Special Issue "Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Elena Talero
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
Interests: peptides; natural products; inflammation; inflammatory bowel disease; colon cancer; inflammatory skin diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Javier Ávila-Román
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faulty of Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Interests: microalgae; Inflammation; oxylipins; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; colon cancer; inflammatory skin diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Acute inflammation is a highly-regulated process, and its dysregulation can lead to the development of a chronic inflammatory state, which is believed to play a main role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying chronic inflammation are beginning to be elucidated: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors, including MAPK and NF-kB. ROS can also activate a multiprotein complex called inflammasome, which regulates the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18). The transcription factor Nrf2 plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress in numerous inflammatory diseases since it regulates the transcription of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the participation of sirtuins, such as SIRT1 and SIRT6 and autophagy in this process is currently being studied.

In recent years, the need to find new anti-inflammatory molecules has raised the scientific community´s interest for marine natural products. In this regard, the marine environment represents an excellent source to isolate bioactive compounds from microbes, such as bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, algae or small invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates, bryozoans and mollusks. This Special Issue of Marine Drugs will cover the entire scope of marine agents with anti-inflammatory activities, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as the latest status of clinical development from drug trials. In particular, works that evaluate molecular mechanisms of these compounds are especially encouraged.

Prof.  Elena Talero
Dr. Javier Avila
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Marine compounds
  • Antioxidant molecules
  • Inflammation
  • Immune response
  • Sirtuins
  • Autophagy
  • Inflammasome
  • Cytokines

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Fucoxanthin and Rosmarinic Acid Combination Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects through Regulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Keratinocytes
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17080451 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main risk factor to develop skin pathologies or cancer because it encourages oxidative condition and skin inflammation. In this sense, strategies for its prevention are currently being evaluated. Natural products such as carotenoids or polyphenols, [...] Read more.
Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main risk factor to develop skin pathologies or cancer because it encourages oxidative condition and skin inflammation. In this sense, strategies for its prevention are currently being evaluated. Natural products such as carotenoids or polyphenols, which are abundant in the marine environment, have been used in the prevention of oxidative stress due to their demonstrated antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity and its implication in photo-prevention have not been extensively studied. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the combination of fucoxanthin (FX) and rosmarinic acid (RA) on cell viability, apoptosis induction, inflammasome regulation, and anti-oxidative response activation in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. We demonstrated for the first time that the combination of FX and RA (5 µM RA plus 5 μM FX, designated as M2) improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles in comparison to compounds assayed individually, by reducing UVB-induced apoptosis and the consequent ROS production. Furthermore, the M2 combination modulated the inflammatory response through down-regulation of inflammasome components such as NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1, and the interleukin (IL)-1β production. In addition, Nrf2 and HO-1 antioxidant genes expression increased in UVB-exposed HaCaT cells pre-treated with M2. These results suggest that this combination of natural products exerts photo-protective effects by down-regulating NRLP3-inflammasome and increasing Nrf2 signalling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Hirsutanol A Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression and Cytokines Production and Improves Endotoxemia-Induced Acute Sickness Behavior and Acute Lung Injury
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060360 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Activated human monocytes/macrophages, which increase the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, are the essential mechanisms for the progression of sepsis. In the present study, we determined the functions and mechanisms of hirsutanolA (HA), which is isolated from the red alga-derived [...] Read more.
Activated human monocytes/macrophages, which increase the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, are the essential mechanisms for the progression of sepsis. In the present study, we determined the functions and mechanisms of hirsutanolA (HA), which is isolated from the red alga-derived marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. NTOU4196, on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators produced from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated THP-1 cells. Our results showed that HA suppressed LPS-triggered MMP-9-mediated gelatinolysis and expression of protein and mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner without effects on TIMP-1 activity. Also, HA significantly attenuated the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β from LPS-treated THP-1 cells. Moreover, HA significantly inhibited LPS-mediated STAT3 (Tyr705) phosphorylation, IκBα degradation and ERK1/2 activation in THP-1 cells. In an LPS-induced endotoxemia mouse model, studies indicated that HA pretreatment improved endotoxemia-induced acute sickness behavior, including acute motor deficits and anxiety-like behavior. HA also attenuated LPS-induced phospho-STAT3 and pro-MMP-9 activity in the hippocampus. Notably, HA reduced pathologic lung injury features, including interstitial tissue edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells and alveolar collapse. Likewise, HA suppressed the induction of phospho-STAT3 and pro-MMP-9 in lung tissues. In conclusion, our results provide pharmacological evidence that HA could be a useful agent for treating inflammatory diseases, including sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Fatty Acid Profile and Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Common Australian Seafood by-Products
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030155 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Marine organisms are a rich source of biologically active lipids with anti-inflammatory activities. These lipids may be enriched in visceral organs that are waste products from common seafood. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses were performed to compare the [...] Read more.
Marine organisms are a rich source of biologically active lipids with anti-inflammatory activities. These lipids may be enriched in visceral organs that are waste products from common seafood. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses were performed to compare the fatty acid compositions of lipid extracts from some common seafood organisms, including octopus (Octopus tetricus), squid (Sepioteuthis australis), Australian sardine (Sardinops sagax), salmon (Salmo salar) and school prawns (Penaeus plebejus). The lipid extracts were tested for anti-inflammatory activity by assessing their inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse cells. The lipid extract from both the flesh and waste tissue all contained high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and significantly inhibited NO and TNFα production. Lipid extracts from the cephalopod mollusks S. australis and O. tetricus demonstrated the highest total PUFA content, the highest level of omega 3 (ω-3) PUFAs, and the highest anti-inflammatory activity. However, multivariate analysis indicates the complex mixture of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids may all influence the anti-inflammatory activity of marine lipid extracts. This study confirms that discarded parts of commonly consumed seafood species provide promising sources for the development of new potential anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Fucoxanthin on Ultraviolet B-Induced Corneal Denervation and Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Model
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030152 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid with many pharmaceutical properties that is found in brown seaweed. However, the effects of fucoxanthin on corneal innervation and intense eye pain have not been extensively examined. To clarify the protective roles and underlying mechanisms of fucoxanthin on ocular [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid with many pharmaceutical properties that is found in brown seaweed. However, the effects of fucoxanthin on corneal innervation and intense eye pain have not been extensively examined. To clarify the protective roles and underlying mechanisms of fucoxanthin on ocular lesions, we investigated the beneficial effects and mechanisms by which fucoxanthin ameliorates ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced corneal denervation and trigeminal pain. Treatment with fucoxanthin enhanced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the cornea. Inhibition of typical denervation and epithelial exfoliation in the cornea were observed in rats treated with fucoxanthin following UVB-induced nerve disorders. Moreover, the active phosphorylated form of p38 MAP kinase (pp38) and the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive neural cells were significantly reduced. Decreased expression of neuron-selective transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in the trigeminal ganglia neurons was also demonstrated in rats treated with fucoxanthin after UVB-induced keratitis. Symptoms of inflammatory pain, including difficulty in opening the eyes and eye wipe behaviour, were also reduced in fucoxanthin-treated groups. Pre-treatment with fucoxanthin may protect the eyes from denervation and inhibit trigeminal pain in UVB-induced photokeratitis models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Pyrogallol-Phloroglucinol-6,6-Bieckol from Ecklonia cava on Monocyte-Associated Vascular Dysfunction
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110441 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Ecklonia cava (E. cava) can alleviate vascular dysfunction in diseases associated with poor circulation. E. cava contains various polyphenols with different functions, but few studies have compared the effects of these polyphenols. Here, we comparatively investigated four major compounds present in [...] Read more.
Ecklonia cava (E. cava) can alleviate vascular dysfunction in diseases associated with poor circulation. E. cava contains various polyphenols with different functions, but few studies have compared the effects of these polyphenols. Here, we comparatively investigated four major compounds present in an ethanoic extract of E. cava. These four major compounds were isolated and their effects were examined on monocyte-associated vascular inflammation and dysfunctions. Pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB) significantly inhibited monocyte migration in vitro by reducing levels of inflammatory macrophage differentiation and of its related molecular factors. In addition, PPB protected against monocyte-associated endothelial cell death by increasing the phosphorylations of PI3K-AKT and AMPK, decreasing caspase levels, and reducing monocyte-associated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by decreasing the phosphorylations of ERK and AKT. The results of this study show that four compounds were effective for reduction of monocyte-associated vascular inflammation and dysfunctions, but PPB might be more useful for the treatment of vascular dysfunction in diseases associated with poor circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
6-Bromoindole Derivatives from the Icelandic Marine Sponge Geodia barretti: Isolation and Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110437 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
An UPLC-qTOF-MS-based dereplication study led to the targeted isolation of seven bromoindole alkaloids from the sub-Arctic sponge Geodia barretti. This includes three new metabolites, namely geobarrettin A–C (13) and four known compounds, barettin (4), 8,9-dihydrobarettin ( [...] Read more.
An UPLC-qTOF-MS-based dereplication study led to the targeted isolation of seven bromoindole alkaloids from the sub-Arctic sponge Geodia barretti. This includes three new metabolites, namely geobarrettin A–C (13) and four known compounds, barettin (4), 8,9-dihydrobarettin (5), 6-bromoconicamin (6), and l-6-bromohypaphorine (7). The chemical structures of compounds 17 were elucidated by extensive analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute stereochemistry of geobarrettin A (1) was assigned by ECD analysis and Marfey’s method employing the new reagent l-Nα-(1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)tryptophanamide (l-FDTA). The isolated compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using human dendritic cells (DCs). Both 2 and 3 reduced DC secretion of IL-12p40, but 3 concomitantly increased IL-10 production. Maturing DCs treated with 2 or 3 before co-culturing with allogeneic CD4+ T cells decreased T cell secretion of IFN-γ, indicating a reduction in Th1 differentiation. Although barettin (4) reduced DC secretion of IL-12p40 and IL-10 (IC50 values 11.8 and 21.0 μM for IL-10 and IL-12p40, respectively), maturing DCs in the presence of 4 did not affect the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ or IL-17, but reduced their secretion of IL-10. These results indicate that 2 and 3 may be useful for the treatment of inflammation, mainly of the Th1 type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Fucoxanthin-Containing Cream Prevents Epidermal Hyperplasia and UVB-Induced Skin Erythema in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100378 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Microalgae represent a source of bio-active compounds such as carotenoids with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of fucoxanthin (FX) in both in vitro and in vivo skin models. Firstly, its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in LPS-stimulated THP-1 [...] Read more.
Microalgae represent a source of bio-active compounds such as carotenoids with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of fucoxanthin (FX) in both in vitro and in vivo skin models. Firstly, its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages and TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes, and its antioxidant activity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Next, in vitro and ex vivo permeation studies were developed to determine the most suitable formulation for in vivo FX topical application. Then, we evaluated the effects of a FX-containing cream on TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia in mice, as well as on UVB-induced acute erythema in hairless mice. Our results confirmed the in vitro reduction of TNF-α, IL-6, ROS and LDH production. Since the permeation results showed that cream was the most favourable vehicle, FX-cream was elaborated. This formulation effectively ameliorated TPA-induced hyperplasia, by reducing skin edema, epidermal thickness, MPO activity and COX-2 expression. Moreover, FX-cream reduced UVB-induced erythema through down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS as well as up-regulation of HO-1 protein via Nrf-2 pathway. In conclusion, FX, administered in a topical formulation, could be a novel natural adjuvant for preventing exacerbations associated with skin inflammatory pathologies as well as protecting skin against UV radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Zoanthamine Alkaloids from the Zoantharian Zoanthus cf. pulchellus and Their Effects in Neuroinflammation
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(7), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16070242 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Two new zoanthamine alkaloids, namely 3-acetoxynorzoanthamine (1) and 3-acetoxyzoanthamine (2), have been isolated from the zoantharian Zoanthus cf. pulchellus collected off the coast of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, together with three known derivatives: zoanthamine, norzoanthamine, and 3-hydroxynorzoanthamine. The [...] Read more.
Two new zoanthamine alkaloids, namely 3-acetoxynorzoanthamine (1) and 3-acetoxyzoanthamine (2), have been isolated from the zoantharian Zoanthus cf. pulchellus collected off the coast of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, together with three known derivatives: zoanthamine, norzoanthamine, and 3-hydroxynorzoanthamine. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were determined by interpretation of their 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of zoanthamine-type alkaloids from Zoanthus cf. pulchellus collected in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. The neuroinflammatory activity of all the isolated compounds was evaluated in microglia BV-2 cells and high inhibitory effects were observed in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Frondanol, a Nutraceutical Extract from Cucumaria frondosa, Attenuates Colonic Inflammation in a DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050148 - 30 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Frondanol is a nutraceutical lipid extract of the intestine of the edible Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated Frondanol as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black [...] Read more.
Frondanol is a nutraceutical lipid extract of the intestine of the edible Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated Frondanol as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J) were given 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. The colitis group received oral Frondanol (100 mg/kg body weight/per day by gavage) and were compared with a control group and the DSS group. Disease activity index (DAI) and colon histology were scored for macroscopic and microscopic changes. Colonic tissue length, myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration, neutrophil and macrophage marker mRNA, pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins, and their respective mRNAs were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. The tissue content of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was also measured using ELISA. Frondanol significantly decreased the DAI and reduced the inflammation-associated changes in colon length as well as macroscopic and microscopic architecture of the colon. Changes in tissue MPO concentrations, neutrophil and macrophage mRNA expression (F4/80 and MIP-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) both at the protein and mRNA level were significantly reduced by Frondanol. The increase in content of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced by DSS was also significantly inhibited by Frondanol. It was thus found that Frondanol supplementation attenuates colon inflammation through its potent anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Topical Application of Glycolipids from Isochrysis galbana Prevents Epidermal Hyperplasia in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16010002 - 25 Dec 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis have a significant impact on society. Currently, the major topical treatments have many side effects, making their continued use in patients difficult. Microalgae have emerged as a source of bio-active molecules such as glycolipids with potent [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis have a significant impact on society. Currently, the major topical treatments have many side effects, making their continued use in patients difficult. Microalgae have emerged as a source of bio-active molecules such as glycolipids with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of a glycolipid (MGMG-A) and a glycolipid fraction (MGDG) obtained from the microalga Isochrysis galbana on a TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia murine model. In a first set of experiments, we examined the preventive effects of MGMG-A and MGDG dissolved in acetone on TPA-induced hyperplasia model in mice. In a second step, we performed an in vivo permeability study by using rhodamine-containing cream, ointment, or gel to determinate the formulation that preserves the skin architecture and reaches deeper. The selected formulation was assayed to ensure the stability and enhanced permeation properties of the samples in an ex vivo experiment. Finally, MGDG-containing cream was assessed in the hyperplasia murine model. The results showed that pre-treatment with acetone-dissolved glycolipids reduced skin edema, epidermal thickness, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17) in epidermal tissue. The in vivo and ex vivo permeation studies showed that the cream formulation had the best permeability profile. In the same way, MGDG-cream formulation showed better permeation than acetone-dissolved preparation. MGDG-cream application attenuated TPA-induced skin edema, improved histopathological features, and showed a reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In addition, this formulation inhibited epidermal expression of COX-2 in a similar way to dexamethasone. Our results suggest that an MGDG-containing cream could be an emerging therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory skin pathologies such as psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Mytilus coruscus α-d-Glucan (MP-A) in Activated Macrophage Cells via TLR4/NF-κB/MAPK Pathway Inhibition
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15090294 - 20 Sep 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has been used as Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years; however, to date the ingredients responsible for the various beneficial health outcomes attributed to Mytilus coruscus are still unclear. An α-d-Glucan, called MP-A, [...] Read more.
The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has been used as Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years; however, to date the ingredients responsible for the various beneficial health outcomes attributed to Mytilus coruscus are still unclear. An α-d-Glucan, called MP-A, was isolated from Mytilus coruscus, and observed to exert anti-inflammatory activity in THP-1 human macrophage cells. Specifically, we showed that MP-A treatment inhibited the production of inflammatory markers, including TNF-α, NO, and PGE2, inducible NOS (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in LPS-activated THP-1 cells. It was also shown to enhance phagocytosis in the analyzed cells, but to severely inhibit the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB P65. Finally, MP-A was found to exhibit a high binding affinity for the cell surface receptor TLR4, but a low affinity for TLR2 and dectin-1, via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The study indicates that MP-A suppresses LPS-induced TNF-α, NO and PEG2 production via TLR4/NF-κB/MAPK pathway inhibition, and suggests that MP-A may be a promising therapeutic candidate for diseases associated with TNF-α, NO, and/or PEG2 overproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Prostaglandins in Marine Organisms: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(7), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17070428 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipid mediators belonging to the eicosanoid family. PGs were first discovered in mammals where they are key players in a great variety of physiological and pathological processes, for instance muscle and blood vessel tone regulation, inflammation, signaling, hemostasis, reproduction, and [...] Read more.
Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipid mediators belonging to the eicosanoid family. PGs were first discovered in mammals where they are key players in a great variety of physiological and pathological processes, for instance muscle and blood vessel tone regulation, inflammation, signaling, hemostasis, reproduction, and sleep-wake regulation. These molecules have successively been discovered in lower organisms, including marine invertebrates in which they play similar roles to those in mammals, being involved in the control of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, ion transport, and defense. Prostaglandins have also been found in some marine macroalgae of the genera Gracilaria and Laminaria and very recently the PGs pathway has been identified for the first time in some species of marine microalgae. In this review we report on the occurrence of prostaglandins in the marine environment and discuss the anti-inflammatory role of these molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Intravenous Lipid Emulsions to Deliver Bioactive Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Improved Patient Outcomes
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050274 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Lipids used in intravenous nutrition support (i.e., parenteral nutrition) provide energy, building blocks, and essential fatty acids. These lipids are included as emulsions since they need to be soluble in an aqueous environment. Fish oil is a source of bioactive omega-3 fatty acids [...] Read more.
Lipids used in intravenous nutrition support (i.e., parenteral nutrition) provide energy, building blocks, and essential fatty acids. These lipids are included as emulsions since they need to be soluble in an aqueous environment. Fish oil is a source of bioactive omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Lipid emulsions, including fish oil, have been used for parenteral nutrition for adult patients post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal). This has been associated with alterations in biomarkers of inflammation and immune defense, and in some studies, a reduction in length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. These benefits, along with a reduction in infections, are emphasized through recent meta-analyses. Perioperative administration of fish oil may be superior to postoperative administration, but this requires further exploration. Parenteral fish oil has been used in critically ill adult patients. Here, the influence on inflammatory processes, immune function, and clinical endpoints is less clear. However, some studies found reduced inflammation, improved gas exchange, and shorter length of hospital stay in critically ill patients if they received fish oil. Meta-analyses do not present a consistent picture but are limited by the small number and size of studies. More and better trials are needed in patient groups in which parenteral nutrition is used and where fish oil, as a source of bioactive omega-3 fatty acids, may offer benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Chemically-Induced Production of Anti-Inflammatory Molecules in Microalgae
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120478 - 30 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Microalgae have been widely recognized as a valuable source of natural, bioactive molecules that can benefit human health. Some molecules of commercial value synthesized by the microalgal metabolism have been proven to display anti-inflammatory activity, including the carotenoids lutein and astaxanthin, the fatty [...] Read more.
Microalgae have been widely recognized as a valuable source of natural, bioactive molecules that can benefit human health. Some molecules of commercial value synthesized by the microalgal metabolism have been proven to display anti-inflammatory activity, including the carotenoids lutein and astaxanthin, the fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), and sulphated polysaccharides. These molecules can accumulate to a certain extent in a diversity of microalgae species. A production process could become commercially feasible if the productivity is high and the overall production process costs are minimized. The productivity of anti-inflammatory molecules depends on each algal species and the cultivation conditions, the latter being mostly related to nutrient starvation and/or extremes of temperature and/or light intensity. Furthermore, novel bioprocess tools have been reported which might improve the biosynthesis yields and productivity of those target molecules and reduce production costs simultaneously. Such novel tools include the use of chemical triggers or enhancers to improve algal growth and/or accumulation of bioactive molecules, the algal growth in foam and the surfactant-mediated extraction of valuable compounds. Taken together, the recent findings suggest that the combined use of novel bioprocess strategies could improve the technical efficiency and commercial feasibility of valuable microalgal bioproducts production, particularly anti-inflammatory compounds, in large scale processes. Full article
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