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Energy Transition and Sustainability in Emerging Economies: Clean Energy and Net Zero Emission

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "C: Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2024) | Viewed by 5389

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Gamos, Reading RG1 4LS, UK
2. School of Social Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: modern energy cooking; clean cooking; complex development; solar PV; SDG7; low carbon energy; ICT; mobiles; IoT; mobile payments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Social Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: low carbon energy; modern energy cooking; solar PV; low carbon finance; results-based financing; international development; governance and corruption

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue, we consider the very necessary energy transitions and sustainability factors that must be considered in emerging economies. We write this as COP27 comes to a close, and more promises are made about utilising renewable technologies, improving and decarbonising energy access, ensuring SDG7 is fulfilled for access to 'affordable, reliable, sustainable' modern energy, and promising finance for a just transition where emerging economies are assisted to mitigate the effects of climate change while continuing to grow their economies. Some of the strong debates are whether emerging economies should continue to develop their fossil fuel resources, particularly gas fields, and how that sits in the global economy. For there to be a just transition, planning for modern energy needs to be situated in the local context and the clear modelling of proposed and hoped for transitions needs to be informed by context specific baseline data. For instance, cooking is a major consumer of energy in most emerging economies, and a significant cause of deforestation and climate emissions, as well as burdening the household with health and economic disadvantages. While many quote the figure of 2.6 billion people 'not having access to clean cooking', according the World Bank, 4 billion do not have access to modern energy-based cooking. Over the last few years, there has been a separation of planning regarding improving access to electricity and clean cooking. How can new tools and approaches be used to ensure that the local context is a driver for change.  Many emerging economies are increasingly urbanising with a legacy dependence on biomass fuels, particularly for the poorer sections of society. By 2050, an extra 2 billion people may be on the planet, most of whom will be in emerging economies. Overlay these societal changes with technological changes, such as a transition to e-mobility and the reductions in cost of energy storage due to better understanding of the technology, and we have new possibilities for a climate friendly growth.

In this Special Issue, we invite papers addressing these concerns, and which show how the planning for transitions in energy infrastructure can be a just transition while still working towards net zero emissions. We invite a broad range of papers covering high level issues, political economies, and technological possibilities grounded in new timely data and modelling on how emerging economies can balance the needs of their population with clean energy and net zero emission. The common theme should be energy transition and sustainability in emerging economies.

Dr. Simon Batchelor
Prof. Dr. Ed Brown
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Cooking Fuel Choice and Wellbeing: A Global Perspective
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6739; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186739 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 775
Abstract
This paper assesses the relationship between the proportion of the population with primary reliance on different types of fuels for cooking (national averages) and a number of key wellbeing indices. The study uses a data set created from a combination of the Gallup [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the relationship between the proportion of the population with primary reliance on different types of fuels for cooking (national averages) and a number of key wellbeing indices. The study uses a data set created from a combination of the Gallup World Poll database and the World Health Organisation (WHO) Household Energy Database. The Gallup database comprises multinational survey data and contains wellbeing indices (Personal Health, Social Life, Civic Engagement, Life Evaluation, Negative Experience, etc.). The WHO database gives the proportion of a population with primary reliance on different types of cooking fuels. In order to understand the relative importance of the choice of cooking fuels in terms of wellbeing, regression modelling is used to control for the effects of demographic variables (income per capita, age, education level, employment, etc.), available in the Gallup database, on the wellbeing indices. The regression analysis results show that clean cooking fuels are strongly influential in health-related indices. By adding access to electricity as an additional predictor variable, the analysis highlights the potential for integrating eCooking into national electrification plans as part of sustainable energy transitions, given that health outcomes appear to be as closely linked to the choice of cooking fuels as to access to electricity. Full article
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20 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
The Emergence of Large-Scale Bioethanol Utilities: Accelerating Energy Transitions for Cooking
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6242; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176242 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Expansion in access to clean cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa remains well below the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal objectives. In particular, clean and modern forms of cooking have struggled to attract commercial funding at scale. The use of bioethanol in cooking is not new, [...] Read more.
Expansion in access to clean cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa remains well below the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal objectives. In particular, clean and modern forms of cooking have struggled to attract commercial funding at scale. The use of bioethanol in cooking is not new, but until recently, its application has been confined exclusively to small-scale projects. However, a new bioethanol cooking utility in Kenya has now reached mass-market adoption, serving more than 950,000 households with cooking fuel since its launch in late 2019. Its success was made possible by a significant investment in technology to facilitate safe, convenient, and affordable fuel distribution. It is funded by climate finance, which is based on bioethanol fuel replacing the charcoal normally used for cooking; a leading cause of African deforestation. This development is so recent that it has not been widely discussed in the academic literature. More broadly, the health, environmental, and economic impacts of bioethanol for cooking have not been systematically assembled in one place. The main aim of this study is to identify how KOKO Networks has managed to overcome the traditional barriers to scalability, achieving impacts with bioethanol for accelerating energy transitions for cooking. The results show that bioethanol for cooking supports 13 out of 17 SDGs and has significant positive impacts on health, the environment, and the wider economy. The affordability of bioethanol has been made possible because of KOKO Investments in high-tech electronic fuel dispensing machines and through the use of climate financing. KOKO relies both on local and imported fuel to offer reliability and security of supply, as well as to grow commercial bioethanol demand to support the growth of the local bioethanol industry. Bioethanol for cooking also suffers from unfavorable tax regimes. This is because historically, in many countries, ethanol has been imported for use in the beverage industry. In addition, an appropriate commercial supply chain and delivery model which boosts the scalability of business and offers customer convenience is essential. For these conditions to take place, an enabling policy environment is key. Full article
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26 pages, 713 KiB  
Article
Impact Financing for Clean Cooking Energy Transitions: Reviews and Prospects
Energies 2023, 16(16), 5992; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16165992 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Achieving universal access to clean cooking requires a significant mobilization of capital to close the current funding gap of around US$7 bn per year. The clean cooking landscape has changed considerably with substantial innovation in terms of technology, business models, and services. The [...] Read more.
Achieving universal access to clean cooking requires a significant mobilization of capital to close the current funding gap of around US$7 bn per year. The clean cooking landscape has changed considerably with substantial innovation in terms of technology, business models, and services. The transition towards higher-tier, modern energy cooking (MEC) solutions provides key opportunities for innovative financing models to scale MEC globally. Transitions from cooking with polluting fuels to MEC have significant positive impacts on the environment, gender equality, and health. Impact Finance to monetize these co-benefits for MEC solutions is widely seen as an outstanding opportunity to channel funding into MEC transitions. However, except for climate funding, opportunities to channel finance for wider impact SDG benefits arising from MEC have proved challenging to realize in practice. This article explores in detail two new approaches which are taking advantage of features of digital technology to overcome some of these obstacles. It adds to the recent debate around climate finance for clean cooking and presents key learning lessons from developing and piloting the ‘Metered Methodology for Clean Cooking Devices’ as the current most accurate approach to estimate carbon savings for MEC and the ‘Clean Impact Bond (CIB)’ which aims at monetizing health and gender-co-benefits. The paper demonstrates how robust methodologies can help to accelerate funding for MEC and calls for joint approaches to standardize and streamline climate and outcome finance approaches to enhance their impact by making them more accessible for a wider range of MEC technologies, geographies, and projects. Full article
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23 pages, 4516 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Scenarios of Indonesia Power Sector to Achieve Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) 2060
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4719; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124719 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
This study aims to assess the feasibility of achieving Indonesia’s net-zero emissions target by 2060 through a model of future power generation using renewable energy sources using the Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) software. There are five projected power generation scenarios in this [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the feasibility of achieving Indonesia’s net-zero emissions target by 2060 through a model of future power generation using renewable energy sources using the Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) software. There are five projected power generation scenarios in this research: the reference (REF) scenario, the conservative (CON) scenario, the moderate (MOD) scenario, the progressive (PRO) scenario, and the advanced (ADV) scenario. The availability of renewable energy technology differentiates each scenario. The ADV scenario, which utilizes nuclear power and energy storage, achieves the 100% renewable energy target by 2060 at the lowest total cost. However, the costs of CON and MOD are not significantly higher. Indonesia should decommission existing fossil fuel power plants and construct more renewable energy power plants to achieve the net-zero emissions target. Based on the simulation, biomass energy is the least favorable type of energy. Solar becomes an option only when other renewable energies are at their maximum potential capacity. Furthermore, nuclear energy and energy storage is essential for Indonesia to achieve the renewable target. Full article
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