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Open AccessArticle

Astaxanthin Complexes to Attenuate Muscle Damage after In Vivo Femoral Ischemia-Reperfusion

1
INSERM U1148, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science, Cardiovascular Bioengineering, Université Paris 13, Av. Jean-Baptiste Clément 93430 Villetaneuse France/ CHU X. Bichat, 46 rue H. Huchard, 75018 Paris, France
2
Pathology Department, Bichat Hospital, AP-HP, 46 rue H. Huchard, 75018 Paris, France
3
Plateau de Morphologie UMR 1152 Université Paris Diderot, Université de Paris, Bichat Hospital, AP-HP, 46 rue H. Huchard, 75018 Paris, France
4
Université Paris Diderot, Université de Paris, 16 Rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060354
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent)
(1) Background: Reperfusion injury refers to the cell and tissue damage induced, when blood flow is restored after an ischemic period. While reperfusion reestablishes oxygen supply, it generates a high concentration of radicals, resulting in tissue dysfunction and damage. Here, we aimed to challenge and achieve the potential of a delivery system based on astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant, in attenuating the muscle damage in an animal model of femoral hind-limb ischemia and reperfusion. (2) Methods: The antioxidant capacity and non-toxicity of astaxanthin was validated before and after loading into a polysaccharide scaffold. The capacity of astaxanthin to compensate stress damages was also studied after ischemia induced by femoral artery clamping and followed by varied periods of reperfusion. (3) Results: Histological evaluation showed a positive labeling for CD68 and CD163 macrophage markers, indicating a remodeling process. In addition, higher levels of Nrf2 and NQO1 expression in the sham group compared to the antioxidant group could reflect a reduction of the oxidative damage after 15 days of reperfusion. Furthermore, non-significant differences were observed in non-heme iron deposition in both groups, reflecting a cell population susceptible to free radical damage. (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that the in situ release of an antioxidant molecule could be effective in improving the antioxidant defenses of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-damaged muscles. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; ischemia/reperfusion injury; reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; cyclodextrin astaxanthin; ischemia/reperfusion injury; reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; cyclodextrin
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Zuluaga Tamayo, M.; Choudat, L.; Aid-Launais, R.; Thibaudeau, O.; Louedec, L.; Letourneur, D.; Gueguen, V.; Meddahi-Pellé, A.; Couvelard, A.; Pavon-Djavid, G. Astaxanthin Complexes to Attenuate Muscle Damage after In Vivo Femoral Ischemia-Reperfusion. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 354.

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