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Mar. Drugs, Volume 17, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) From Sabang to Merauke, from Miangas to Rote Island, Indonesian waters is located at one of the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Chitosan-Based Carriers for Gene Delivery
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060381
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Approximately 4000 diseases are associated with malfunctioning genes in a particular cell type. Gene-based therapy provides a platform to modify the disease-causing genes expression at the cellular level to treat pathological conditions. However, gene delivery is challenging as these therapeutic genes need to [...] Read more.
Approximately 4000 diseases are associated with malfunctioning genes in a particular cell type. Gene-based therapy provides a platform to modify the disease-causing genes expression at the cellular level to treat pathological conditions. However, gene delivery is challenging as these therapeutic genes need to overcome several physiological and intracellular barriers in order, to reach the target cells. Over the years, efforts have been dedicated to develop efficient gene delivery vectors to overcome these systemic barriers. Chitosan, a versatile polysaccharide, is an attractive non-viral vector material for gene delivery mainly due to its cationic nature, biodegradability and biocompatibility. The present review discusses the design factors that are critical for efficient gene delivery/transfection and highlights the recent progress of gene therapy using chitosan-based carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biopolymers and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Omega-3 Fatty Acids-Enriched Fish Oil Activates AMPK/PGC-1α Signaling and Prevents Obesity-Related Skeletal Muscle Wasting
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060380
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Obesity is known to cause skeletal muscle wasting. This study investigated the effect and the possible mechanism of fish oil on skeletal muscle wasting in an obese rat model. High-fat (HF) diets were applied to induce the defects of lipid metabolism in male [...] Read more.
Obesity is known to cause skeletal muscle wasting. This study investigated the effect and the possible mechanism of fish oil on skeletal muscle wasting in an obese rat model. High-fat (HF) diets were applied to induce the defects of lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats with or without substitution of omega-3 fatty acids-enriched fish oil (FO, 5%) for eight weeks. Diets supplemented with 5% FO showed a significant decrease in the final body weight compared to HF diet-fed rats. The decreased soleus muscle weights in HF diet-fed rats could be improved by FO substitution. The decreased myosin heavy chain (a muscle thick filament protein) and increased FOXO3A and Atrogin-1 (muscle atrophy-related proteins) protein expressions in soleus muscles of HF diet-fed rats could also be reversed by FO substitution. FO substitution could also significantly activate adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and PPARγ protein expression and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA expression in soleus muscles of HF diet-fed rats. These results suggest that substitution of FO exerts a beneficial improvement in the imbalance of lipid and muscle metabolisms in obesity. AMPK/PGC-1α signaling may play an important role in FO-prevented obesity-induced muscle wasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A New Meroterpene, A New Benzofuran Derivative and Other Constituents from Cultures of the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Acremonium persicinum KUFA 1007 and Their Anticholinesterase Activities
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060379
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Previously unreported meroterpene, acremine S (1), and benzopyran derivative, acremine T (2), were isolated, together with lumichrome (3), ergosterol (4) and ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxide, from cultures of the marine sponge-associated fungus Acremonium persicinum KUF1007. The structure [...] Read more.
Previously unreported meroterpene, acremine S (1), and benzopyran derivative, acremine T (2), were isolated, together with lumichrome (3), ergosterol (4) and ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxide, from cultures of the marine sponge-associated fungus Acremonium persicinum KUF1007. The structure of the previously unreported compounds was established based on an extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra as well as HRMS data. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centers of 1 were established, unambiguously, based on NOESY correlations and comparison of calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compounds 1–3 were tested for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rational Design of Alginate Lyase from Microbulbifer sp. Q7 to Improve Thermal Stability
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060378
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Alginate lyase degrades alginate by the β-elimination mechanism to produce oligosaccharides with special bioactivities. The low thermal stability of alginate lyase limits its industrial application. In this study, introducing the disulfide bonds while using the rational design methodology enhanced the thermal stability of [...] Read more.
Alginate lyase degrades alginate by the β-elimination mechanism to produce oligosaccharides with special bioactivities. The low thermal stability of alginate lyase limits its industrial application. In this study, introducing the disulfide bonds while using the rational design methodology enhanced the thermal stability of alginate lyase cAlyM from Microbulbifer sp. Q7. Enzyme catalytic sites, secondary structure, spatial configuration, and molecular dynamic simulation were comprehensively analyzed. When compared with cAlyM, the mutants D102C-A300C and G103C-T113C showed an increase by 2.25 and 1.16 h, respectively, in half-life time at 45 °C, in addition to increases by 1.7 °C and 0.4 °C in the melting temperature, respectively. The enzyme-specific activity and kcat/Km values of D102C-A300C were 1.8- and 1.5-times higher than those of cAlyM, respectively. The rational design strategy that was used in this study provides a valuable method for improving the thermal stability of the alginate lyase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Probing Multi-Target Action of Phlorotannins as New Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Dopaminergic Receptor Modulators with the Potential for Treatment of Neuronal Disorders
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060377
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
Modulation of multiple protein targets with a single compound is essential for the effective treatment of central nervous system disorders. In our previous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) cell-based study, a selective human monoamine oxidase (hMAO)-A inhibitor, eckol, stimulated activity of dopamine [...] Read more.
Modulation of multiple protein targets with a single compound is essential for the effective treatment of central nervous system disorders. In our previous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) cell-based study, a selective human monoamine oxidase (hMAO)-A inhibitor, eckol, stimulated activity of dopamine D3 and D4 receptors. This result led to our interest in marine phlorotannin-mediated modulation of hMAO enzymes and related GPCRs in neuronal disorders. Here, we evaluate the multi-target effects of phloroglucinol, phlorofucofuroeckol-A (PFF-A), and dieckol by screening their modulatory activity against hMAO-A and -B and various neuronal GPCRs. Among the tested phlorotannins, PFF-A showed the strongest inhibitory activity against both hMAO isoforms, with higher selectivity toward hMAO-B than hMAO-A. Enzyme kinetics and docking data revealed that PFF-A noncompetitively acts on hMAOs into the alternative binding pocket of enzymes with allosteric functions. In a functional assay for GPCR screening, dieckol and PFF-A exhibited a multi-target combination of D3R/D4R agonism and D1/5HT1A/NK1 antagonism. In particular, they effectively stimulated D3R and D4R, compared to other GPCRs. Docking analysis confirmed that dieckol and PFF-A successfully docked into the conserved active sites of D3R and D4R and interacted with aspartyl and serine residues in the orthosteric binding pockets of the respective receptors. Based on our experimental and computational data, we established the structure-activity relationship between tested phlorotannins and target proteins, including hMAOs and GPCRs. Our current findings suggest that hMAO inhibitors dieckol and PFF-A, major phlorotannins of edible brown algae with multi-action on GPCRs, are potential agents for treatment of psychological disorders and Parkinson’s disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Redesigning Arenicin-1, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Marine Polychaeta Arenicola marina, by Strand Rearrangement or Branching, Substitution of Specific Residues, and Backbone Linearization or Cyclization
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060376
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
Arenicin-1, a β-sheet antimicrobial peptide isolated from the marine polychaeta Arenicola marina coelomocytes, has a potent, broad-spectrum microbicidal activity and also shows significant toxicity towards mammalian cells. Several variants were rationally designed to elucidate the role of structural features such as cyclization, a [...] Read more.
Arenicin-1, a β-sheet antimicrobial peptide isolated from the marine polychaeta Arenicola marina coelomocytes, has a potent, broad-spectrum microbicidal activity and also shows significant toxicity towards mammalian cells. Several variants were rationally designed to elucidate the role of structural features such as cyclization, a certain symmetry of the residue arrangement, or the presence of specific residues in the sequence, in its membranolytic activity and the consequent effect on microbicidal efficacy and toxicity. The effect of variations on the structure was probed using molecular dynamics simulations, which indicated a significant stability of the β-hairpin scaffold and showed that modifying residue symmetry and β-strand arrangement affected both the twist and the kink present in the native structure. In vitro assays against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant clinical isolates, showed that inversion of the residue arrangement improved the activity against Gram-negative strains but decreased it towards Gram-positive ones. Variants with increased symmetry were somewhat less active, whereas both backbone-cyclized and linear versions of the peptides, as well as variants with R→K and W→F replacement, showed antimicrobial activity comparable with that of the native peptide. All these variants permeabilized both the outer and the inner membranes of Escherichia coli, suggesting that a membranolytic mechanism of action was maintained. Our results indicate that the arenicin scaffold can support a considerable degree of variation while maintaining useful biological properties and can thus serve as a template for the elaboration of novel anti-infective agents. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
New Aromatic Bisabolane Derivatives with Lipid-Reducing Activity from the Marine Sponge Myrmekioderma sp.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060375
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
The previously reported 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-methylphenyl)ethan-1-one (1), (1’Z)-2-(1’,5’-dimethylhexa-1’,4’-dieny1)-5-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (2), and 1,8-epoxy-1(6),2,4,7,10-bisaborapentaen-4-ol (5) together with four new structures of aromatic bisabolane-related compounds (3, 4, 6, 7) were isolated from the marine sponge Myrmekioderma sp. Compounds [...] Read more.
The previously reported 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-methylphenyl)ethan-1-one (1), (1’Z)-2-(1’,5’-dimethylhexa-1’,4’-dieny1)-5-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (2), and 1,8-epoxy-1(6),2,4,7,10-bisaborapentaen-4-ol (5) together with four new structures of aromatic bisabolane-related compounds (3, 4, 6, 7) were isolated from the marine sponge Myrmekioderma sp. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were identified based on spectral data available in the literature. The structures of the four new compounds were experimentally established by 1D and 2D-NMR and (−)-HRESIMS spectral analysis. Cytotoxic and lipid-reducing activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated. None of the isolated compounds were active against the tested cancer cell lines; however, lipid-reducing activity was found for compounds 25 and 7 in the zebrafish Nile red fat metabolism assay. This class of compounds should be further explored for their suitability as possible agents for the treatment of lipid metabolic disorders and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Fish n-3 PUFAs on Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060374
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
Studies over several decades have documented the beneficial actions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, in different disease states. Mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs include: (1) Reduction of triglyceride levels; (2) anti-arrhythmic and antithrombotic [...] Read more.
Studies over several decades have documented the beneficial actions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, in different disease states. Mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs include: (1) Reduction of triglyceride levels; (2) anti-arrhythmic and antithrombotic effects, and (3) resolution of inflammatory processes. The human microbiota project and subsequent studies using next-generation sequencing technology have highlighted that thousands of different microbial species are present in the human gut, and that there has been a significant variability of taxa in the microbiota composition among people. Several factors (gestational age, mode of delivery, diet, sanitation and antibiotic treatment) influence the bacterial community in the human gastrointestinal tract, and among these diet habits play a crucial role. The disturbances in the gut microbiota composition, i.e., gut dysbiosis, have been associated with diseases ranging from localized gastrointestinal disorders to neurologic, respiratory, metabolic, ocular, and cardiovascular illnesses. Many studies have been published about the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut microbiota/microbioma. On the contrary, PUFAs in the gut microbiota have been less well defined. However, experimental studies suggested that gut microbiota, n-3 PUFAs, and host immune cells work together to ensure the intestinal wall integrity. This review discussed current evidence concerning the links among gut microbiota, n-3 PUFAs intake, and human inflammatory disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Metabolites of Seaweeds as Potential Agents for the Prevention and Therapy of Influenza Infection
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060373
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
Context: Seaweed metabolites (fucoidans, carrageenans, ulvans, lectins, and polyphenols) are biologically active compounds that target proteins or genes of the influenza virus and host components that are necessary for replication and reproduction of the virus. Objective: This review gathers the information available in [...] Read more.
Context: Seaweed metabolites (fucoidans, carrageenans, ulvans, lectins, and polyphenols) are biologically active compounds that target proteins or genes of the influenza virus and host components that are necessary for replication and reproduction of the virus. Objective: This review gathers the information available in the literature regarding to the useful properties of seaweeds metabolites as potential agents for the prevention and therapy of influenza infection. Materials and methods: The sources of scientific literature were found in various electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect) and library search. The retrospective search depth is 25 years. Results: Influenza is a serious medical and social problem for humanity. Recently developed drugs are quite effective against currently circulating influenza virus strains, but their use can lead to the selection of resistant viral strains. In this regard, new therapeutic approaches and drugs with a broad spectrum of activity are needed. Metabolites of seaweeds fulfill these requirements. This review presents the results of in vitro and in vivo experimental and clinical studies about the effectiveness of these compounds in combating influenza infection and explains the necessity of their use as a potential basis for the creation of new drugs with a broad spectrum of activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd International Symposium on Life Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Steroids from Marine-Derived Fungi: Evaluation of Antiproliferative and Antimicrobial Activities of Eburicol
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060372
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
The most common sterol in fungi is ergosterol, which has frequently been investigated in human pathogenic fungal strains. This sterol, and others isolated from fungal strains, has also demonstrated cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activities. Marine fungi can produce high amounts [...] Read more.
The most common sterol in fungi is ergosterol, which has frequently been investigated in human pathogenic fungal strains. This sterol, and others isolated from fungal strains, has also demonstrated cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activities. Marine fungi can produce high amounts of bioactive compounds. So, a screening was performed to study sterol composition using GC/MS in 19 marine fungal strains and ergosterol was always the major one. One strain, Clonostachys rosea MMS1090, was selected due to its high amount of eburicol and a one strain many compounds approach was performed on seven culture media to optimize its production. After purification and structural identification by NMR, eburicol was assessed against four cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, NSCLC-N6-L16 and A549, and seven human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Listeria ivanovii, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella spp. The most significant activity was cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (2 µM). This is the first report of such an accumulation of eburicol in the marine fungal strain C. rosea confirming its potential in the production of bioactive lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids with Biological Interest)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Bioactive Thermal Proteome Profiling to Decipher the Mechanism of Action of the Lipid Lowering 132-Hydroxy-pheophytin Isolated from a Marine Cyanobacteria
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060371
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
The acceleration of the process of understanding the pharmacological application of new marine bioactive compounds requires identifying the compound protein targets leading the molecular mechanisms in a living cell. The thermal proteome profiling (TPP) methodology does not fulfill the requirements for its application [...] Read more.
The acceleration of the process of understanding the pharmacological application of new marine bioactive compounds requires identifying the compound protein targets leading the molecular mechanisms in a living cell. The thermal proteome profiling (TPP) methodology does not fulfill the requirements for its application to any bioactive compound lacking chemical and functional characterization. Here, we present a modified method that we called bTPP for bioactive thermal proteome profiling that guarantees target specificity from a soluble subproteome. We showed that the precipitation of the microsomal fraction before the thermal shift assay is crucial to accurately calculate the melting points of the protein targets. As a probe of concept, the protein targets of 132-hydroxy-pheophytin, a compound previously isolated from a marine cyanobacteria for its lipid reducing activity, were analyzed on the hepatic cell line HepG2. Our improved method identified 9 protein targets out of 2500 proteins, including 3 targets (isocitrate dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, phosphoserine aminotransferase) that could be related to obesity and diabetes, as they are involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. This study demonstrated that the bTPP method can accelerate the field of biodiscovery, revealing protein targets involved in mechanisms of action (MOA) connected with future applications of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Structural and Functional Analyses of Cone Snail Toxins
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060370
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Cone snails are marine gastropod mollusks with one of the most powerful venoms in nature. The toxins, named conotoxins, must act quickly on the cone snails´ prey due to the fact that snails are extremely slow, reducing their hunting capability. Therefore, the characteristics [...] Read more.
Cone snails are marine gastropod mollusks with one of the most powerful venoms in nature. The toxins, named conotoxins, must act quickly on the cone snails´ prey due to the fact that snails are extremely slow, reducing their hunting capability. Therefore, the characteristics of conotoxins have become the object of investigation, and as a result medicines have been developed or are in the trialing process. Conotoxins interact with transmembrane proteins, showing specificity and potency. They target ion channels and ionotropic receptors with greater regularity, and when interaction occurs, there is immediate physiological decompensation. In this review we aimed to evaluate the structural features of conotoxins and the relationship with their target types. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chitin and Chitosans: Characteristics, Eco-Friendly Processes, and Applications in Cosmetic Science
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060369
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Huge amounts of chitin and chitosans can be found in the biosphere as important constituents of the exoskeleton of many organisms and as waste by worldwide seafood companies. Presently, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists encourage the use of these marine polysaccharides as a renewable [...] Read more.
Huge amounts of chitin and chitosans can be found in the biosphere as important constituents of the exoskeleton of many organisms and as waste by worldwide seafood companies. Presently, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists encourage the use of these marine polysaccharides as a renewable source developed by alternative eco-friendly processes, especially in the production of regular cosmetics. The aim of this review is to outline the physicochemical and biological properties and the different bioextraction methods of chitin and chitosan sources, focusing on enzymatic deproteinization, bacteria fermentation, and enzymatic deacetylation methods. Thanks to their biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity, the applications of these marine polymers are widely used in the contemporary manufacturing of biomedical and pharmaceutical products. In the end, advanced cosmetics based on chitin and chitosans are presented, analyzing different therapeutic aspects regarding skin, hair, nail, and oral care. The innovative formulations described can be considered excellent candidates for the prevention and treatment of several diseases associated with different body anatomical sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Resource and Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Cell Protective Role of Histochrome under Oxidative Stress in Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060368
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are resident stem cells present in a small portion of ischemic hearts and function in repairing the damaged heart tissue. Intense oxidative stress impairs cell metabolism thereby decreasing cell viability. Protecting CPCs from undergoing cellular apoptosis during oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are resident stem cells present in a small portion of ischemic hearts and function in repairing the damaged heart tissue. Intense oxidative stress impairs cell metabolism thereby decreasing cell viability. Protecting CPCs from undergoing cellular apoptosis during oxidative stress is crucial in optimizing CPC-based therapy. Histochrome (sodium salt of echinochrome A—a common sea urchin pigment) is an antioxidant drug that has been clinically used as a pharmacologic agent for ischemia/reperfusion injury in Russia. However, the mechanistic effect of histochrome on CPCs has never been reported. We investigated the protective effect of histochrome pretreatment on human CPCs (hCPCs) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) assay revealed that histochrome-treated CPCs showed significant protective effects against H2O2-induced cell death. The anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-xL were significantly upregulated, whereas the pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2-associated X (Bax), H2O2-induced cleaved caspase-3, and the DNA damage marker, phosphorylated histone (γH2A.X) foci, were significantly downregulated upon histochrome treatment of hCPCs in vitro. Further, prolonged incubation with histochrome alleviated the replicative cellular senescence of hCPCs. In conclusion, we report the protective effect of histochrome against oxidative stress and present the use of a potent and bio-safe cell priming agent as a potential therapeutic strategy in patient-derived hCPCs to treat heart disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd International Symposium on Life Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Styrene Oxide and Benzyl Glycidyl Ether by a Variant of Epoxide Hydrolase from Agromyces mediolanus
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060367
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Enantiopure epoxides are versatile synthetic intermediates for producing optically active pharmaceuticals. In an effort to provide more options for the preparation of enantiopure epoxides, a variant of the epoxide hydrolase (vEH-Am) gene from a marine microorganism Agromyces mediolanus was synthesized and expressed in [...] Read more.
Enantiopure epoxides are versatile synthetic intermediates for producing optically active pharmaceuticals. In an effort to provide more options for the preparation of enantiopure epoxides, a variant of the epoxide hydrolase (vEH-Am) gene from a marine microorganism Agromyces mediolanus was synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombiant vEH-Am displayed a molecular weight of 43 kDa and showed high stability with a half-life of 51.1 h at 30 °C. The purified vEH-Am exhibited high enantioselectivity towards styrene oxide (SO) and benzyl glycidyl ether (BGE). The vEH-Am preferentially converted (S)-SO, leaving (R)-SO with the enantiomeric excess (ee) >99%. However, (R)-BGE was preferentially hydrolyzed by vEH-Am, resulting in (S)-BGE with >99% ee. To investigate the origin of regioselectivity, the interactions between vEH-Am and enantiomers of SO and BGE were analyzed by molecular docking simulation. In addition, it was observed that the yields of (R)-SO and (S)-BGE decreased with the increase of substrate concentrations. The yield of (R)-SO was significantly increased by adding 2% (v/v) Tween-20 or intermittent supplementation of the substrate. To our knowledge, vEH-Am displayed the highest enantioselectivity for the kinetic resolution of racemic BGE among the known EHs, suggesting promising applications of vEH-Am in the preparation of optically active BGE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serine Protease from Nereis virens Inhibits H1299 Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060366
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
This study explores the in vitro anti-proliferative mechanism between Nereis Active Protease (NAP) and human lung cancer H1299 cells. Colony formation and migration of cells were significantly lowered, following NAP treatment. Flow cytometry results suggested that NAP-induced growth inhibition of H1299 cells is [...] Read more.
This study explores the in vitro anti-proliferative mechanism between Nereis Active Protease (NAP) and human lung cancer H1299 cells. Colony formation and migration of cells were significantly lowered, following NAP treatment. Flow cytometry results suggested that NAP-induced growth inhibition of H1299 cells is linked to apoptosis, and that NAP can arrest the cells at the G0/G1 phase. The ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways were selected for their RNA transcripts, and their roles in the anti-proliferative mechanism of NAP were studied using Western blots. Our results suggested that NAP led to the downregulation of p-ERK (Thr 202/Tyr 204), p-AKT (Ser 473), p-PI3K (p85), and p-mTOR (Ser 2448), suggesting that NAP-induced H1299 cell apoptosis occurs via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, specific inhibitors LY294002 and PD98059 were used to inhibit these two pathways. The effect of NAP on the downregulation of p-ERK and p-AKT was enhanced by the LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), while the inhibitor PD98059 had no obvious effect. Overall, the results suggested that NAP exhibits antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis, through the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sequential Delivery of Dual Growth Factors from Injectable Chitosan-Based Composite Hydrogels
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060365
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PGDF-BB) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in a sequential release manner could substantially promote bone healing. To achieve this goal, a delivery system that could sustain the release of PGDF-BB and BMP-2 by way of temporal separation [...] Read more.
Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PGDF-BB) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in a sequential release manner could substantially promote bone healing. To achieve this goal, a delivery system that could sustain the release of PGDF-BB and BMP-2 by way of temporal separation was developed. One type of PGDF-BB-encapsulated alginate microsphere and another type of BMP-2-encapsulated microsphere with a core-shell structure were respectively produced using emulsification methods. These two types of microspheres were then embedded into chitosan/glycerophosphate hydrogel for constructing composite gels. Some of them were found to be injectable at ambient temperature and had thermo-sensitive features near physiological temperature and pH. The optimally formulated composite gels showed the ability to control the release of PGDF-BB and BMP-2 in a sequential fashion in which PDGF-BB was released earlier than BMP-2. In vitro release patterns indicated that the release rates could be significantly regulated by varying the embedded amount of the factor-encapsulated microspheres, which can in turn mediate the temporal separation release interval between PGDF-BB and BMP-2. The released PDGF-BB and BMP-2 were detected to be bioactive based on their respective effects on Balb/c 3T3 and C2C12 cells. These results suggest that the presently developed composite gels have the potential for bone repair by synergistically utilizing the early chemotactic effect of PDGF-BB and the subsequent osteogenic and angiogenic functions of PDGF-BB and BMP-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biopolymers and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Marine Natural Products from Indonesian Waters
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060364
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Natural products are primal and have been a driver in the evolution of organic chemistry and ultimately in science. The chemical structures obtained from marine organisms are diverse, reflecting biodiversity of genes, species and ecosystems. Biodiversity is an extraordinary feature of life and [...] Read more.
Natural products are primal and have been a driver in the evolution of organic chemistry and ultimately in science. The chemical structures obtained from marine organisms are diverse, reflecting biodiversity of genes, species and ecosystems. Biodiversity is an extraordinary feature of life and provides benefits to humanity while promoting the importance of environment conservation. This review covers the literature on marine natural products (MNPs) discovered in Indonesian waters published from January 1970 to December 2017, and includes 732 original MNPs, 4 structures isolated for the first time but known to be synthetic entities, 34 structural revisions, 9 artifacts, and 4 proposed MNPs. Indonesian MNPs were found in 270 papers from 94 species, 106 genera, 64 families, 32 orders, 14 classes, 10 phyla, and 5 kingdoms. The emphasis is placed on the structures of organic molecules (original and revised), relevant biological activities, structure elucidation, chemical ecology aspects, biosynthesis, and bioorganic studies. Through the synthesis of past and future data, huge and partly undescribed biodiversity of marine tropical invertebrates and their importance for crucial societal benefits should greatly be appreciated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products Discovery: In Honor of Late Prof. Tatsuo Higa)
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Open AccessArticle
Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Expressing Aphrocallistes vastus Lectin as a Cancer Therapeutic Agent
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060363
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Lectins display a variety of biological functions including insecticidal, antimicrobial, as well as antitumor activities. In this report, a gene encoding Aphrocallistes vastus lectin (AVL), a C-type lectin, was inserted into an oncolytic vaccinia virus vector (oncoVV) to form a recombinant virus oncoVV-AVL, [...] Read more.
Lectins display a variety of biological functions including insecticidal, antimicrobial, as well as antitumor activities. In this report, a gene encoding Aphrocallistes vastus lectin (AVL), a C-type lectin, was inserted into an oncolytic vaccinia virus vector (oncoVV) to form a recombinant virus oncoVV-AVL, which showed significant in vitro antiproliferative activity in a variety of cancer cell lines. Further investigations revealed that oncoVV-AVL replicated faster than oncoVV significantly in cancer cells. Intracellular signaling elements including NF-κB2, NIK, as well as ERK were determined to be altered by oncoVV-AVL. Virus replication upregulated by AVL was completely dependent on ERK activity. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that oncoVV-AVL elicited significant antitumor effect in colorectal cancer and liver cancer mouse models. Our study might provide insights into a novel way of the utilization of marine lectin AVL in oncolytic viral therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
C-Phycocyanin Suppresses the In Vitro Proliferation and Migration of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells through Reduction of RIPK1/NF-κB Activity
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060362
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Phycocyanin, derived from Spirulina platensis, is a type of natural antineoplastic marine protein. It is known that phycocyanin exerts anticancer effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but its underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. Herein, the antitumor function and regulatory mechanism of [...] Read more.
Phycocyanin, derived from Spirulina platensis, is a type of natural antineoplastic marine protein. It is known that phycocyanin exerts anticancer effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but its underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. Herein, the antitumor function and regulatory mechanism of phycocyanin were investigated in three NSCLC cell lines for the first time: H358, H1650, and LTEP-a2. Cell phenotype experiments suggested that phycocyanin could suppress the survival rate, proliferation, colony formation, and migration abilities, as well as induce apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Subsequently, transcriptome analysis revealed that receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) was significantly down-regulated by phycocyanin in the LTEP-a2 cell, which was further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis in two other cell lines. Interestingly, similar to phycocyanin-treated assays, siRNA knockdown of RIPK1 expression also resulted in growth and migration inhibition of NSCLC cells. Moreover, the activity of NF-κB signaling was also suppressed after silencing RIPK1 expression, indicating that phycocyanin exerted anti-proliferative and anti-migratory function through down-regulating RIPK1/NF-κB activity in NSCLC cells. This study proposes a mechanism of action for phycocyanin involving both NSCLC apoptosis and down regulation of NSCLC genes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Characterizing Eckol as a Therapeutic Aid: A Systematic Review
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060361
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The marine biosphere is a treasure trove of natural bioactive secondary metabolites and the richest source of structurally diverse and unique compounds, such as phlorotannins and halo-compounds, with high therapeutic potential. Eckol is a precursor compound representing the dibenzo-1,4-dioxin class of phlorotannins abundant [...] Read more.
The marine biosphere is a treasure trove of natural bioactive secondary metabolites and the richest source of structurally diverse and unique compounds, such as phlorotannins and halo-compounds, with high therapeutic potential. Eckol is a precursor compound representing the dibenzo-1,4-dioxin class of phlorotannins abundant in the Ecklonia species, which are marine brown algae having a ubiquitous distribution. In search of compounds having biological activity from macro algae during the past three decades, this particular compound has attracted massive attention for its multiple therapeutic properties and health benefits. Although several varieties of marine algae, seaweed, and phlorotannins have already been well scrutinized, eckol deserves a place of its own because of the therapeutic properties it possesses. The relevant information about this particular compound has not yet been collected in one place; therefore, this review focuses on its biological applications, including its potential health benefits and possible applications to restrain diseases leading to good health. The facts compiled in this review could contribute to novel insights into the functions of eckol and potentially enable its use in different uninvestigated fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hirsutanol A Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression and Cytokines Production and Improves Endotoxemia-Induced Acute Sickness Behavior and Acute Lung Injury
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060360
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Activated human monocytes/macrophages, which increase the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, are the essential mechanisms for the progression of sepsis. In the present study, we determined the functions and mechanisms of hirsutanolA (HA), which is isolated from the red alga-derived [...] Read more.
Activated human monocytes/macrophages, which increase the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, are the essential mechanisms for the progression of sepsis. In the present study, we determined the functions and mechanisms of hirsutanolA (HA), which is isolated from the red alga-derived marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. NTOU4196, on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators produced from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated THP-1 cells. Our results showed that HA suppressed LPS-triggered MMP-9-mediated gelatinolysis and expression of protein and mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner without effects on TIMP-1 activity. Also, HA significantly attenuated the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β from LPS-treated THP-1 cells. Moreover, HA significantly inhibited LPS-mediated STAT3 (Tyr705) phosphorylation, IκBα degradation and ERK1/2 activation in THP-1 cells. In an LPS-induced endotoxemia mouse model, studies indicated that HA pretreatment improved endotoxemia-induced acute sickness behavior, including acute motor deficits and anxiety-like behavior. HA also attenuated LPS-induced phospho-STAT3 and pro-MMP-9 activity in the hippocampus. Notably, HA reduced pathologic lung injury features, including interstitial tissue edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells and alveolar collapse. Likewise, HA suppressed the induction of phospho-STAT3 and pro-MMP-9 in lung tissues. In conclusion, our results provide pharmacological evidence that HA could be a useful agent for treating inflammatory diseases, including sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle
Slow-Binding Inhibition of Tyrosinase by Ecklonia cava Phlorotannins
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060359
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Tyrosinase inhibitors improve skin whitening by inhibiting the formation of melanin precursors in the skin. The inhibitory activity of seven phlorotannins (17), triphlorethol A (1), eckol (2), 2-phloroeckol (3), phlorofucofuroeckol A (4 [...] Read more.
Tyrosinase inhibitors improve skin whitening by inhibiting the formation of melanin precursors in the skin. The inhibitory activity of seven phlorotannins (17), triphlorethol A (1), eckol (2), 2-phloroeckol (3), phlorofucofuroeckol A (4), 2-O-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-6,6′-bieckol (5), 6,8′-bieckol (6), and 8,8′-bieckol (7), from Ecklonia cava was tested against tyrosinase, which converts tyrosine into dihydroxyphenylalanine. Compounds 3 and 5 had IC50 values of 7.0 ± 0.2 and 8.8 ± 0.1 μM, respectively, in competitive mode, with Ki values of 8.2 ± 1.1 and 5.8 ± 0.8 μM. Both compounds showed the characteristics of slow-binding inhibitors over the time course of the enzyme reaction. Compound 3 had a single-step binding mechanism and compound 5 a two-step-binding mechanism. With stable AutoDock scores of −6.59 and −6.68 kcal/mol, respectively, compounds 3 and 5 both interacted with His85 and Asn260 at the active site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structures and Bioactivities of Six New Triterpene Glycosides, Psolusosides E, F, G, H, H1, and I and the Corrected Structure of Psolusoside B from the Sea Cucumber Psolus fabricii
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060358
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Seven sulfated triterpene glycosides, psolusosides B (1), E (2), F (3), G (4), H (5), H1 (6), and I (7), along with earlier known psolusoside A and colochiroside [...] Read more.
Seven sulfated triterpene glycosides, psolusosides B (1), E (2), F (3), G (4), H (5), H1 (6), and I (7), along with earlier known psolusoside A and colochiroside D have been isolated from the sea cucumber Psolus fabricii collected in the Sea of Okhotsk. Herein, the structure of psolusoside B (1), elucidated by us in 1989 as a monosulfated tetraoside, has been revised with application of modern NMR and particularly MS data and proved to be a disulfated tetraoside. The structures of other glycosides were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI mass-spectrometry. Psolusosides E (2), F (3), and G (4) contain holostane aglycones identical to each other and differ in their sugar compositions and the quantity and position of sulfate groups in linear tetrasaccharide carbohydrate moieties. Psolusosides H (5) and H1 (6) are characterized by an unusual sulfated trisaccharide carbohydrate moiety with the glucose as the second sugar unit. Psolusoside I (7) has an unprecedented branched tetrasaccharide disulfated carbohydrate moiety with the xylose unit in the second position of the chain. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds 27 against several mouse cell lines—ascite form of Ehrlich carcinoma, neuroblastoma Neuro 2A, normal epithelial JB-6 cells, and erythrocytes—were quite different, at that hemolytic effects of the tested compounds were higher than their cytotoxicity against other cells, especially against the ascites of Ehrlich carcinoma. Interestingly, psolusoside G (4) was not cytotoxic against normal JB-6 cells but demonstrated high activity against Neuro 2A cells. The cytotoxic activity against human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells and the influence on the colony formation and growth of HT-29 cells of compounds 13, 57 and psolusoside A was checked. The highest inhibitory activities were demonstrated by psolusosides E (2) and F (3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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Open AccessReview
Ulva lactuca, A Source of Troubles and Potential Riches
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060357
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Ulva lactuca is a green macro alga involved in devastating green tides observed worldwide. These green tides or blooms are a consequence of human activities. Ulva blooms occur mainly in shallow waters and the decomposition of this alga can produce dangerous vapors. Ulva [...] Read more.
Ulva lactuca is a green macro alga involved in devastating green tides observed worldwide. These green tides or blooms are a consequence of human activities. Ulva blooms occur mainly in shallow waters and the decomposition of this alga can produce dangerous vapors. Ulva lactuca is a species usually resembling lettuce, but genetic analyses demonstrated that other green algae with tubular phenotypes were U. lactuca clades although previously described as different species or even genera. The capacity for U. lactuca to adopt different phenotypes can be due to environment parameters, such as the degree of water salinity or symbiosis with bacteria. No efficient ways have been discovered to control these green tides, but the Mediterranean seas appear to be protected from blooms, which disappear rapidly in springtime. Ulva contains commercially valuable components, such as bioactive compounds, food or biofuel. The biomass due to this alga collected on beaches every year is beginning to be valorized to produce valuable compounds. This review describes different processes and strategies developed to extract these different valuable components. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Bostrychines A–F, Six Novel Mycosporine-Like Amino-Acids and a Novel Betaine from the Red Alga Bostrychia scorpioides
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060356
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Various red algae have repeatedly been reported to produce a variety of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), compounds that are well-known as natural sun-screens, as well as a plethora of betaines, metabolites which contribute to the osmotic balance under salt stress. Among other [...] Read more.
Various red algae have repeatedly been reported to produce a variety of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), compounds that are well-known as natural sun-screens, as well as a plethora of betaines, metabolites which contribute to the osmotic balance under salt stress. Among other Rhodophyta, Bostrychia scorpioides, which is thriving as epiphyte on salt marsh plants in Europe and hence experiences extreme environmental conditions such as desiccation, UV-stress and osmotic stress, has barely been investigated for its secondary metabolites. In the present study, seven mycosporine like-amino acids and two betaines were isolated from Bostrychia scorpioides using various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Six MAAs and one betaine were chemically characterized as new natural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids from Marine Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Rhamnose Binding Protein as an Anti-Bacterial Agent—Targeting Biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060355
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
More than 80% of infectious bacteria form biofilm, which is a bacterial cell community surrounded by secreted polysaccharides, proteins and glycolipids. Such bacterial superstructure increases resistance to antimicrobials and host defenses. Thus, to control these biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria requires antimicrobial agents with novel [...] Read more.
More than 80% of infectious bacteria form biofilm, which is a bacterial cell community surrounded by secreted polysaccharides, proteins and glycolipids. Such bacterial superstructure increases resistance to antimicrobials and host defenses. Thus, to control these biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria requires antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms or properties. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, is a model strain to study biofilm development and correlation between biofilm formation and infection. In this study, a recombinant hemolymph plasma lectin (rHPLOE) cloned from Taiwanese Tachypleus tridentatus was expressed in an Escherichia coli system. This rHPLOE was shown to have the following properties: (1) Binding to P. aeruginosa PA14 biofilm through a unique molecular interaction with rhamnose-containing moieties on bacteria, leading to reduction of extracellular di-rhamnolipid (a biofilm regulator); (2) decreasing downstream quorum sensing factors, and inhibiting biofilm formation; (3) dispersing the mature biofilm of P. aeruginosa PA14 to improve the efficacies of antibiotics; (4) reducing P. aeruginosa PA14 cytotoxicity to human lung epithelial cells in vitro and (5) inhibiting P. aeruginosa PA14 infection of zebrafish embryos in vivo. Taken together, rHPLOE serves as an anti-biofilm agent with a novel mechanism of recognizing rhamnose moieties in lipopolysaccharides, di-rhamnolipid and structural polysaccharides (Psl) in biofilms. Thus rHPLOE links glycan-recognition to novel anti-biofilm strategies against pathogenic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Inhibitors of Marine Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Astaxanthin Complexes to Attenuate Muscle Damage after In Vivo Femoral Ischemia-Reperfusion
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060354
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Reperfusion injury refers to the cell and tissue damage induced, when blood flow is restored after an ischemic period. While reperfusion reestablishes oxygen supply, it generates a high concentration of radicals, resulting in tissue dysfunction and damage. Here, we aimed to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Reperfusion injury refers to the cell and tissue damage induced, when blood flow is restored after an ischemic period. While reperfusion reestablishes oxygen supply, it generates a high concentration of radicals, resulting in tissue dysfunction and damage. Here, we aimed to challenge and achieve the potential of a delivery system based on astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant, in attenuating the muscle damage in an animal model of femoral hind-limb ischemia and reperfusion. (2) Methods: The antioxidant capacity and non-toxicity of astaxanthin was validated before and after loading into a polysaccharide scaffold. The capacity of astaxanthin to compensate stress damages was also studied after ischemia induced by femoral artery clamping and followed by varied periods of reperfusion. (3) Results: Histological evaluation showed a positive labeling for CD68 and CD163 macrophage markers, indicating a remodeling process. In addition, higher levels of Nrf2 and NQO1 expression in the sham group compared to the antioxidant group could reflect a reduction of the oxidative damage after 15 days of reperfusion. Furthermore, non-significant differences were observed in non-heme iron deposition in both groups, reflecting a cell population susceptible to free radical damage. (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that the in situ release of an antioxidant molecule could be effective in improving the antioxidant defenses of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-damaged muscles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent)
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Open AccessArticle
Kabirimine, a New Cyclic Imine from an Okinawan Dinoflagellate
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060353
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
On our quest for new bioactive molecules from marine sources, two cyclic imines (1, 2) were isolated from a dinoflagellate extract, inhibiting the growth of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Compound 1 was identified as a known molecule portimine, while [...] Read more.
On our quest for new bioactive molecules from marine sources, two cyclic imines (1, 2) were isolated from a dinoflagellate extract, inhibiting the growth of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Compound 1 was identified as a known molecule portimine, while 2 was elucidated to be a new cyclic imine, named kabirimine. The absolute stereochemistry of 1 was determined by crystallographic work and chiral derivatization, whereas the structure of 2 was elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and computational study on all the possible isomers. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxicity (CC50 < 0.097 µM) against HEp2 cells, while 2 exhibited moderate antiviral activity against RSV with IC50 = 4.20 µM (95% CI 3.31–5.33). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products Discovery: In Honor of Late Prof. Tatsuo Higa)
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Open AccessReview
Triterpenoids in Echinoderms: Fundamental Differences in Diversity and Biosynthetic Pathways
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060352
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Echinoderms form a remarkable phylum of marine invertebrates that present specific chemical signatures unique in the animal kingdom. It is particularly the case for essential triterpenoids that evolved separately in each of the five echinoderm classes. Indeed, while most animals have Δ5 [...] Read more.
Echinoderms form a remarkable phylum of marine invertebrates that present specific chemical signatures unique in the animal kingdom. It is particularly the case for essential triterpenoids that evolved separately in each of the five echinoderm classes. Indeed, while most animals have Δ5-sterols, sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) and sea stars (Asteroidea) also possess Δ7 and Δ9(11)-sterols, a characteristic not shared with brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), sea urchins (Echinoidea), and crinoids (Crinoidea). These particular Δ7 and Δ9(11) sterols emerged as a self-protection against membranolytic saponins that only sea cucumbers and sea stars produce as a defense mechanism. The diversity of saponins is large; several hundred molecules have been described in the two classes of these saponins (i.e., triterpenoid or steroid saponins). This review aims to highlight the diversity of triterpenoids in echinoderms by focusing on sterols and triterpenoid glycosides, but more importantly to provide an updated view of the biosynthesis of these molecules in echinoderms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids from Marine Organisms)
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