, depending on their intensity. The 6–10 September 2017 geomagnetic storm, the most severe geomagnetic event of the year, resulted from an X9 solar flare and a subsequent coronal mass ejection (CME), with the first sudden storm commencements (SSC) occurring at 23:43 UT on day 06, coinciding with a Sym-H value of approximately 50 nT, triggered by a sudden increase in the solar wind. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and disturbance storm time (Dst) increased when the first SSC occurred at 23:43 UT on 6 September. The second SSC occurred with a more vigorous intensity at 23:00 UT on 7 September, with the Kp index reaching 8 and the auroral electrojet (AE) 2500 nT. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon using data from Swarm, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, and ground-based GNSS networks in East Africa to measure ionospheric irregularities near the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). In this procedure, the total electron content (TEC), amplitude scintillation (S4), and rate of TEC Index (ROTI) were implemented to recognize ionospheric irregularities appearing during the geomagnetic storm. In addition, the Langmuir plasma probes of the Swarm satellites were employed to identify the rate of electron density index (RODI). The results obtained from the different techniques indicate the effects of geomagnetic storms in terms of increased ionospheric irregularities indicated by geophysical ionospheric parameters. This study demonstrates the potential of using space-based measurements to detect the effects of a geomagnetic storm on ionospheric irregularities for regions where ground-based ionospheric observations are rarely available, such as above the oceans. Full article
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23 pages, 7881 KiB  
Article
Improving Out-of-Distribution Generalization in SAR Image Scene Classification with Limited Training Samples
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5761; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245761 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 486
Abstract
For practical maritime SAR image classification tasks with special imaging platforms, scenes to be classified are often different from those in the training sets. The quantity and diversity of the available training data can also be extremely limited. This problem of out-of-distribution (OOD) [...] Read more.
For practical maritime SAR image classification tasks with special imaging platforms, scenes to be classified are often different from those in the training sets. The quantity and diversity of the available training data can also be extremely limited. This problem of out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization with limited training samples leads to a sharp drop in the performance of conventional deep learning algorithms. In this paper, a knowledge-guided neural network (KGNN) model is proposed to overcome these challenges. By analyzing the saliency features of various maritime SAR scenes, universal knowledge in descriptive sentences is summarized. A feature integration strategy is designed to assign the descriptive knowledge to the ResNet-18 backbone. Both the individual semantic information and the inherent relations of the entities in SAR images are addressed. The experimental results show that our KGNN method outperforms conventional deep learning models in OOD scenarios with varying training sample sizes and achieves higher robustness in handling distributional shifts caused by weather conditions, terrain type, and sensor characteristics. In addition, the KGNN model converges within many fewer epochs during training. The performance improvement indicates that the KGNN model learns representations guided by beneficial properties for ODD generalization with limited training samples. Full article
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24 pages, 29480 KiB  
Article
Associating Anomaly Detection Strategy Based on Kittler’s Taxonomy with Image Editing to Extend the Mapping of Polluted Water Bodies
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5760; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245760 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Anomaly detection based on Kittler’s Taxonomy (ADS-KT) has emerged as a powerful strategy for identifying and categorizing patterns that exhibit unexpected behaviors, being useful for monitoring environmental disasters and mapping their consequences in satellite images. However, the presence of clouds in images limits [...] Read more.
Anomaly detection based on Kittler’s Taxonomy (ADS-KT) has emerged as a powerful strategy for identifying and categorizing patterns that exhibit unexpected behaviors, being useful for monitoring environmental disasters and mapping their consequences in satellite images. However, the presence of clouds in images limits the analysis process. This article investigates the impact of associating ADS-KT with image editing, mainly to help machines learn how to extend the mapping of polluted water bodies to areas occluded by clouds. Our methodology starts by applying ADS-KT to two images from the same geographic region, where one image has meaningfully more overlay contamination by cloud cover than the other. Ultimately, the methodology applies an image editing technique to reconstruct areas occluded by clouds in one image based on non-occluded areas from the other image. The results of 99.62% accuracy, 74.53% precision, 94.05% recall, and 83.16% F-measure indicate that this study stands out among the best of the state-of-the-art approaches. Therefore, we conclude that the association of ADS-KT with image editing showed promising results in extending the mapping of polluted water bodies by a machine to occluded areas. Future work should compare our methodology to ADS-KT associated with other cloud removal methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Surface Water Monitoring)
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