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Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 7 (July 2022) – 60 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In countries such as Japan with endoscopic screening systems, more than half of GCs are discovered at an early stage, enabling endoscopic resection (ER). Especially after the introduction of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in Japan around 2000, a high en bloc resection rate, allowing the pathological assessment of margin and depth, has become possible. While ER is a diagnostic method of treatment and may not always be curative, it’s widely accepted as a standard treatment because it is less invasive than surgery and can provide an accurate diagnosis for deciding whether additional surgery is necessary. The curability of ER is currently assessed by the completeness of primary tumor removal and the possibility of lymph node metastasis. This review introduces the methods, indications, and curability criteria for ER of EG, and will outline the latest evidence concerning future issues. View this paper
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15 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Trajectories in Older Patients with Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy—A Prospective Observational Study
by Guro Falk Eriksen, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Bjørn Henning Grønberg, Siri Rostoft, Øyvind Kirkevold, Sverre Bergh, Anne Hjelstuen, Darryl Rolfson and Marit Slaaen
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5164-5178; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070409 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
Cognitive function can be affected by cancer and/or its treatment, and older patients are at a particular risk. In a prospective observational study including patients ≥65 years referred for radiotherapy (RT), we aimed to investigate the association between patient- and cancer-related factors and [...] Read more.
Cognitive function can be affected by cancer and/or its treatment, and older patients are at a particular risk. In a prospective observational study including patients ≥65 years referred for radiotherapy (RT), we aimed to investigate the association between patient- and cancer-related factors and cognitive function, as evaluated by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and sought to identify groups with distinct MoCA trajectories. The MoCA was performed at baseline (T0), RT completion (T1), and 8 (T2) and 16 (T3) weeks later, with scores ranging between 0 and 30 and higher scores indicating better function. Linear regression and growth mixture models were estimated to assess associations and to identify groups with distinct MoCA trajectories, respectively. Among 298 patients with a mean age of 73.6 years (SD 6.3), the baseline mean MoCA score was 24.0 (SD 3.7). Compared to Norwegian norm data, 37.9% had cognitive impairment. Compromised cognition was independently associated with older age, lower education, and physical impairments. Four groups with distinct trajectories were identified: the very poor (6.4%), poor (8.1%), fair (37.9%), and good (47.7%) groups. The MoCA trajectories were mainly stable. We conclude that cognitive impairment was frequent but, for most patients, was not affected by RT. For older patients with cancer, and in particular for those with physical impairments, we recommend an assessment of cognitive function. Full article
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14 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Actinic Keratoses (AK): An Exploratory Questionnaire-Based Study of Patients’ Illness Perceptions
by Dimitrios Sgouros, Adamantia Milia-Argyti, Dimitrios K. Arvanitis, Eleni Polychronaki, Fiori Kousta, Antonios Panagiotopoulos, Sofia Theotokoglou, Anna Syrmali, Konstantinos Theodoropoulos, Alexander Stratigos, Dimitrios Rigopoulos and Alexander Katoulis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5150-5163; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070408 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Background: Decreased illness perception among actinic keratoses (AK) patients is a major barrier to the effective management of AK. Objective: We aimed to investigate patients’ illness and treatment perceptions, their correlation to demographics and AK/skin cancer history, and secondarily the influence of these [...] Read more.
Background: Decreased illness perception among actinic keratoses (AK) patients is a major barrier to the effective management of AK. Objective: We aimed to investigate patients’ illness and treatment perceptions, their correlation to demographics and AK/skin cancer history, and secondarily the influence of these perspectives on treatment and sunscreen use. Materials and Methods: Participants completed questionnaires based on the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and statistical analysis was performed. Results: In total, 208 AK patients were enrolled. A large proportion were poorly aware of the disease (41.4%), with less than half (43%) being familiar with AK. Patients were aware of the chronic nature of the disease and its correlation to sunlight regardless of demographic characteristics. The level of education played a role in disease awareness (p = 0.006), and treatment plan perception (p = 0.002). The increase in sunscreen protection after AK diagnosis was higher in women (p = 0.009) and younger patients (p = 0.044). Patients’ concerns regarding treatment were mainly related to the duration (30%) and effectivity (25%). Dermatologists’ statements highlighting that AK are precancerous lesions (86.2%) influenced patients’ willingness for treatment. Conclusion: Improved awareness of AK is necessary to increase treatment seeking and compliance, regarding both treatment and sunscreen use. Dermatologists’ statements may have critical influence on patients’ decisions to receive treatment for AK. Full article
11 pages, 853 KiB  
Review
Clinical Utility of Genomic Assay in Node-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer
by Mehrnoosh Pauls and Stephen Chia
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5139-5149; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070407 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2905
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among women in Canada. Adjuvant treatment in early BC can reduce the risk of BC recurrence. Historically, the decision for adjuvant chemotherapy for early BC was made only based on clinical and tumour characteristics. In [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among women in Canada. Adjuvant treatment in early BC can reduce the risk of BC recurrence. Historically, the decision for adjuvant chemotherapy for early BC was made only based on clinical and tumour characteristics. In recent years, there has been an effort toward developing genomic assays as a predictive and prognostic tool to improve precision in estimating disease recurrence, sensitivity to systemic treatment and ultimately with clinical utility for guidance regarding adjuvant systemic treatment(s). There are various commercial genomic tests available for early-stage ER+/HER-2 negative BC. This paper will review the Oncotype DX 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS), MammaPrint, EndoPredict, Prosigna®, and Breast Cancer Index (BCI) genomic assays. We will also focus on these genomic assays’ clinical application and utility in node-positive early-stage BC based on the most recent evidence and guidance recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving Paradigm of Curative Intent Breast Cancer Management)
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13 pages, 1500 KiB  
Article
The Transformation of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncological and Supportive Care in Canada: A Mixed Methods Study
by Jonathan Avery, Emily Wong, Christine Harris, Stacy Chapman, Serena Uppal, Shaayini Shanawaz, Annemarie Edwards, Laura Burnett, Tushar Vora and Abha A. Gupta
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5126-5138; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070406 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Background: Due to ongoing disparity in the specialized care available to adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, this study aimed to understand the gaps and barriers to accessing care and preferences on types of solutions at a national Canadian level. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: Due to ongoing disparity in the specialized care available to adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, this study aimed to understand the gaps and barriers to accessing care and preferences on types of solutions at a national Canadian level. Methods: A mixed-methods study involving an online survey and focus groups (FGs) was conducted among AYAs residing in different regions of Canada. Results: There were a total of 174 survey respondents, of whom the majority were between 30–39 years of age (n = 125, 71.8%). Of the 174 respondents, 36 (20.7%) participated in one of seven FGs. Triangulation of the results illustrated that AYAs are not appropriately informed about the long-term health risks of being treated for cancer and where/how to seek support. These results culminated into three themes: (1) the need for AYA relevant and timely information about health risks; by (a) producing health risk-related content with the AYA life stage in mind; (b) providing a guided “map” to help AYAs anticipate what they may experience, and (c) providing checklists to help AYAs navigate their experience; (2) need for tailored and timely supportive care including (a) establishing ongoing check-ins and (b) receiving navigation support, and (3) need for enhanced connections by creating (a) a space to gather, connect and seek mentorship and (b) a hub to access information. Conclusion: AYAs continue to lack sufficient support both during and following cancer and mechanisms are required to ensure longitudinal support is provided across jurisdictions and in all stages of the cancer journey. Full article
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16 pages, 1857 KiB  
Article
The Management and Outcomes of Patients with Extra-Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Brain Metastases
by Zainul-Abedin Kapacee, Jennifer Allison, Mohammed Dawod, Xin Wang, Melissa Frizziero, Bipasha Chakrabarty, Prakash Manoharan, Catherine McBain, Was Mansoor, Angela Lamarca, Richard Hubner, Juan W. Valle and Mairéad G. McNamara
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5110-5125; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070405 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Background: Brain metastases (BMs) in patients with extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (EP–NENs) are rare, and limited clinical information is available. The aim of this study was to detail the clinicopathological features, management and outcomes in patients with EP–NENs who developed BMs. Methods: A retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Brain metastases (BMs) in patients with extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (EP–NENs) are rare, and limited clinical information is available. The aim of this study was to detail the clinicopathological features, management and outcomes in patients with EP–NENs who developed BMs. Methods: A retrospective single-centre analysis of consecutive patients with EP–NENs (August 2004–February 2020) was conducted. Median overall survival (OS)/survival from BMs diagnosis was estimated (Kaplan–Meier). Results: Of 730 patients, 17 (1.9%) had BMs, median age 61 years (range 15–77); 8 (53%) male, unknown primary NEN site: 40%. Patients with BMs had grade 3 (G3) EP–NENs 11 (73%), G2: 3 (20%), G1: 1 (7%). Eight (53%) had poorly differentiated NENs, 6 were well-differentiated and 1 was not recorded. Additionally, 2 (13%) patients had synchronous BMs at diagnosis, whilst 13 (87%) developed BMs metachronously. The relative risk of developing BMs was 7.48 in patients with G3 disease vs. G1 + G2 disease (p = 0.0001). Median time to the development of BMs after NEN diagnosis: 15.9 months (range 2.5–139.5). Five patients had a solitary BM, 12 had multiple BMs. Treatment of BMs were surgery (n = 3); radiotherapy (n = 5); 4: whole brain radiotherapy, 1: conformal radiotherapy (orbit). Nine (53%) had best supportive care. Median OS from NEN diagnosis was 23.6 months [95% CI 15.2–31.3]; median time to death from BMs diagnosis was 3.0 months [95% CI 0.0–8.3]. Conclusion: BMs in patients with EP–NENs are rare and of increased risk in G3 vs. G1 + G2 EP–NENs. Survival outcomes are poor, and a greater understanding is needed to improve therapeutic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Head and Neck Oncology)
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13 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Do Sustainable Palliative Single Fraction Radiotherapy Practices Proliferate or Perish 2 Years after a Knowledge Translation Campaign?
by Shaheer Shahhat, Nikesh Hanumanthappa, Youn Tae Chung, James Beck, Rashmi Koul, Bashir Bashir, Andrew Cooke, Arbind Dubey, Jim Butler, Maged Nashed, William Hunter, Aldrich D. Ong, Shrinivas Rathod, Kim Tran and Julian O. Kim
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5097-5109; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070404 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
In early 2017, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and CancerCare Manitoba undertook a comprehensive knowledge translation (KT) campaign to improve the utilization of single fraction radiotherapy (SFRT) over multiple fraction radiotherapy (MFRT) for palliative management of bone metastases. The campaign significantly increased short-term [...] Read more.
In early 2017, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and CancerCare Manitoba undertook a comprehensive knowledge translation (KT) campaign to improve the utilization of single fraction radiotherapy (SFRT) over multiple fraction radiotherapy (MFRT) for palliative management of bone metastases. The campaign significantly increased short-term SFRT utilization. We assess the time-dependent effects of KT-derived SFRT utilization 12–24 months removed from the KT campaign in a Provincial Cancer Program. This study identified patients receiving palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases in Manitoba in the 2018 calendar year using the provincial radiotherapy database. The proportion of patients treated with SFRT in 2018 was compared to 2017. Logistic regression analyses identified risk factors associated with MFRT receipt. In 2018, 1008 patients received palliative radiotherapy for bone metastasis, of which 63.3% received SFRT, a small overall increase in SFRT use over 2017 (59.1%). However, 41.1% of ROs demonstrated year-over-year decreases in SFRT utilization, indicative of a time-dependent loss of SFRT prescription habits derived from KT. Although SFRT use increased slightly overall in 2018, evidence of compliance fatigue was observed, suggestive of a time-perishing property of RO prescription behaviours derived from KT methodologies. Verification of the study’s findings in larger cohorts would be beneficial. These findings highlight the need for additional longitudinal KT reinforcement practices in the years following KT campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bone and Soft Tissue Oncology)
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6 pages, 202 KiB  
Commentary
Choosing Wisely—Barriers and Solutions to Implementation in Low and Middle-Income Countries
by Fidel Rubagumya, Manju Sengar, Sidy Ka, Nazik Hammad, Christopher M. Booth and Safiya Karim
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5091-5096; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070403 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Globally, there is increasing emphasis on value-based cancer care. Rising healthcare costs and reduced health care spending and budgets, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), call for patients, providers, and healthcare systems to apply the Choose Wisely (CW) approach. This approach seeks [...] Read more.
Globally, there is increasing emphasis on value-based cancer care. Rising healthcare costs and reduced health care spending and budgets, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), call for patients, providers, and healthcare systems to apply the Choose Wisely (CW) approach. This approach seeks to advance a dialogue on avoiding unnecessary medical tests, treatments, and procedures. Several factors have been described as barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the Choosing Wisely recommendations in high-income countries but none for LMICs. In this review, we attempt to classify potential barriers to the Choose Wisely implementation relative to the sources of behavior and potential intervention functions that can be implemented in order to reduce these barriers. Full article
7 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Intensive Follow-Up Program and Oncological Outcomes of Biliary Tract Cancer Patients after Curative-Intent Surgery: A Twenty-Year Experience in a Single Tertiary Medical Center
by Alessandro Rizzo, Riccardo Carloni, Giorgio Frega, Andrea Palloni, Alessandro Di Federico, Angela Dalia Ricci, Raffaele De Luca, Simona Tavolari and Giovanni Brandi
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5084-5090; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070402 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Aim. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of an intensive follow-up program on BTC patients who had received surgery with curative intent at a tertiary referral hospital. Methods. BTC patients were followed-up every three months during the first two [...] Read more.
Aim. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of an intensive follow-up program on BTC patients who had received surgery with curative intent at a tertiary referral hospital. Methods. BTC patients were followed-up every three months during the first two years after their first surgery and every six months from the third to the fifth post-operative year. Results. A total of 278 BTC patients who received R0/R1 surgery were included. A total of 17.7% of patients underwent a second surgery following disease relapse, and none of these patients experienced additional disease relapse. Conclusions. An intensive follow-up after surgical resection may help in the early identification of disease relapse, leading to early treatment and prolonged survival in selected cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
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7 pages, 852 KiB  
Case Report
Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Course of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis—Case Report and Literature Review
by Maria Grodkiewicz, Pawel Koziel, Izabela Chmielewska, Marta Adamczyk Korbel and Janusz Milanowski
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5077-5083; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070401 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2704
Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a poorly prognosed form of progressive interstitial pneumonia. Patients with IPF have a significantly increased risk of developing lung cancer, which further worsens the course of the disease. The most common histological types of LC among patients with IPF [...] Read more.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a poorly prognosed form of progressive interstitial pneumonia. Patients with IPF have a significantly increased risk of developing lung cancer, which further worsens the course of the disease. The most common histological types of LC among patients with IPF are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, all LC treatment modalities can lead to developing an acute IPF exacerbation. In this report, we present a rare case of coexistence of IPF and small cell lung cancer in a 76-year-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a former smoker. For over 2 years, the patient was treated with an anti-fibrotic drug-pirfenidone, which slowed down the progression of IPF. Unfortunately, after being diagnosed with an active SCLC, the patient was excluded from further participation in the pirfenidone drug program. SCLC is characterized by high aggressiveness, rapid growth and high metastatic potential; therefore, it is necessary to apply antitumor treatment as soon as possible. The described patient was treated with carboplatin–etoposide chemotherapy. Early treatment tolerance was good and after two cycles of cytotoxic treatment, a partial response was present in CT. The presented case emphasizes the need for further research to determine the treatment regimens in patients with coexisting IPF and LC and the appropriateness of antifibrotic treatment in them. In addition, it can help to choose the treatment method for similar patients, indicating a combination of carboplatin and etoposide as an effective and, at the same time, relatively safes method in terms of the risk of IPF’s exacerbation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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23 pages, 3182 KiB  
Review
Emerging Biomarker-Guided Therapies in Prostate Cancer
by Jasna E. Deluce, Luisa Cardenas, Aly-Khan Lalani, Saman Maleki Vareki and Ricardo Fernandes
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5054-5076; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070400 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5393
Abstract
Prostate cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death in men worldwide. In the past decade, several new treatments for advanced prostate cancer have been approved. With a wide variety of available drugs, including cytotoxic agents, androgen receptor axis-targeted therapies, and [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death in men worldwide. In the past decade, several new treatments for advanced prostate cancer have been approved. With a wide variety of available drugs, including cytotoxic agents, androgen receptor axis-targeted therapies, and alpha-emitting radiation therapy, identifying their optimal sequencing remains a challenge. Progress in the understanding of the biology of prostate cancer has provided an opportunity for a more refined and personalized treatment selection process. With the advancement of molecular sequencing techniques, genomic precision through the identification of potential treatment targets and predictive biomarkers has been rapidly evolving. In this review, we discussed biomarker-driven treatments for advanced prostate cancer. First, we presented predictive biomarkers for established, global standard treatments for advanced diseases, such as chemotherapy and androgen receptor axis-targeted agents. We also discussed targeted agents with recent approval for special populations, such as poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer with homologous recombination repair-deficient tumors, pembrolizumab in patients with high levels of microsatellite instability or high tumor mutational burden, and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) directed radioligand theragnostic treatment for PSMA expressing tumors. Additionally, we discussed evolving treatments, such as cancer vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR-T), Bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs), other targeted agents such as AKT inhibitors, and various combination treatments. In summary, advances in molecular genetics have begun to propel personalized medicine forward in the management of advanced prostate cancer, allowing for a more precise, biomarker-driven treatment selection with the goal of improving overall efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Immunotherapy in the Management of Genito-Urinary Malignancies)
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12 pages, 2324 KiB  
Case Report
Bortezomib, Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone Combination Induced Complete Remission in Relapsed/Refractory Plasmablastic Lymphoma: Case Report of a Potential Novel Treatment Approach
by Waleed Sabry, Yue Wu and Shruthi Ganeshappa Kodad
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5042-5053; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070399 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subtype of large B-cell lymphoma characterised by an aggressive clinical course with frequent relapses and refractoriness to chemotherapy. It is usually associated with HIV, however, it can also be seen in immunocompetent patients. It has distinct pathological characteristics, [...] Read more.
Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subtype of large B-cell lymphoma characterised by an aggressive clinical course with frequent relapses and refractoriness to chemotherapy. It is usually associated with HIV, however, it can also be seen in immunocompetent patients. It has distinct pathological characteristics, such as plasmablastic morphology and lack of CD20 expression. These characteristics pose a clinical and pathological challenge. There is no standard of care established in this entity. In this case report, we described a novel bortezomib-based plasma cell targeted regimen in a HIV-negative patient refractory to chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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16 pages, 2675 KiB  
Article
Increased MIB-1 Labeling Index Is Associated with Abducens Nerve Morbidity in Primary Sporadic Petroclival Meningioma Surgery: Beyond Location and Approach
by Johannes Wach, Tim Lampmann, Ági Güresir, Hartmut Vatter, Ulrich Herrlinger, Albert Becker, Marieta Toma, Michael Hölzel and Erdem Güresir
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 5026-5041; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070398 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Abducens nerve palsy is a severe dysfunction after petroclival meningioma (PC MNG) surgery. The objective of this investigation was to analyze abducens nerve outcomes in patients who underwent the retrosigmoid approach in relation to the MIB-1 index. Thirty-two patients with primary sporadic PC [...] Read more.
Abducens nerve palsy is a severe dysfunction after petroclival meningioma (PC MNG) surgery. The objective of this investigation was to analyze abducens nerve outcomes in patients who underwent the retrosigmoid approach in relation to the MIB-1 index. Thirty-two patients with primary sporadic PC MNG were retrospectively analyzed. Mean follow-up was 28.0 months. Analysis of the MIB-1 index was performed to evaluate the abducens nerve outcome. An optimal MIB-1 index cut-off value (<4/≥4) in the association with postoperative CN VI palsy was determined by ROC analysis (AUC: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57–0.92). A new-onset CN VI palsy was present in 7 cases (21.88%) and was significantly associated with an increased MIB-1 index (≥4%, p = 0.025) and a peritumoral edema in the brachium pontis (p = 0.047) which might be caused by the increased growth rate. Tumor volume, cavernous sinus infiltration, auditory canal invasion, and Simpson grading were not associated with new CN VI deficits. Six (85.7%) of the 7 patients with both an increased MIB-1 index (≥4%) and new abducens nerve palsy still had a CN VI deficit at the 12-month follow-up. A peritumoral edema caused by a highly proliferative PC MNG with an elevated MIB-1 index (≥4%) is associated with postoperative abducens nerve deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in the Surgical Treatment of Brain Tumors)
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28 pages, 859 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review on Outcomes and Outcome Measurement Instruments in Rehabilitative Interventions for Patients with Haematological Malignancies Treated with Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
by Anastasios I. Manettas, Panagiotis Tsaklis, Dario Kohlbrenner and Lidwine B. Mokkink
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4998-5025; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070397 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
Rationale: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with increased treatment-related mortality, loss of physical vitality, and impaired quality of life. Future research will investigate the effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitative interventions in alleviating these problems. Nevertheless, published studies in this field show [...] Read more.
Rationale: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with increased treatment-related mortality, loss of physical vitality, and impaired quality of life. Future research will investigate the effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitative interventions in alleviating these problems. Nevertheless, published studies in this field show considerable heterogeneity in selected outcomes and the outcome measurement instruments used. The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an overview of the outcomes and outcome measurement instruments used in studies examining the effects of rehabilitative interventions for patients treated with allogeneic HSCT. Methods: We conducted a scoping review that included randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, and feasibility studies published up to 28 February 2022. Results: We included n = 39 studies, in which n = 84 different outcomes were used 227 times and n = 125 different instruments were used for the measurements. Conclusions: Research in the field of rehabilitation for patients with haematological malignancies treated with allogeneic HSCT is hampered by the excess outcomes used, the inconsistent outcome terminology, and the inconsistent use of measurement instruments in terms of setting and timing. Researchers in this field should reach a consensus with regard to the use of a common terminology for the outcomes of interest and a homogeneity when selecting measurement instruments and measurement timing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Palliative and Supportive Care)
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17 pages, 324 KiB  
Review
Consensus Recommendations to Optimize Testing for New Targetable Alterations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
by Diana N. Ionescu, Tracy L. Stockley, Shantanu Banerji, Christian Couture, Cheryl A. Mather, Zhaolin Xu, Normand Blais, Parneet K. Cheema, Quincy S.-C. Chu, Barbara Melosky and Natasha B. Leighl
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4981-4997; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070396 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4121
Abstract
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has historically been associated with a poor prognosis and low 5-year survival, but the use of targeted therapies in NSCLC has improved patient outcomes over the past 10 years. The pace of development of new targeted therapies is [...] Read more.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has historically been associated with a poor prognosis and low 5-year survival, but the use of targeted therapies in NSCLC has improved patient outcomes over the past 10 years. The pace of development of new targeted therapies is accelerating, with the associated need for molecular testing of new targetable alterations. As the complexity of biomarker testing in NSCLC increases, there is a need for guidance on how to manage the fluid standard-of-care in NSCLC, identify pragmatic molecular testing requirements, and optimize result reporting. An expert multidisciplinary working group with representation from medical oncology, pathology, and clinical genetics convened via virtual meetings to create consensus recommendations for testing of new targetable alterations in NSCLC. The importance of accurate and timely testing of all targetable alterations to optimize disease management using targeted therapies was emphasized by the working group. Therefore, the panel of experts recommends that all targetable alterations be tested reflexively at NSCLC diagnosis as part of a comprehensive panel, using methods that can detect all relevant targetable alterations. In addition, comprehensive biomarker testing should be performed at the request of the treating clinician upon development of resistance to targeted therapy. The expert multidisciplinary working group also made recommendations for reporting to improve clarity and ease of interpretation of results by treating clinicians and to accommodate the rapid evolution in clinical actionability of these alterations. Molecular testing of all targetable alterations in NSCLC is the key for treatment decision-making and access to new therapies. These consensus recommendations are intended as a guide to further optimize molecular testing of new targetable alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
11 pages, 2636 KiB  
Article
Management of Myelofibrosis during Treatment with Ruxolitinib: A Real-World Perspective in Case of Resistance and/or Intolerance
by Massimo Breccia, Francesca Palandri, Paola Guglielmelli, Giuseppe Alberto Palumbo, Alessandra Malato, Francesco Mendicino, Alessandra Ricco, Emanuela Sant’Antonio, Mario Tiribelli and Alessandra Iurlo
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4970-4980; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070395 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2603
Abstract
The development and approval of ruxolitinib, the first JAK1/2 inhibitor indicated to treat myelofibrosis, has improved patient outcomes, with higher spleen and symptoms responses, improved quality of life, and overall survival. Despite this, several unmet needs remain, including the absence of resistance criteria, [...] Read more.
The development and approval of ruxolitinib, the first JAK1/2 inhibitor indicated to treat myelofibrosis, has improved patient outcomes, with higher spleen and symptoms responses, improved quality of life, and overall survival. Despite this, several unmet needs remain, including the absence of resistance criteria, suboptimal response, the timing of allogeneic transplant, and the management of patients in case of intolerance. Here, we report the results of the second survey led by the “MPN Lab” collaboration, which aimed to report physicians’ perspectives on these topics. As in our first survey, physicians were selected throughout Italy, and we included those with extensive experience in treating myeloproliferative neoplasms and those with less experience representing clinical practice in the real world. The results presented here, summarized using descriptive analyses, highlight the need for a clear definition of response to ruxolitinib as well as recommendations to guide the management of ruxolitinib under specific conditions including anemia, thrombocytopenia, infections, and non-melanoma skin cancers. Full article
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14 pages, 1023 KiB  
Review
Appraising Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Hormone Receptor Positive HER2-Negative Breast Cancer—A Literature Review
by Danilo Giffoni de Mello Morais Mata, Carlos Amir Carmona, Andrea Eisen and Maureen Trudeau
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4956-4969; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070394 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3266
Abstract
Background: Approximately 75% of breast cancer (BC) is associated with luminal differentiation expressing endocrine receptors (ER). For ER+ HER2− tumors, adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) is the cornerstone treatment. Although relapse events steadily continue, the ET benefits translate to dramatically lengthen life expectancy with [...] Read more.
Background: Approximately 75% of breast cancer (BC) is associated with luminal differentiation expressing endocrine receptors (ER). For ER+ HER2− tumors, adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) is the cornerstone treatment. Although relapse events steadily continue, the ET benefits translate to dramatically lengthen life expectancy with bearable side-effects. This review of ER+ HER2− female BC outlines suitable adjuvant treatment strategies to help guide clinical decision making around appropriate therapy. Methods: A literature search was conducted in Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Libraries, using ER+ HER−, ET BC keywords. Results: In low-risk patients: five years of ET is the standard option. While Tamoxifen remains the preferred selection for premenopausal women, AI is the choice for postmenopausal patients. In the high-risk category: ET plus/minus OFS with two years of Abemaciclib is recommended. Although extended ET for a total of ten years is an alternative, the optimal AI duration is undetermined; nevertheless an additional two to three years beyond the initial five years may be sufficient. In this postmenopausal group, bisphosphonate is endorsed. Conclusions: Classifying the risk category assists in deciding the treatment route and its optimal duration. Tailoring the breadth of ET hinges on a wide array of factors to be appraised for each individualized case, including weighing its benefits and harms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving Paradigm of Curative Intent Breast Cancer Management)
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15 pages, 2343 KiB  
Article
A Descriptive Study of the Types and Survival Patterns of Saudi Patients with Multiple Primary Solid Malignancies: A 30-Year Tertiary Care Center Experience
by Moustafa S. Alhamadh, Rakan B. Alanazi, Sultan T. Algarni, Ahmed Abdullah R. Alhuntushi, Mohammed Qasim Alshehri, Yusra Sajid Chachar, Mohammad Alkaiyat and Fouad Sabatin
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4941-4955; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070393 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Background and Objective: Cancer survival has improved significantly, which reflects the achievements in screening, diagnosis, and treatment. As a consequence, multiple primary malignancies are diagnosed more frequently, with an incidence ranging from 0.52–11.7%. The types of malignancy that coexist and survival patterns vary [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Cancer survival has improved significantly, which reflects the achievements in screening, diagnosis, and treatment. As a consequence, multiple primary malignancies are diagnosed more frequently, with an incidence ranging from 0.52–11.7%. The types of malignancy that coexist and survival patterns vary notably in different countries and geographical areas. Due to the limited literature in Saudi Arabia, a baseline of prevalent malignancy combinations and their survival patterns would support early detection and disease management. Method: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted from 1993–2022 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Department of Medical Oncology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients with at least two biopsy-proven solid malignancies were included. Patients with hematological malignancies, missing data, or an uncertain or indecisive pathology report were excluded. Result: In total, 321 patients were analyzed. More than half (57.3%) of the patients were female. A third (33%) of the cases were synchronous, and 67% were metachronous. The most frequent site of the first primary malignancy was breast cancer, followed by colorectal, skin, and thyroid cancers. The most frequent site of the second primary malignancy was colorectal cancer, followed by thyroid, breast, and liver cancers. Only 4% of the cases had a third primary malignancy, with colorectal and appendiceal cancers being the most frequent. The most frequently observed histopathology in the synchronous and metachronous malignancies was adenocarcinoma. Breast–colorectal, breast–thyroid, and kidney–colorectal were the most frequently observed malignancy combinations. Conclusion: The current study offers a baseline of multiple primary malignancies in Saudi Arabia and provides supporting evidence that the pattern of multiple primary malignancies varies among different countries and ethnicities. The possibility of developing another primary malignancy should be considered when treating and monitoring cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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5 pages, 203 KiB  
Commentary
Countercurrents: DCIS or Cancer? Why All the Confusion?
by Steven A. Narod and Victoria Sopik
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4936-4940; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070392 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
At present, women with ductal carcinoma in situ are counseled that they have a pre-malignant condition which carries the possibility of progression to a fully malignant breast cancer. However, in most cases, the treatment of DCIS resembles that of a small invasive breast [...] Read more.
At present, women with ductal carcinoma in situ are counseled that they have a pre-malignant condition which carries the possibility of progression to a fully malignant breast cancer. However, in most cases, the treatment of DCIS resembles that of a small invasive breast cancer and this is a source of confusion to many. In order to properly evaluate the benefit of radiotherapy, mastectomy and contralateral mastectomy, it is necessary to consider the risks of ipsilateral invasive cancer and of contralateral breast cancer in women with DCIS and with small invasive breast cancer. Several registry-based studies indicate that the risks of ipsilateral and contralateral cancer are similar in the two conditions and therefore a similar approach to treatment is rational. Full article
13 pages, 4463 KiB  
Article
Immune-Related LncRNAs to Construct a Prognosis Risk-Assessment Model for Gastric Cancer
by Shilin Zhi, Bin Yang, Shengning Zhou, Jianan Tan, Guangyu Zhong and Fanghai Han
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4923-4935; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070391 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4007
Abstract
Background: Gastric cancer is a prevalent cause of tumor death. Tumor immunotherapy aims to reshape the specific immunity to tumors in order to kill the tumor. LncRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating the tumor immune microenvironment. Herein, immune-related lncRNAs were used to [...] Read more.
Background: Gastric cancer is a prevalent cause of tumor death. Tumor immunotherapy aims to reshape the specific immunity to tumors in order to kill the tumor. LncRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating the tumor immune microenvironment. Herein, immune-related lncRNAs were used to establish a prognosis risk-assessment model for gastric cancer and provide personalized predictions while providing insights and targets for gastric cancer treatment to enhance patient prognosis. Methods: Gastric adenocarcinoma transcriptome and clinical data were acquired from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to screen the immune-related lncRNAs. Then, LASSO COX regression was utilized to construct the prognosis risk-assessment model. Afterward, the reliability of the model was evaluated the relationship between immune infiltration, clinical characteristics, and the model was analyzed. Results: We identified 13 lncRNAs and constructed the prognosis assessment model. According to the median risk score of the training set, the patients were assigned to different risk groups. Overall survival time was shorter in the high-risk group. In the high-risk group, higher infiltration of mono-macrophages, dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells was observed. Moreover, the model was positively related to tumor metastasis. Conclusion: The prognosis risk-assessment model developed in this research can effectively predict the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. This tool is expected to be further applied to clinics in the future, thus providing a novel target for immunotherapy in gastric cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy for Gastrointestinal Cancer)
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9 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Surgery for Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy Is Associated with Rapid Headache and Cranial Nerve Improvement
by Kevin A. Cross, Rupen Desai, Ananth Vellimana, Yupeng Liu, Keith Rich, Gregory Zipfel, Ralph Dacey, Michael Chicoine, Cristine Klatt-Cromwell, Jonathan McJunkin, Patrik Pipkorn, John S. Schneider, Julie Silverstein and Albert H. Kim
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4914-4922; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070390 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Pituitary tumor apoplexy (PTA) classically comprises sudden-onset headache, loss of vision, ophthalmoparesis, and decreased consciousness. It typically results from hemorrhage and/or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Presentation is heterologous, and optimal management is debated. The time course of recovery of cranial nerve deficits [...] Read more.
Pituitary tumor apoplexy (PTA) classically comprises sudden-onset headache, loss of vision, ophthalmoparesis, and decreased consciousness. It typically results from hemorrhage and/or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Presentation is heterologous, and optimal management is debated. The time course of recovery of cranial nerve deficits (CNDs) and headaches is not well established. In this study, a retrospective series of consecutive patients with PTA managed at a single academic institution over a 22-year period is presented. Headaches at the time of surgery were more severe in the early and subacute surgical cohort and improved significantly within 72 h postoperatively (p < 0.01). At one year, 90% of CNDs affecting cranial nerves (CNs) 3, 4, and 6 had recovered, with no differences between early (<4 d), subacute (4–14 d), and delayed (>14 d) time-to-surgery cohorts. Remarkably, half recovered within three days. In total, 56% of CN2 deficits recovered, with the early surgery cohort including more severe deficits and recovering at a lower rate (p = 0.01). No correlation of time-to-surgery and rapidity of recovery of CNDs was observed (p = 0.65, 0.72). Surgery for PTA is associated with rapid recovery of CNDs in the early, subacute, and delayed time frames, and with rapid headache improvement in the early and subacute time frames in 50% or more of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in the Surgical Treatment of Brain Tumors)
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12 pages, 1228 KiB  
Review
Breast Cancer Patients: Who Would Benefit from Neoadjuvant Chemotherapies?
by Liqin Yao, Gang Jia, Lingeng Lu and Wenxue Ma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4902-4913; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070389 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) was developed with the aims of shrinking tumors or stopping cancer cells from spreading before surgery. Unfortunately, not all breast cancer patients will benefit from NACT, and thus, patients must weigh the risks and benefits of treatment prior to the [...] Read more.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) was developed with the aims of shrinking tumors or stopping cancer cells from spreading before surgery. Unfortunately, not all breast cancer patients will benefit from NACT, and thus, patients must weigh the risks and benefits of treatment prior to the initiation of therapy. Currently, the data for predicting the efficacy of NACT is limited. Molecular testing, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Curebest 95GC, have been developed to assist which breast cancer patients will benefit from the treatment. Patients with an increased level of Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR isotype, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Fizzy-related protein homolog, and a decreased level of tumor-associated macrophages appear to benefit most from NACT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
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9 pages, 521 KiB  
Article
Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Outcome, Toxicity and Predictive Factors in Patients Treated with Hypofractionated Sequential or Exclusive Radiotherapy
by Maria Massaro, Davide Franceschini, Ruggero Spoto, Luca Dominici, Ciro Franzese, Davide Baldaccini, Beatrice Marini, Luciana di Cristina, Marco A. Marzo, Lorenzo lo Faro, Lucia Paganini, Giacomo Reggiori, Carmela Galdieri, Alberto Testori and Marta Scorsetti
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4893-4901; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070388 - 12 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Background: This study evaluated the outcome, toxicity and predictive factors in patients unfit for concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CT-RT) treated with hypofractionated sequential CT-RT or exclusive radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: We included patients affected by LA-NSCLC (stage IIA-IVA) [...] Read more.
Background: This study evaluated the outcome, toxicity and predictive factors in patients unfit for concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CT-RT) treated with hypofractionated sequential CT-RT or exclusive radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: We included patients affected by LA-NSCLC (stage IIA-IVA) treated with a total dose of 50–60 Gy in 20 fractions. The primary outcomes were local control (LC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate analysis was used to correlate outcomes with prognostic factors. Results: Between 2011 and 2019, 210 patients were treated, 113 (53.8%) with sequential CT-RT and 97 (46.2%) with exclusive RT. After a median follow-up of 15.3 months, 74 patients (35.2%) had a local progression and 133 (63.3%) had a distant progression. The one-, two- and five-year LC were 73.6%, 55.3% and 47.9%, respectively. At the time of analysis, 167 patients (79.5%) died. The one-, two- and five-year OS were 64.7%, 36% and 20%, respectively. PTV volume correlated with PFS (p = 0.001) and LC (p = 0.005). Acute and late toxicity occurred in 82% and 26% of patients. Conclusions: Albeit with the known limitations of a retrospective and heterogeneous study, our work shows that hypofractionated sequential CT-RT or exclusive RT offer a good local control and toxicity profile and a promising survival rate in LA-NSCLC patients unfit for the concurrent CT-RT scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Radiation Therapy)
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14 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Better Prognosis of Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Than Gastric Adenocarcinoma among Whites in the United States: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis Based on SEER
by Zefeng Li, Hu Ren, Lulu Zhao, Xiaojie Zhang, Tongbo Wang, Chongyuan Sun, Penghui Niu, Wanqing Wang, He Fei, Chunguang Guo, Yingtai Chen and Dongbing Zhao
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4879-4892; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070387 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
It was generally believed that the prognosis of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (GNEC) was worse than gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). However, almost all previous studies compared the prognosis of GNEC and GAC based on East Asians. In this study, we evaluated the clinicopathological features and [...] Read more.
It was generally believed that the prognosis of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (GNEC) was worse than gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). However, almost all previous studies compared the prognosis of GNEC and GAC based on East Asians. In this study, we evaluated the clinicopathological features and prognosis of GNEC and GAC in Whites. Patients with GNEC and GAC were identified from 2000 to 2018 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We used propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to match the age, sex, TNM stage, and treatments received between GNEC and GAC, then compared the overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in the two types. A total of 392 cases of GNEC and 12,835 cases of GAC in Whites were recognized. After PSM, the 5-year OS rates of GNEC and GAC were 50.3% and 43.0%, respectively (p = 0.010). The 5-year CSS rates of GNEC and GAC were 57.4% and 50.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). Besides, multivariable cox regression analyses showed that GNEC was an independent predictor of improved OS (HR 0.719; 95% CI 0.607–0.853) and CSS (HR 0.691; 95% CI 0.571–0.835) in the matched data. The prognosis of GNEC was better than GAC in Whites, showing significant ethnic differences. Appropriate treatments and follow-up strategies for GNEC in Whites are probably different from East Asians. The potential genetic and molecular mechanisms need to be further explored. Full article
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11 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
Regional Chemotherapy Is a Valuable Second-Line Approach in Metastatic Esophageal Cancer after Failure to First-Line Palliative Treatment
by Yogesh Vashist, Kornelia Aigner, Miriam Dam, Sabine Gailhofer and Karl R. Aigner
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4868-4878; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070386 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Background: Therapeutic options in metastatic esophageal cancer (EC) are limited with unsatisfactory results. We evaluated the efficacy of regional chemotherapy (RegCTx) approach in diffuse metastatic EC using arterial infusion (AI), upper abdominal perfusion (UAP) and isolated-thoracic perfusion (ITP) in 14 patients (N = [...] Read more.
Background: Therapeutic options in metastatic esophageal cancer (EC) are limited with unsatisfactory results. We evaluated the efficacy of regional chemotherapy (RegCTx) approach in diffuse metastatic EC using arterial infusion (AI), upper abdominal perfusion (UAP) and isolated-thoracic perfusion (ITP) in 14 patients (N = 8 adenocarcinoma (AC) and N = 6 squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC)) after failure to first-line palliative treatment. Methods: All patients had previously failed first-line palliative treatment attempt with systemic chemotherapy (sCTx). In total 51 RegCTx cycles (12 AI, 3 UAP and 36 ITP) were applied using cisplatin, Adriamycin and Mitomycin C. The outcome was evaluated using RECIST criteria with MediasStat 28.5.14 and SPSS–28.0. Results: No grade III or IV hematological complications occurred. The overall response rate was 41% partial response, 27% stable and 32% progressive disease. Median overall survival (OS) was 38 months (95%CI 10.1–65.9). The OS was better in SQCC with 51 months The RegCTx specific survival was 13 months (95%CI 2.9–23.1) in the entire cohort and 25 months in SQCC patients. Conclusion: RegCTx is a valuable safe approach and superior to the current proposed therapeutic options in metastatic EC after failure to first-line therapy. Full article
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12 pages, 1107 KiB  
Article
Significance of the Number and the Location of Metastatic Lymph Nodes in Locally Recurrent or Persistent Cervical Cancer Patients Treated with Salvage Hysterectomy plus Lymphadenectomy
by Seiji Mabuchi, Naoko Komura, Michiko Kodama, Michihide Maeda, Yuri Matsumoto and Shoji Kamiura
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4856-4867; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070385 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
We retrospectively investigated the significance of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with locally recurrent or persistent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated field and subsequently had salvage hysterectomy. Clinical data were obtained from a chart review, and the prognostic impact of the presence, [...] Read more.
We retrospectively investigated the significance of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with locally recurrent or persistent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated field and subsequently had salvage hysterectomy. Clinical data were obtained from a chart review, and the prognostic impact of the presence, number (1–2 versus ≥3), and location (pelvic versus pelvic plus para-aortic) of lymph node metastasis was investigated by comparing recurrence and survival. In total, 50 patients were included in this study, of which 21 (42.0%) showed pathological evidence of lymph node metastasis (node-positive group). Both the univariate and multivariate analyses showed that lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for postoperative recurrence (hazard ratio (HR) 5.36; 95% CI 1.41–6.66; p = 0.0020). The predominant sites of recurrence after salvage surgery were the visceral organs and lymph nodes in the node-negative and node-positive groups, respectively. Patients with ≥3 node metastases showed similar survival to those with 1–2 node metastases. Patients with pelvic node metastasis showed similar survival to those with pelvic and para-aortic node metastases. The presence, not number or location, of lymph node metastasis was an independent poor prognostic factor for post-operative recurrence in patients who developed locally recurrent or persistent cervical cancer treated with salvage hysterectomy plus lymphadenectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
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14 pages, 653 KiB  
Systematic Review
Surgical Management of Craniovertebral Junction Schwannomas: A Systematic Review
by Paolo Palmisciano, Gianluca Ferini, Gina Watanabe, Andie Conching, Christian Ogasawara, Gianluca Scalia, Othman Bin-Alamer, Ali S. Haider, Maurizio Passanisi, Rosario Maugeri, Samer S. Hoz, Matias Baldoncini, Alvaro Campero, Maurizio Salvati, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol and Giuseppe E. Umana
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4842-4855; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070384 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
Background: Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) schwannomas are rare, with surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) being effective yet challenging options. We systematically reviewed the literature on CVJ schwannomas. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web-of-Science, and Cochrane were searched following the PRISMA statement to include studies reporting CVJ [...] Read more.
Background: Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) schwannomas are rare, with surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) being effective yet challenging options. We systematically reviewed the literature on CVJ schwannomas. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web-of-Science, and Cochrane were searched following the PRISMA statement to include studies reporting CVJ schwannomas. Clinical features, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Results: We collected 353 patients from 101 included articles. Presenting symptoms were mostly neck pain (30.3%) and headache (26.3%), with most cranial neuropathies involving the XII (31.2%) and X (24.4%) nerves. Most tumors originated from C2 (30.9%) and XII (29.4%) nerves, being extracranial (45.1%) and intradural-extradural (44.2%). Erosion of C1–C2 vertebrae (37.1%), the hypoglossal canal (28.3%), and/or jugular foramen (20.1%) were noted. All tumors were operated, preferably with the retrosigmoid approach (36.5%), with the far-lateral approach (29.7%) or with the posterior approach and cervical laminectomy (26.9%), far-lateral approaches (14.2%), or suboccipital craniotomy with concurrent cervical laminectomy (14.2%). Complete tumor resection was obtained most frequently (61.5%). Adjuvant post-surgery stereotactic radiosurgery was delivered in 5.9% patients. Median follow-up was 27 months (range, 12–252). Symptom improvement was noted in 88.1% of cases, and cranial neuropathies showed improvement in 10.2%. Post-surgical complications occurred in 83 patients (23.5%), mostly dysphagia (7.4%), new cranial neuropathies (6.2%), and cerebrospinal fluid leak (5.9%). A total of 16 patients (4.5%) had tumor recurrence and 7 died (2%), with median overall survival of 2.7 months (range, 0.1–252). Conclusions: Microsurgical resection is safe and effective for CVJ schwannomas. Data on SRS efficacy and indications are still lacking, and its role deserves further evaluation. Full article
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15 pages, 689 KiB  
Communication
Tailoring the Evidence for Exercise Oncology within Breast Cancer Care
by Chad W. Wagoner, Lauren C. Capozzi and S. Nicole Culos-Reed
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4827-4841; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070383 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3385
Abstract
Exercise is safe and effective for those living with and beyond breast cancer, with evidence supporting exercise guidelines, and position statements from international organizations. Despite the clearly recognized benefits of exercise for these individuals, many do not participate or maintain recommended exercise levels [...] Read more.
Exercise is safe and effective for those living with and beyond breast cancer, with evidence supporting exercise guidelines, and position statements from international organizations. Despite the clearly recognized benefits of exercise for these individuals, many do not participate or maintain recommended exercise levels throughout the breast cancer continuum, highlighting the lack of translation from research into practice. In addition, discerning how exercise can be tailored to address breast cancer-related impairments, so that individuals are able to participate safely and effectively, has also not been studied extensively. Thus, we propose that implementing exercise screening, triage, and referral pathways across the breast cancer continuum may allow for increased accessibility and adoption among those living with and beyond breast cancer. This paper provides an overview of exercise prescription tailoring for common breast cancer and treatment-related impairments, proposes a simplified screening tool for identifying physical activity and movement-related impairments, and considers how best to channel evidence into practice via proposed implementation pathways that may better connect individuals living with and beyond breast cancer with exercise oncology resources through screening, triage, and referral. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolving Paradigm of Curative Intent Breast Cancer Management)
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16 pages, 9574 KiB  
Article
Real-World Clinical Outcomes after Genomic Profiling of Circulating Tumor DNA in Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
by Steven Olsen, Jiemin Liao and Hidetoshi Hayashi
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4811-4826; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070382 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Comprehensive genomic profiling for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can identify patients for molecularly targeted therapies that improve clinical outcomes. We analyzed data from 3084 patients (median age 65 years, 72.9% with adenocarcinoma) with advanced NSCLC registered in a real-world healthcare claims [...] Read more.
Comprehensive genomic profiling for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can identify patients for molecularly targeted therapies that improve clinical outcomes. We analyzed data from 3084 patients (median age 65 years, 72.9% with adenocarcinoma) with advanced NSCLC registered in a real-world healthcare claims database (GuardantINFORMTM, Guardant Health) who underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) testing (Guardant360®, Guardant Health) after first-line therapy (28.0% with agents targeted against genomic alterations). ctDNA was detected in 2771 samples (89.9%), of which 41.9% harbored actionable alterations, most commonly EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) mutations (29.7%). Actionable alterations were detected in 26.7% of patients (534/2001) previously treated with non-targeted agents. Emerging potentially targetable mutations were found in 40.1% (309/770) of patients previously treated with targeted therapies. Among patients with qualifying alterations detected by ctDNA testing, the time to treatment discontinuation (median 8.8 vs. 4.2 months; hazard ratio 1.97, p < 0.001) and overall survival (median 36.1 vs. 16.6 months; hazard ratio 2.08, p < 0.001) were longer for those who received matched second-line therapy versus unmatched second-line therapy. In real-world practice, results of a blood-based NGS assay prior to second-line treatment inform therapeutic decisions that can improve clinical outcomes for patients with advanced NSCLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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12 pages, 1249 KiB  
Communication
Pretreatment Modified Albumin–Bilirubin Grade Is an Important Predictive Factor Associated with the Therapeutic Response and the Continuation of Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab Combination Therapy for Patients with Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Takashi Tanaka, Kazuhide Takata, Keiji Yokoyama, Hiromi Fukuda, Ryo Yamauchi, Atsushi Fukunaga, Satoshi Shakado, Shotaro Sakisaka and Fumihito Hirai
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4799-4810; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070381 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Background: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (ATZ + BV) treatment is recommended as the first-line systemic therapy for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC). This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of therapeutic response and the continuation of ATZ + BV treatment for u-HCC [...] Read more.
Background: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (ATZ + BV) treatment is recommended as the first-line systemic therapy for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC). This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of therapeutic response and the continuation of ATZ + BV treatment for u-HCC in a real-world setting. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between January 2021 and April 2022. Twenty-eight patients with u-HCC, who were treated with ATZ + BV, were assessed for their treatment response, continuation, and adverse events (AEs). Results: Among the 28 patients, 24 were evaluated at the first imaging. The objective response rate (ORR) was 29.2% (n = 7), and 54.2% (n = 13) on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1) and in the modified RECIST (mRECIST) guidelines, respectively. Comparing the objective response (OR) group (n = 13) and the non-OR group (n = 11), the modified albumin–bilirubin (mALBI) grades 1 and 2a were found to be significant predictive factors for OR (p = 0.021) in the mRECIST guidelines. Among the 28 patients, 17 discontinued their treatment due to AEs. Comparing the treatment continuation (n = 11) and discontinuation groups (n = 17), a Child–Pugh score of five points (p = 0.009) and mALBI grades 1 and 2a (p = 0.020) were predictive factors with significant differences. Conclusions: Pretreatment mALBI grades 1 and 2a were the important predictive factors associated with the therapeutic response and the therapeutic continuation of ATZ + BV for patients with u-HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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8 pages, 2853 KiB  
Case Report
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in a Patient with Ureteral Metastases from a Triple Negative Breast Cancer
by Georgia Saranti, Vasiliki Zolota, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Nikolaos Papathanasiou, Theodora Katsila, Konstantina Kitsou, Ilias Haliassos and Dimitrios Kardamakis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(7), 4791-4798; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29070380 - 7 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Metastatic ureteral tumors arising from a primary breast carcinoma are extremely rare. They present with hematuria and radiological findings compatible with obstructive ureteral phenomena. We present a case of an 87-year-old woman with a history of lymphoma and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), [...] Read more.
Metastatic ureteral tumors arising from a primary breast carcinoma are extremely rare. They present with hematuria and radiological findings compatible with obstructive ureteral phenomena. We present a case of an 87-year-old woman with a history of lymphoma and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), during an emergency admission for peptic ulcer, developed macroscopic hematuria. Radiologic and endoscopic investigations revealed a remarkable stenosis at the lower segment of the right ureter, attributed to metastases from her breast carcinoma. We report this case with the aim to make both oncologists and urologists aware of this rare condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Radiation Therapy)
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