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Energies, Volume 16, Issue 18 (September-2 2023) – 348 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Recent advances in semiconductor and light devices have triggered remarkable research interest to the development of these optical wireless communication (OWC) links: free-space optical (FSO) links, ultraviolet links that operate within the (UV-C) spectral band, and transdermal optical wireless (TOW) links. In the current review, a background on the energy efficiency challenges in wireless communication is presented. Each of these OWC technologies is mainly discussed in terms of key energy consumption requirements and major limiting factors that affect their power performance. Energy-efficient modulation formats as well as other powerful techniques for performance enhancement such as diversity and relaying are assessed. The survey is concluded with a discussion regarding their future energy consumption requirements and trends. View this paper
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24 pages, 6208 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Tuning Power–Frequency Droop for Improved Grid–Forming Inverter and Synchronous Generator Transient Load Sharing
by Jan Westman and Ramtin Hadidi
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6758; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186758 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Poor transient load sharing has been observed during the parallel operation of synchronous generators (SGs) and droop-controlled grid-forming (GFM) inverter-based resources (IBRs) in islanded microgrids. This can result in overcurrent protections, causing the inverters to trip, which leads to the collapse of voltage [...] Read more.
Poor transient load sharing has been observed during the parallel operation of synchronous generators (SGs) and droop-controlled grid-forming (GFM) inverter-based resources (IBRs) in islanded microgrids. This can result in overcurrent protections, causing the inverters to trip, which leads to the collapse of voltage and frequency. In this article, small-signal analysis supported by electromagnetic transients (EMTs) simulation is performed on a detailed model of a microgrid containing IBRs and an SG to identify underdamped modes and their sensitivities to the power–frequency (P-F) droop parameter. Further EMT simulation of a more complex microgrid model with multiple GFM IBRs and SGs is performed to determine whether trends identified from the modal analysis extend to cases where the number of SGs in operation may vary. The objective is to investigate the effectiveness of tuning this parameter to reduce the likelihood of overcurrents in response to load and generation disturbances. The work uncovers both fast and slow modes of concern. Primarily, the findings show that increasing the P-F droop value improves the damping of the slower mode while degrading the damping of the faster mode, leading to an upper limit on the damping improvement of the GFM IBR output current. In EMT simulations of the more complex microgrid, the greatest damping improvement still exhibits significant maximum overshoot. Furthermore, the optimal value of the P-F droop parameter is sensitive to the number of SGs in operation. The conclusion is that tuning the P-F droop parameter is not an effective means to avoid the overcurrent tripping of GFM IBRs during response to large load or generation disturbances when operating in parallel to SGs in islanded microgrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Opportunities for Renewable Energy)
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16 pages, 10448 KiB  
Article
Design of Planar Transformers for LLC Converters in High Power Density On-Board Chargers for Electric Vehicles
by Won-Jin Son and Byoung Kuk Lee
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6757; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186757 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 3187
Abstract
This article presents a planar transformer design and optimization method for high power density on-board chargers (OBCs) utilized in electric vehicles (EVs). Owing to considerations of electrical safety, OBCs require an isolated converter, leading to a substantial increase in volume due to the [...] Read more.
This article presents a planar transformer design and optimization method for high power density on-board chargers (OBCs) utilized in electric vehicles (EVs). Owing to considerations of electrical safety, OBCs require an isolated converter, leading to a substantial increase in volume due to the inclusion of a transformer. To address this issue and achieve high power density, a planar transformer is used, and an optimized design method is proposed for pattern arrangement, width, and core shape. The feasibility of the design is verified through the development of a 3.3 kW OBC prototype. Consequently, when compared to conventional transformers, the design method in this article results in a 27% reduction in the transformer’s height and a 20% reduction in its overall volume. This reduction is advantageous for meeting the requirements of high power density OBCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics Converters for On-Board Electric Power Systems)
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19 pages, 6505 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Equipment Operation in Power Systems Based on the Use in the Design of Frequency-Dependent Models
by Yury Monakov, Alexander Tarasov, Alexander Ivannikov, Alexander Murzintsev and Nikita Shutenko
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6756; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186756 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 815
Abstract
This article is devoted to the biggest problem of our time: the development of modern and highly efficient equipment for energy systems. We propose improved mathematical models for starting asynchronous motors in isolated power systems. The results of experiments carried out on a [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the biggest problem of our time: the development of modern and highly efficient equipment for energy systems. We propose improved mathematical models for starting asynchronous motors in isolated power systems. The results of experiments carried out on a model of an isolated network are presented. Both frequency-dependent and frequency-independent models were used. A comparison of various models is given. The advantages of the frequency-dependent model, which provides a more accurate representation of the processes, are shown. The obtained results were discussed, and the possibility of their use for future research was assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotechnologies and Structures in the Energy Sector)
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17 pages, 7011 KiB  
Article
Internet-Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Platform for Plug-In Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles
by Yi Zhang, Qiang Guo and Jie Song
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6755; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186755 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
In order to simulate a PHEV’s dynamic characteristics with high fidelity and study the degradation process of a PHEV’s power sources in real-world driving conditions, an Internet-distributed hardware-in-the-loop (ID-HIL) simulation platform for PHEVs is established. It connects several geographically distributed hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) subsystems [...] Read more.
In order to simulate a PHEV’s dynamic characteristics with high fidelity and study the degradation process of a PHEV’s power sources in real-world driving conditions, an Internet-distributed hardware-in-the-loop (ID-HIL) simulation platform for PHEVs is established. It connects several geographically distributed hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) subsystems (including an in-loop vehicle, Cloud server, driving motor, fuel cells, and lithium battery) via the Internet to simulate the powertrain of a plug-in fuel cell hybrid vehicle (PHEV). In the proposed ID-HIL system, the in-loop vehicle without a hybrid powertrain can simulate a PHEV’s dynamic characteristics. Meanwhile, the other in-loop subsystems can work in the same way as if they were on board. Thus, the degradation process of the power sources, such as the fuel cells and lithium battery, can be studied in real-world driving conditions. A 21 km on-road driving test proves the ID-HIL’s feasibility and fidelity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Modeling and Optimization of Electrical Drives Technology)
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21 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
New Renewable Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) Biofuel: A Combustion and Emissions Study in an Optical Engine
by Shivang Khare, Karl Oskar Pires Bjørgen, Komeil Kohansal, Muhammad Salman Haider, Daniele Castello, Thomas Helmer Pedersen, Terese Løvås and David Robert Emberson
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6754; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186754 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
This study involves the investigation of municipal solid waste (MSW) based biofuel in order to demonstrate its utilization as a diesel blendstock in a compression ignition (CI) engine. The biofuel was produced from the Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) process. The tested biofuels represented both [...] Read more.
This study involves the investigation of municipal solid waste (MSW) based biofuel in order to demonstrate its utilization as a diesel blendstock in a compression ignition (CI) engine. The biofuel was produced from the Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) process. The tested biofuels represented both distilled (known as nonupgraded HTL biofuel) and hydrotreated (known as upgraded HTL biofuel) fuels, obtained from raw bio-crude. The effects of the HTL biofuel and diesel blending on the combustion and emission characteristics were investigated. A comparative study of nonupgraded and upgraded HTL biofuel in terms of combustion and emissions was conducted. The upgraded HTL biofuel was blended with reference diesel (RD) by 5%, 10%, and 40% by weight, respectively, and the nonupgraded HTL biofuel was blended with RD by 10% by weight. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible compression ignition chamber (OACIC) with engine-like thermodynamic conditions. The parameters were recorded at a constant speed and at fixed thermodynamic conditions. The heat release rate (HRR), in-cylinder pressure, ignition delay (ID), flame lift-off length (FLOL), and in-flame soot were measured. The PM, CO, NOx, and CO2 were also recorded. In summary, the HTL blends exhibited a close resemblance to the reference diesel across a range of combustion parameters and regulated emissions. Furthermore, the upgraded HTL blends outperformed the nonupgraded blend in terms of both combustion characteristics and emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J: Thermal Management)
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30 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
Business Model Selection for Community Energy Storage: A Multi Criteria Decision Making Approach
by Prabha Bhola, Alexandros-Georgios Chronis, Panos Kotsampopoulos and Nikos Hatziargyriou
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6753; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186753 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
This paper explores business models for community energy storage (CES) and examines their potential and feasibility at the local level. By leveraging Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches and real-world case studies in Europe and India, it presents insights into CES deployment opportunities, [...] Read more.
This paper explores business models for community energy storage (CES) and examines their potential and feasibility at the local level. By leveraging Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches and real-world case studies in Europe and India, it presents insights into CES deployment opportunities, challenges, and best practices. Different business models, including community energy cooperatives, utility–community partnerships, demand response, energy services, and market mechanisms, are analyzed. The proposed method combines the MCDM method PROMETHEE II with the fuzzy set theory to obtain a complete CES business model ranking, addressing project uncertainties. The analysis emphasizes CES’s role in balancing local renewable energy supply and demand, facilitating energy sharing, and achieving energy independence. Findings prioritize models like Community Cooperative, Energy Arbitrage, and Energy Arbitrage Peak Shaving for CES with renewables. Environmental benefits include reduced diesel use and greenhouse gas emissions. Efficient cooperatives are advocated to recover costs and enable competitive energy prices. The paper highlights the need for novel value propositions to boost the energy transition in local communities. This research contributes to the discourse on CES business models, fostering knowledge exchange and promoting effective strategies for sustainable energy systems. Full article
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24 pages, 6315 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Ignition and Stability Limits of Premixed Methane/Air Combustion in Micro-Channels
by Almoutazbellah Kutkut, Mohsen Ayoobi, Marc E. Baumgardner and V’yacheslav Akkerman
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6752; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186752 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Understanding and improving the performance of miniature devices powered by micro-combustion have been the focus of continued attention of researchers recently. The goal of the present work is to investigate the behavior of premixed methane–air combustion in a quartz microreactor with an externally [...] Read more.
Understanding and improving the performance of miniature devices powered by micro-combustion have been the focus of continued attention of researchers recently. The goal of the present work is to investigate the behavior of premixed methane–air combustion in a quartz microreactor with an externally controlled wall temperature. Specifically, the impacts of the flow inlet velocity, the equivalence ratio, and the microreactor channel size are examined. This study is conducted by means of computational simulations, and the results are validated against prior experimental data, as well as by other similar studies in the literature. Utilizing simulation results with detailed chemistry, the present work provides more in-depth insight into a variety of phenomena, such as ignition, flame propagation, flames with repetitive extinctions and ignitions (FREI), and flame stabilization. In particular, the ignition, the flame span, and the FREI-related characteristics are scrutinized to understand the underlying physics of the flame stability/instability modes. It is shown that the flames appear stable at higher inlet velocities, while the FREI mode is detected at a lower inlet velocity, depending on the equivalence ratio and the channel size. The findings also explain how different operating conditions impact the flame characteristics in both stability modes. Full article
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23 pages, 943 KiB  
Article
Application of Circular Thermoeconomics to the Diagnosis of Energy Systems
by Antonio Valero and César Torres
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6751; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186751 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 700
Abstract
This paper reviews the fundamentals of the thermoeconomic diagnosis theory. Thermoeconomic diagnosis is one of the main applications of the exergy cost theory used to identify the causes of additional resource consumption of a system due to inefficiencies in its components, published in [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the fundamentals of the thermoeconomic diagnosis theory. Thermoeconomic diagnosis is one of the main applications of the exergy cost theory used to identify the causes of additional resource consumption of a system due to inefficiencies in its components, published in the late 1990s. Thermoeconomic diagnosis has usually been applied to diagnose power plants with high consumption of fossil fuels and fixed production. However, it does not consider the final production and waste generation variation. In this paper, Circular Thermoeconomics is applied to analyze in depth the effect of malfunctions on additional waste generation and changes in the final output of the system. This new formulation can be applied to polygeneration systems, where there is a simultaneous variation of final products, and to process integration and industrial symbiosis, where a part of the waste generated by a plant could be reused in other processes or plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems)
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14 pages, 1045 KiB  
Article
Data Augmentation and Feature Selection for the Prediction of the State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Artificial Neural Networks
by Sebastian Pohlmann, Ali Mashayekh, Manuel Kuder, Antje Neve and Thomas Weyh
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186750 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for the electrification of the transport sector and the corresponding move to renewable energy. It is vital to determine the condition of lithium-ion batteries at all times to optimize their operation. Because of the various loading conditions [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for the electrification of the transport sector and the corresponding move to renewable energy. It is vital to determine the condition of lithium-ion batteries at all times to optimize their operation. Because of the various loading conditions these batteries are subjected to and the complex structure of the electrochemical systems, it is not possible to directly measure their condition, including their state of charge. Instead, battery models are used to emulate their behavior. Data-driven models have become of increasing interest because they demonstrate high levels of accuracy with less development time; however, they are highly dependent on their database. To overcome this problem, in this paper, the use of a data augmentation method to improve the training of artificial neural networks is analyzed. A linear regression model, as well as a multilayer perceptron and a convolutional neural network, are trained with different amounts of artificial data to estimate the state of charge of a battery cell. All models are tested on real data to examine the applicability of the models in a real application. The lowest test error is obtained for the convolutional neural network, with a mean absolute error of 0.27%. The results highlight the potential of data-driven models and the potential to improve the training of these models using artificial data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Modelling, Applications, and Technology)
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12 pages, 2894 KiB  
Article
A Carbon Reduction and Waste Heat Utilization Strategy for Generators in Scalable PV—Diesel Generator Campus Microgrids
by Stephanus Erasmus and Jacques Maritz
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6749; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186749 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
The increased unavailability of electricity from the National Utility in South Africa, coupled with the extreme conditions of rural areas and general lack of infrastructure, leads to the setup of unique microgrids to utilize the conditions available. One such unique microgrid, a scalable [...] Read more.
The increased unavailability of electricity from the National Utility in South Africa, coupled with the extreme conditions of rural areas and general lack of infrastructure, leads to the setup of unique microgrids to utilize the conditions available. One such unique microgrid, a scalable photovoltaic (PV)-Diesel generator microgrid, is situated in the Phuthaditjhaba district on the University of the Free State (UFS) Qwaqwa campus in South Africa. Waste heat and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are considered inherent by-products of campus hybrid PV—Diesel generator microgrids with high utilization opportunities for both heat exchange and carbon offsets. This paper presents confirmation that available waste heat from a typical rural campus microgrid can be stored through the use of a rock bed thermal energy storage (TES) system. It was identified that, through the temperature profile of the stored waste heat, thermal energy can be utilized through deferable (time-independent) and non-deferable (time-dependent) strategies. Both utilization strategies are dependent on the type of application or applications chosen through demand-side management. Carbon emission reduction takes place through the reduction of diesel consumption due to the utilization of waste heat for applications previously served by diesel generators. Design novelties are presented using the concept of rock bed TES within a microgrid setup. Full article
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25 pages, 1929 KiB  
Article
A Review of On-Board Carbon Capture and Storage Techniques: Solutions to the 2030 IMO Regulations
by Riccardo Risso, Lucia Cardona, Maurizio Archetti, Filippo Lossani, Barbara Bosio and Dario Bove
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6748; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186748 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
The maritime sector is among the most polluting industrial sectors in the world. To oppose this and following the global trend towards carbon neutrality, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced the objective to reduce the CO2 emission of vessels by the year [...] Read more.
The maritime sector is among the most polluting industrial sectors in the world. To oppose this and following the global trend towards carbon neutrality, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced the objective to reduce the CO2 emission of vessels by the year 2030 of 40% and at the same time the European Union will introduce the maritime sector into the ETS system. Therefore, there is a need to reduce the emissions of the working vessels, and this can be accomplished through the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). There are many possible CCS technologies that can be applied to vessels: the one that has already been studied the most is the ammine scrubbing of the exhaust gasses. In parallel, other technologies have been proposed to reduce volume and energy needs, which are the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs), membrane technologies, fixed bed absorption processes and limestone. The review shows how, depending on the used vessel type, the technology to be used may vary, and proposes some preferential options for different applications. The obtained results can be of relevant importance in the present context of energy transition promoting immediate retrofitting to respond to the urgent request for intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies for Energy Transition)
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14 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
Feedback Control in Swedish Multi-Family Buildings for Lower Energy Demand and Assured Indoor Temperature—Measurements and Interviews
by Daniel Olsson, Peter Filipsson and Anders Trüschel
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6747; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186747 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
Europe needs to save energy, and lowered indoor temperature is frequently promoted as part of the solution. To facilitate this, heating control systems with feedback from indoor temperature sensors are often required to avoid thermal discomfort and achieve long-term temperature reductions. This article [...] Read more.
Europe needs to save energy, and lowered indoor temperature is frequently promoted as part of the solution. To facilitate this, heating control systems with feedback from indoor temperature sensors are often required to avoid thermal discomfort and achieve long-term temperature reductions. This article describes a measurement- and interview-based study on feedback control where 107 Swedish multifamily buildings were analysed. The obtained results show that buildings with lowered indoor temperatures had reduced annual heating demand by 4 kWh/m2 and a reduced indoor temperature of 0.4 °C. There were, however, significant individual differences and even buildings with increased indoor temperatures, which harmed the energy savings. Temperature fluctuation was most often significantly reduced, but the impact on heating power demand during cold weather was, on average, only 2%. An interview with different actors indicated higher energy savings, possibly due to their stock’s original room temperature levels. Several interviewees also mentioned other advantages of temperature mapping. Most of the results obtained in this study were in line with several previous investigations. The study’s novelty lies in the large number of investigated buildings with mature commercial heat control technology, including PI-control for adjusting supply temperature, indoor temperature sensors in almost every apartment and a parallel analysis of additional affected parameters. Full article
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24 pages, 5358 KiB  
Article
Application of the Energy Efficiency Mathematical Model to Diagnose Photovoltaic Micro-Systems
by Wiktor Olchowik, Marcin Bednarek, Tadeusz Dąbrowski and Adam Rosiński
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6746; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186746 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
The intensive development of photovoltaic (PV) micro-systems contributes to increased interest in energy efficiency and diagnosing the condition of such solutions. Optimizing system energy efficiency and servicing costs are particularly noteworthy among the numerous issues associated with this topic. This research paper addresses [...] Read more.
The intensive development of photovoltaic (PV) micro-systems contributes to increased interest in energy efficiency and diagnosing the condition of such solutions. Optimizing system energy efficiency and servicing costs are particularly noteworthy among the numerous issues associated with this topic. This research paper addresses the easy and reliable diagnosis of PV system malfunctions. It discusses the original PV system energy efficiency simulation model with proprietary methods for determining total solar irradiance on the plane of cells installed at any inclination angle and azimuth, as well as PV cell temperature and efficiency as a function of solar irradiance. Based on this simulation model, the authors developed procedures for the remote diagnosis of PV micro-systems. Verification tests covered two independent PV systems over the period from April 2022 to May 2023. The obtained results confirm the high credibility level of both the adopted energy efficiency simulation model and the proposed method for diagnosing PV system functional status. Full article
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16 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Abnormal Event Detection in Nuclear Power Plants via Attention Networks
by Tianhao Zhang, Qianqian Jia, Chao Guo and Xiaojin Huang
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6745; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186745 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 862
Abstract
Ensuring the safety of nuclear energy necessitates proactive measures to prevent the escalation of severe operational conditions. This article presents an efficient and interpretable framework for the swift identification of abnormal events in nuclear power plants (NPPs), equipping operators with timely insights for [...] Read more.
Ensuring the safety of nuclear energy necessitates proactive measures to prevent the escalation of severe operational conditions. This article presents an efficient and interpretable framework for the swift identification of abnormal events in nuclear power plants (NPPs), equipping operators with timely insights for effective decision-making. A novel neural network architecture, combining Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and attention mechanisms, is proposed to address the challenge of signal coupling. The derivative dynamic time warping (DDTW) method enhances interpretability by comparing time series operating parameters during abnormal and normal states. Experimental validation demonstrates high real-time accuracy, underscoring the broader applicability of the approach across NPPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B4: Nuclear Energy)
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13 pages, 10419 KiB  
Brief Report
Numerical Study of the Torque and Power of a Hydraulic Turbine with Oscillating Blades
by Rositsa Velichkova, Rosen Iliev, George Pichurov, Detelin Markov, Iskra Simova, Martin Pushkarov and Tsvetan Tsalov
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6744; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186744 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 774
Abstract
This paper presents results from a physical and numerical study of a new type of axial hydraulic turbine with oscillating blades, which is used to utilize wind waves energy. The pilot studies were conducted on a test bench constructed in one of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents results from a physical and numerical study of a new type of axial hydraulic turbine with oscillating blades, which is used to utilize wind waves energy. The pilot studies were conducted on a test bench constructed in one of the labs of the “Department of Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Machines” in the Technical University of Sofia. The numerical computations were performed with the commercial software package Ansys Fluent 2022. The flow has been modeled with the k-ω (SST) turbulence model, whose main advantage is to resolve the viscous sublayer in over refined meshes. A pressure-based solver was used since the fluid is incompressible and the flow velocity is low. The study investigated several different pitch angles of the blades ranging between 0 and 80 deg at prescribed upstream flow velocities from 0.15 m/s to 2.0 m/s. The dependencies of the torque coefficient, power coefficient, and the optimal tip speed ratio on the flow velocity are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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20 pages, 8314 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Fuel Efficiency of Cogeneration Plants by Fuel Oil Afterburning in Exhaust Gas before Boilers
by Victoria Kornienko, Mykola Radchenko, Andrii Radchenko, Hanna Koshlak and Roman Radchenko
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6743; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186743 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) has found wide application in various industries because it very effectively meets the growing demand for electricity, steam, hot water, and also has a number of operational, environmental, economic advantages over traditional electrical and thermal systems. [...] Read more.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) has found wide application in various industries because it very effectively meets the growing demand for electricity, steam, hot water, and also has a number of operational, environmental, economic advantages over traditional electrical and thermal systems. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the afterburning of fuel oil in the combustion engine exhaust gas at the boiler inlet were carried out in order to enhance the efficiency of cogeneration power plants; this was achieved by increasing the boiler steam capacity, resulting in reduced production of waste heat and exhaust emissions. The afterburning of fuel oil in the exhaust gas of diesel engines is possible due to a high the excess air ratio (three to four). Based on the experimental data of the low-temperature corrosion of the gas boiler condensing heat exchange surfaces, the admissible values of corrosion rate and the lowest exhaust gas temperature which provide deep exhaust gas heat utilization and high efficiency of the exhaust gas boiler were obtained. The use of WFE and afterburning fuel oil provides an increase in efficiency and power of the CPPs based on diesel engines of up to 5% due to a decrease in the exhaust gas temperature at the outlet of the EGB from 150 °C to 90 °C and waste heat, accordingly. The application of efficient environmentally friendly exhaust gas boilers with low-temperature condensing surfaces can be considered a new and prosperous trend in diesel engine exhaust gas heat utilization through the afterburning of fuel oil and in CPPs as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer and Multiphase Flow)
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15 pages, 16738 KiB  
Project Report
Estimation of Electrical Energy Consumption in Irrigated Rice Crops in Southern Brazil
by Daniel Lima Lemes, Matheus Mello Jacques, Natalia Bastos Sousa, Daniel Pinheiro Bernardon, Mauricio Sperandio, Juliano Andrade Silva, Lucas M. Chiara and Martin Wolter
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6742; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186742 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
On average, 70% of the world’s freshwater is used in agriculture, with farmers transitioning to electrical irrigation systems to increase productivity, reduce climate uncertainties, and decrease water consumption. In Brazil, where agriculture is a significant part of the economy, this transition has reached [...] Read more.
On average, 70% of the world’s freshwater is used in agriculture, with farmers transitioning to electrical irrigation systems to increase productivity, reduce climate uncertainties, and decrease water consumption. In Brazil, where agriculture is a significant part of the economy, this transition has reached record levels over the last decade, further increasing the impact of energy consumption. This paper presents a methodology that utilizes the U-Net model to detect flooded rice fields using Sentinel-2 satellite images and estimates the electrical energy consumption required to pump water for this irrigation. The proposed approach involves grouping the detected flooded areas using k-means clustering with the electricity customers’ geographical coordinates, provided by the Power Distribution Company. The methodology was evaluated in a dataset of satellite images from southern Brazil, and the results demonstrate the potential of using U-Net models to identify rice fields. Furthermore, comparing the estimated electrical energy consumption required for irrigation in each cluster with the billed energy values provides valuable insights into the sustainable management of rice production systems and the electricity grid, helping to identify non-technical losses and improve irrigation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F5: Artificial Intelligence and Smart Energy)
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24 pages, 3244 KiB  
Review
Blockchain-Enabled Microgrids: Toward Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading and Flexible Demand Management
by Maarten Evens, Patricia Ercoli and Alessia Arteconi
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6741; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186741 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
The energy transition to a decarbonized energy scenario leads toward distributed energy resources in which end users can both generate and consume renewable electricity. As a result, several challenges arise in terms of decentralized energy resource management and grid reliability. With microgrids, the [...] Read more.
The energy transition to a decarbonized energy scenario leads toward distributed energy resources in which end users can both generate and consume renewable electricity. As a result, several challenges arise in terms of decentralized energy resource management and grid reliability. With microgrids, the cooperation of distributed energy resources is improved, and with peer-to-peer energy exchange and demand response programs, better energy allocation and flexible management of consumption loads according to the needs of supply systems are achieved. However, effective peer-to-peer energy allocation and flexible demand management in microgrids require the development of market structures, pricing mechanisms, and demand response strategies enabled by a reliable communication system. In this field, blockchain offers a decentralized communication tool for energy transactions that can provide transparency, security, and immutability. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of key factors for peer-to-peer energy trading and flexible energy demand management in blockchain-enabled microgrids. The goal is to provide guidelines on the basic components that are useful in ensuring efficient operation of microgrids. Finally, using a holistic view of technology adoption as a tool for peer-to-peer communication in microgrids, this paper reviews projects aimed at implementing blockchain in energy trading and flexible demand management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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12 pages, 3554 KiB  
Communication
Investigation on the Origin of Sluggish Anionic Redox Kinetics in Cation-Disordered Cathode
by Qi Liang, Peirong Li, Yue Zhao, Supeng Chen, Jixiang Yin, Yingchun Lyu, Qiang Li and Qinghao Li
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6740; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186740 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Cation-disordered rock salt (DRX) cathodes exhibit high specific capacity due to the simultaneous use of anionic and cationic redox reactions. However, DRX systems face severe challenges that limit their practical applications; a most important challenge is their poor rate performance. In this work, [...] Read more.
Cation-disordered rock salt (DRX) cathodes exhibit high specific capacity due to the simultaneous use of anionic and cationic redox reactions. However, DRX systems face severe challenges that limit their practical applications; a most important challenge is their poor rate performance. In this work, the structure and morphology of Li1.17Ti0.58Ni0.25O2 (LTNO) were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), etc. In combination with various electrochemical characterizations, we found that the sluggish kinetics of anionic redox within LTNO can be the key reason for the inferior rate performance. By sample relaxation at moderate temperature and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), the ligand-to-metal charge transfer process is verified to occur between O and Ni and exhibits a prolonged characteristic time of 113.8 min. This time-consuming charge transfer process is verified to be the very fundamental origin of the slow kinetics of oxygen oxidation and reduction. This claim is further supported by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) at different temperatures. These findings provide essential guidance for understanding and further optimizing cathodes with anion redox reactions not only in the context of DRX cathodes but also conventional Li-rich cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D2: Electrochem: Batteries, Fuel Cells, Capacitors)
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22 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Cooking Fuel Choice and Wellbeing: A Global Perspective
by Nigel Scott, Jerome Nsengiyaremye, Jacob Fodio Todd and Jon Leary
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6739; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186739 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
This paper assesses the relationship between the proportion of the population with primary reliance on different types of fuels for cooking (national averages) and a number of key wellbeing indices. The study uses a data set created from a combination of the Gallup [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the relationship between the proportion of the population with primary reliance on different types of fuels for cooking (national averages) and a number of key wellbeing indices. The study uses a data set created from a combination of the Gallup World Poll database and the World Health Organisation (WHO) Household Energy Database. The Gallup database comprises multinational survey data and contains wellbeing indices (Personal Health, Social Life, Civic Engagement, Life Evaluation, Negative Experience, etc.). The WHO database gives the proportion of a population with primary reliance on different types of cooking fuels. In order to understand the relative importance of the choice of cooking fuels in terms of wellbeing, regression modelling is used to control for the effects of demographic variables (income per capita, age, education level, employment, etc.), available in the Gallup database, on the wellbeing indices. The regression analysis results show that clean cooking fuels are strongly influential in health-related indices. By adding access to electricity as an additional predictor variable, the analysis highlights the potential for integrating eCooking into national electrification plans as part of sustainable energy transitions, given that health outcomes appear to be as closely linked to the choice of cooking fuels as to access to electricity. Full article
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14 pages, 3053 KiB  
Article
Insights on In Situ Combustion Modeling Based on a Ramped Temperature Oxidation Experiment for Oil Sand Bitumen
by Lyudmila Khakimova, Evgeny Popov and Alexey Cheremisin
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6738; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186738 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
The ramped temperature oxidation (RTO) test is a screening method used to assess the stability of a reservoir for air-injection Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and to evaluate the oxidation behavior of oil samples. It provides valuable kinetic data for specific cases. The RTO [...] Read more.
The ramped temperature oxidation (RTO) test is a screening method used to assess the stability of a reservoir for air-injection Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and to evaluate the oxidation behavior of oil samples. It provides valuable kinetic data for specific cases. The RTO test allows for the analysis of various characteristics, such as temperature evolution, peak temperatures, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide generation, oxidation and combustion front velocity, recovered and burned hydrocarbons, and residual coke. The adaptation of RTO experiments to in situ combustion (ISC) modeling involves validation and history matching based on numerical simulation of RTO tests, using 3D digital models of experimental setup. The objective is to estimate the kinetic parameters for a customized reaction model that accurately represents ISC. Within this research, the RTO test was provided for bitumen samples related to the Samara oil region. A 3D digital model of the RTO test is constructed using CMG STARS, a thermal hydrodynamic simulator. The model is designed with multiple layers and appropriate heating regimes to account for uncertainties in the experimental setup and to validate the numerical model. The insulation of the setup affects radial heat transfers and helps to control the observed temperature levels. The modified traditional reaction model incorporates thermal cracking of Asphaltenes, low-temperature oxidation (LTO) of Asphaltenes and Maltenes, and high-temperature combustion of coke. Additionally, the model incorporates high-temperature combustion of light oil in the vapor phase, which is generated through Asphaltenes cracking and LTO reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Oil and Gas Drilling and Production Technology)
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13 pages, 3689 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Parameter Optimized Design of Self-Oscillating Cavitation Jet Nozzles
by Tengwei Wang, Guohui Li, Mengbin Song, Yuanyuan Zhao, Wei Xu, Fujian Zhao and Xiuli Wang
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6737; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186737 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Self-oscillating cavitation jet technology has become a research hotspot of scholars in various fields. However, existing research lacks a summary of the rules of the influence of various factors on the cavitation performance, such that efficient and stable extensive engineering applications are impossible [...] Read more.
Self-oscillating cavitation jet technology has become a research hotspot of scholars in various fields. However, existing research lacks a summary of the rules of the influence of various factors on the cavitation performance, such that efficient and stable extensive engineering applications are impossible to achieve. This paper aims at optimizing the design of the self-oscillating cavitation jet nozzle (SOCJN) as the objective; this is carried out by the experimental design, optimal Latin hypercube method, and response surface method in (design of experiment) DOE methods on the basis of the ISIGHT optimization method. In addition, taking the vapor volume fraction and cavitation number as a research objective, the obtained optimal structural parameters of the nozzles are applied under the condition of clear water to establish the function mapping relationship between the external geometric characteristics and the vapor volume fraction and cavitation number; then, this is compared with the experiment. The results indicate that the second-order response surface approximate model is suitable for the SOCJN and there is an error smaller than 8% between the approximate model results and the calculated results of the nozzle response. When the diameter of the upper nozzle is D1 = 4.7 mm, the ratio of the upper nozzle’s diameter to the lower’s diameter (D1/D2) is 2.6 and the ratio of the chamber length to the chamber diameter (L/D) is 0.63; pulse jets from the SOCJN have the best pitting effect on the sample at the monitoring point when the convergence angle of collision wall α is 120°. When the structural parameters of the nozzle are optimal structural parameters, the cavitation performance is the best at the initial pressure of 4.8 MPa. This research provides a reference for the optimized design of the SOCJN for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section L: Energy Sources)
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11 pages, 5413 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Performance of a Composite Water Control Process for Offshore Bottom Water Fractured Gas Reservoirs
by Dianju Wang, Zhandong Li, Haixiang Zhang, Shufen Liu, Fahao Yu, Ji Li, Xingbin Liu, Yingjian Xiao and Yunshu Lv
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6736; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186736 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
Natural gas, as one of the main energy sources of the modern clean energy system, is also an important raw material for the chemical industry, and the stable extraction of natural gas reservoirs is often affected by bottom water. It is difficult to [...] Read more.
Natural gas, as one of the main energy sources of the modern clean energy system, is also an important raw material for the chemical industry, and the stable extraction of natural gas reservoirs is often affected by bottom water. It is difficult to control water in natural gas reservoirs, while fractured gas reservoirs are even more demanding. This is due to the complexity of the seepage laws of gas and water in fractures, resulting in the poor applicability of conventional processes for water control. Continuous research is needed to propose a process with effective control capabilities for bottom-water fractured gas reservoirs. Aiming at the above difficulties, this paper is based on a large-scale three-dimensional physical simulation device to carry out physical model design and simulation results testing and analysis. The water control ability of the combination of density-segmented sieve tubes and continuous packers in fractured gas reservoirs is explored. The physical simulation results show that the fracture distribution characteristics control the upward transportation path of bottom water. According to the segmentation characteristics of the fractures at the horizontal section location, optimizing the number of horizontal well screen tube segments and the density of boreholes reduces the cone-in velocity of bottom water before connecting the fractures to a certain extent. And the combined process has different degrees of water control ability for the three stages of bottom water transportation from the fractured gas reservoir to the production well. As the degree of water in the production well increases, the water control ability of the process gradually decreases. After the implementation of the water control process, the water-free gas production period was extended by about 6.84%, and the total production time was extended by about 6.46%. After the shutdown of the horizontal wells, the reduction in daily water production can still reach 21% compared to the natural extraction. The results of this research can provide process suggestions for water control in offshore fractured reservoirs and further ensure stable production in offshore fractured gas reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Subsurface Energy and Environmental Protection)
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22 pages, 12819 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Manure Use for Energy Purposes on the Economic Balance of a Dairy Farm
by Jakub Mazurkiewicz
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6735; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186735 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
The use of methane fermentation in mesophilic conditions for the energy use of cow manure and additional co-substrates from the farm can bring a small dairy farm (140 dairy cows) financial benefits of up to EUR 114,159 per year. Taking into account the [...] Read more.
The use of methane fermentation in mesophilic conditions for the energy use of cow manure and additional co-substrates from the farm can bring a small dairy farm (140 dairy cows) financial benefits of up to EUR 114,159 per year. Taking into account the need to pay for emissions calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent, this profit could be reduced to EUR 81,323 per year. With the traditional direct use of manure, this profit would drop by as much as 60% to the level of EUR 33,944 per year. Therefore, the introduction of fees for emissions may significantly burden current dairy farms. As has already been shown, just compacting and covering the manure (which costs approx. EUR 2000 per year for 140 cows) would give almost twice as much profit—EUR 64,509 per year. Although an investment in a small biogas plant with a cogeneration unit on a family dairy farm may have a payback period of less than 6.5 years and a return of capital employed of 16%, most small farms in the world will not be able to afford its construction without external subsidies. At the same time, it would make it possible to reduce emissions by almost 270 times—from 41,460 to 154 tons of CO2eq per year—and the possibility of preserving valuable nutrients and minerals and supporting soil properties in the digestate. Therefore, it seems necessary for Europe to introduce a support system for small- and medium-sized farms with this type of investment in the near future in a much larger form than it has been so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Biofuel Production)
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14 pages, 5256 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Combustion Cavern Geometry in Underground Coal Gasification Process with the Use of Borehole Ground-Penetrating Radar
by Zenon Pilecki, Robert Hildebrandt, Krzysztof Krawiec, Elżbieta Pilecka, Zbigniew Lubosik and Tomasz Łątka
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6734; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186734 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 709
Abstract
In this study, the shape and size of a combustion cavity with a fracture zone in the gasified coal seam was determined with the use of control boreholes and a ground-penetrating radar (BGPR) test. The underground coal gasification (UCG) field-scale experiment was performed [...] Read more.
In this study, the shape and size of a combustion cavity with a fracture zone in the gasified coal seam was determined with the use of control boreholes and a ground-penetrating radar (BGPR) test. The underground coal gasification (UCG) field-scale experiment was performed in Carboniferous strata in coal seam 501 at a depth of approx. 460 m in the Wieczorek hard coal mine in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. After the termination of the UCG reactor, five coring boreholes were drilled to identify the geometry of the resulting combustion cavity and the impact of the UCG process on the surrounding rock mass. Borehole ground-penetrating radar measurements were performed using a 100 MHz antenna in three boreholes with a length of about 40–50 m. This enabled the identification of the boundaries of the combustion cavity and the fracture zone in the coal seam. The fracture zones of rock layers and lithological borders near the control borehole were also depicted. As a result, the cavity was estimated to have a length of around 32 m, a width of around 7 m and a height of around 5 m. The analyses performed with the control boreholes and the BGPR provided sufficient information to determine the geometry of the combustion cavity and the fracture zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Extraction and Processing Science)
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12 pages, 2030 KiB  
Article
Reducing Traction Energy Consumption with a Decrease in the Weight of an All-Metal Gondola Car
by Maryna Bulakh, Leszek Klich, Oleksandra Baranovska, Anastasiia Baida and Sergiy Myamlin
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6733; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186733 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 659
Abstract
The paper presented studies on reducing traction energy consumption with a decrease in the weight of an all-metal gondola car. Based on the proposed mathematical criterion, a new form of a blind floor was obtained, which makes it possible to reduce the weight [...] Read more.
The paper presented studies on reducing traction energy consumption with a decrease in the weight of an all-metal gondola car. Based on the proposed mathematical criterion, a new form of a blind floor was obtained, which makes it possible to reduce the weight of an all-metal gondola car. The aim of the paper was to reduce traction energy consumption with a decrease in the weight of an all-metal gondola car. For an all-metal gondola car with a modified form of a blind floor, strength studies were performed based on the finite element method. The equivalent stresses of the blind floor of an all-metal gondola car were 140.6 MPa, and the equivalent strains were 7.08 × 10−4. The margin of safety of the blind floor of an all-metal gondola car was 1.57. The weight of an all-metal gondola car with a modified form of a blind floor was reduced by 5.1% compared to a typical all-metal gondola car. For an all-metal gondola car with a modified form of a blind floor, a comparison was made of the traction energy consumption with typical all-metal gondola cars. Traction energy consumption with empty all-metal gondola cars were reduced by 2.5–3.1%; with loaded all-metal gondola cars by 2.4–7.3%, depending on the travel time interval. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section K: State-of-the-Art Energy Related Technologies)
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12 pages, 2327 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effect of Temperature on the Ultimate Strength of Refractory Materials
by Evgeniy Prikhodko, Alexandr Nikiforov, Akmaral Kinzhibekova, Alexandr Paramonov, Nazgul Aripova and Amangeldy Karmanov
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6732; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186732 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The energy efficiency of high-temperature batch aggregates largely depends on the modes of their heating and cooling. The modes of heating and cooling of aggregates in which thermal stress does not exceed the critical values of the ultimate strength of the refractories make [...] Read more.
The energy efficiency of high-temperature batch aggregates largely depends on the modes of their heating and cooling. The modes of heating and cooling of aggregates in which thermal stress does not exceed the critical values of the ultimate strength of the refractories make it possible to increase their service life. The increase in the service life of refractories will lead to a reduction in the number of lining repairs and a decrease in the specific consumption of refractory materials per ton of technological product. Shorter warm-up and cool-down times result in lower energy consumption. Reducing the time for variable modes for casting ladles increases their turnover (the number of melt discharges into the ladle per day). Increasing ladle turnover not only reduces the number of ladles but also improves the economic performance of the enterprise. The ultimate strength of the refractory material significantly affects the rate of temperature change during heating and cooling of the refractory masonry. The purpose of this research is to study the dependence of the ultimate compression and tensile strengths of chamotte materials of the ShKU brand on temperature. The determination of the compression and tensile strengths was carried out on new samples of refractory materials as well as on samples of refractories that were in operation until the intermediate repair. To determine the ultimate compression strength of chamotte refractories, the standard technique for axial compression of the test specimen until its destruction was used. To determine the ultimate tensile strength, a three-point bending test was used with additional control of the surface temperature of the test sample during the test. The ultimate compression strength of chamotte refractories of the ShKU-32 brand increased for the new refractories by a maximum of 44%. For refractories that were in operation until the intermediate repair, the ultimate compression strength increased by a maximum of 56%. The value of the ultimate tensile strength at elevated temperatures turned out to be higher than the value at a temperature of 20 °C. For new refractories, the maximum ultimate tensile strength is 25% higher than the ultimate tensile strength under normal conditions. For refractories that were in operation until the intermediate repair, the maximum ultimate tensile strength increased by 24%. The obtained results can be used to increase the rate of heating or cooling of linings. Full article
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5 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Solar Irradiance and PV Modeling and Forecasting
by Fouzi Harrou, Ying Sun, Bilal Taghezouit and Abdelkader Dairi
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6731; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186731 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems represent key and transformative technology at the forefront of the global shift towards sustainable energy solutions [...] Full article
24 pages, 7766 KiB  
Article
Profit Extension of a Wind-Integrated Competitive Power System by Vehicle-to-Grid Integration and UPFC Placement
by Subhojit Dawn, Gummadi Srinivasa Rao, M. L. N. Vital, K. Dhananjay Rao, Faisal Alsaif and Mohammed H. Alsharif
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6730; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186730 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Profit maximization is critical in the control of power system networks for both power providers and users. Electrical energy is freely accessible in the electrical grid during off-peak hours, with storage units helping to store excess energy and assist the electrical grid during [...] Read more.
Profit maximization is critical in the control of power system networks for both power providers and users. Electrical energy is freely accessible in the electrical grid during off-peak hours, with storage units helping to store excess energy and assist the electrical grid during high-demand situations. Such techniques promote grid stability and ensure safe operation. Because renewable resources are intermittent, energy storage technologies are especially significant in renewable-associated power systems. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has recently acquired popularity in preserving power grid stability in the presence of renewable resources.V2G technology employs automobiles as mobile storage devices and focuses on the efficient utilization of extra power available during off-peak hours. The goal of this work is to improve the functioning of a V2G system in a power network to reduce energy production costs while increasing system profitability. This study for deregulated power environments also depicts the influence of V2G mixing on system voltage profile and locational marginal pricing (LMP), as well as the performance of the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on system economics. The MiPower simulation program is used in the study to find the best placement of the power storage unit for the modified IEEE 14-bus system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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14 pages, 5607 KiB  
Article
Research on the Modulation and Control Strategy for a Novel Single-Phase Current Source Inverter
by Yi Zhang, Tao Yang and Yiru Miao
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6729; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186729 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
Compared to the voltage source inverter, the current source inverter (CSI) can boost voltage and improve filtering performance. However, the DC side of CSI is not a real current source, and the DC input current comprises a DC power supply and an inductor. [...] Read more.
Compared to the voltage source inverter, the current source inverter (CSI) can boost voltage and improve filtering performance. However, the DC side of CSI is not a real current source, and the DC input current comprises a DC power supply and an inductor. In the switching process, the DC-link inductor is charged or discharged and is in an uncontrollable state. This paper proposes a novel CSI topology containing five switching tubes and a modulation strategy based on the hysteresis control strategy of the DC-link current. Due to the conduction and switching loss being positive to the DC-link current, the calculation method for the least reference value of the DC-link current is derived to meet power requirements. By constructing a virtual axis, we then present the control strategy of the output voltage in a two-phase rotating reference frame. Finally, we carry out the simulation and experiment are to validate the proposed topology, modulation, and control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Designs and Drive Control of Electromechanical Machines)
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