Next Article in Journal
New Aromatic Bisabolane Derivatives with Lipid-Reducing Activity from the Marine Sponge Myrmekioderma sp.
Previous Article in Journal
Metabolites of Seaweeds as Potential Agents for the Prevention and Therapy of Influenza Infection
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Effects of Fish n-3 PUFAs on Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milano, Italy
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060374
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
  |  
PDF [3763 KB, uploaded 22 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Studies over several decades have documented the beneficial actions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, in different disease states. Mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs include: (1) Reduction of triglyceride levels; (2) anti-arrhythmic and antithrombotic effects, and (3) resolution of inflammatory processes. The human microbiota project and subsequent studies using next-generation sequencing technology have highlighted that thousands of different microbial species are present in the human gut, and that there has been a significant variability of taxa in the microbiota composition among people. Several factors (gestational age, mode of delivery, diet, sanitation and antibiotic treatment) influence the bacterial community in the human gastrointestinal tract, and among these diet habits play a crucial role. The disturbances in the gut microbiota composition, i.e., gut dysbiosis, have been associated with diseases ranging from localized gastrointestinal disorders to neurologic, respiratory, metabolic, ocular, and cardiovascular illnesses. Many studies have been published about the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut microbiota/microbioma. On the contrary, PUFAs in the gut microbiota have been less well defined. However, experimental studies suggested that gut microbiota, n-3 PUFAs, and host immune cells work together to ensure the intestinal wall integrity. This review discussed current evidence concerning the links among gut microbiota, n-3 PUFAs intake, and human inflammatory disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; gut microbiota; inflammatory bowel disease; immune system; inflammation; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids age-related macular degeneration; gut microbiota; inflammatory bowel disease; immune system; inflammation; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Parolini, C. Effects of Fish n-3 PUFAs on Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 374.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top